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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 73 (1998), S. 3114-3116 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the quantitative electrical characterization of thin (3–40 nm) SiO2 films on a nanometer scale length. Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) tunneling currents on the order of 0.02–1 pA are measured simultaneously with the oxide surface topography by applying a voltage between the AFM tip and the silicon substrate. Current variations in the F–N current images are correlated to local variations of the oxide thickness on the order of several angströms to nanometers. From the microscopic current–voltage characteristics the local oxide thickness can be obtained with an accuracy of ±0.3 nm. Local oxide thinning of up to 3.3 nm was found at the edge between gate oxide and field oxide of a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor with a 20-nm-thick gate oxide. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 78 (2001), S. 2934-2936 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this work, we introduce conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) for the quantitative electrical characterization of ultrathin Al2O3 films on a nanometer scale length. By applying a voltage between the AFM tip and the conductive Co substrate direct tunneling currents in the sub pA range are measured simultaneously to the oxide surface topography. From the microscopic I–V characteristics the local oxide thickness can be obtained with an accuracy of 0.03 nm. A conversion scheme was developed, which allows the calculation of three-dimensional maps of the local electrical oxide thickness with sub-angstrom thickness resolution and nanometer lateral resolution from the tunneling current images. Local tunneling current variations of up to three decades are correlated with the topography and local variations of the electrical oxide thickness of only a few angstroms. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Publishers Ltd
    Labour 16 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9914
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The question whether technological progress displaces employment or whether technological advance is beneficial for the level of employment has been at the core of economic debate for over two centuries. The beneficial effect might be achieved by several compensation mechanisms within the economic system. In this paper we categorize these compensation mechanisms into two basic categories that reflect the different nature of the ideas ruling the compensation. We discriminate the mechanisms of employment despite innovation from employment via innovation. In the context of new innovation economics we model an artificial industry implementing both compensation mechanisms. Simulation analysis is used to examine both the short–run and long–run properties of the model. There we focus on the influence of wage restraint policy on the functioning of the compensation mechanism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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