Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
At the University of Missouri-Columbia, USA, teaching the anatomy of genital organs in large (and in small) animals is clinically oriented.In the male horse, ox, and pig, the descriptive anatomy of the structures is taught in that order as they are listed in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. Clinical correlates are immediately mentioned in relation to each of the following structures. The testicle, epididymis, ductus deferens, spermatic cord, and tunics of spermatic cord and testis are correlated to the castration, criptorchidism, ectopic testicles, and inguinal herniae, as well as to the landmarks and approaches to different clinical techniques. The penis and male urethra are correlated to the prolapse of the prepuce, ulcerative posthitis, balanitis, penile deviation, penischisis, persistent penile frenulum, short retractor penis muscle, catheterization of the urethra, the contagious equine metritis (CEM), etc. In the female horse, ox and pig, following the similar order as in the male species, the ovary and the salpinx are correlated to the diagnosis of pregnancy by rectal exploration, ovarian hypoplasia, ectopic pregnancy, and ovariectomy. The uterus is correlated to the different aspects of metritis and endometritis, to the retained placenta, pyometra, uterine torsion, uterine prolapse and eversion, Caesarian section, diagnosis of pregnancy and different stages of oestrus by rectal exploration, double external ostium of the cervix, distocia, and the assessment of possible difficulties in the birth process. The vagina and vestibulum vaginae are correlated to the gaertneritis, vaginal and cervical prolapse, vaginitis, catheterization of the urinary bladder, and pelvimetry. The vulva and clitoris are correlated to vulvitis, balanitis, distocia, episiotomy, and transmissible genital diseases. Different kinds of udder diseases (mastitis) are based on the thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the udder including the blood and nerve supply and the lymphatic system.The two techniques of epidural anesthesia (Magda and Farquharson in ruminants) and subsacral anaesthesia (Popescu) for diagnosis and treatment purposes are explained in detail.
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