high density lipoprotein cholisterol
plasminogen activator inhibitor
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Standard radioimmunoassay for insulin may substantially overestimate levels of insulin because of cross-reaction with other insulin-like molecules. We have measured concentrations of insulin, intact proinsulin and 32–33 split proinsulin using two-site monoclonal antibody based immunoradiometric assays, and of insulin by a standard radioimmunoassay (“immunoreactive insulin”) in 51 Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetic subjects in the fasting state. The relationships of these concentrations were sought with those of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, plasminogen activator inhibitor, blood pressure, and indices of body fat distribution. Significant relationships were apparent between concentrations of “immunoreactive insulin” as measured by standard radioimmunoassay and triglyceride (r s=0.42, p〈0.001), total cholesterol (r s=0.25, p=0.038), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r s=−0.30, p=0.018) and body mass index (r s=0.30, p=0.017), but only the relationships with triglyceride (r s=0.36, p=0.006) and body mass index (r s=0.26, p=0.034) remained significant when concentrations of immunoradiometrically measured insulin were employed. Concentrations of 32—33 split proinsulin, which comprises the major insulin-like molecule in these subjects, correlated positively with triglyceride (r s=0.33, p=0.009), total cholesterol (r s=0.23, p=0.050), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (r s=0.26, p=0.049), and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r s=−0.29, p=0.021). Concentrations of “immunoreactive insulin” and immunoradiometric assay insulin showed significant positive correlaion with both systolic (r s=0.24, p=0.044 and r s=0.29, p=0.020 respectively), and diastolic blood pressure (r s=0.48, p〈0.001 and n=0.42, p=0.001 respectively), while those of intact proinsulin and 32–33 split proinsulin correlated only with diastolic blood pressure (r s=0.33, p=0.009 and r s=0.31, p=0.014 respectively). Using multiple regression analysis, and including age, sex, race and body mass index in the analyses, concentrations of intact proinsulin and 32–33 split proinsulin, but not immunoradiometric assay insulin, were significantly related to diastolic blood pressure. When all three molecules were incorporated into a single model, only 32–33 split proinsulin was related to diastolic blood pressure (F-change=6.91, [5,43 degrees of freedom]; p=0.012). Thus, high concentrations of insulin-like molecules are associated with changes in recognised cardiovascular risk factor in patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.
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