Neuropeptides Mytilus inhibitory peptides (MIP) Immunocytochemistry Central and peripheral nervous system Invertebrates Lymnaea stagnalis, Helix pomatia (Gastropoda, Mollusca)
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract. The distribution and neuroanatomy of Mytilus inhibitory peptides (MIP)-containing neurons in the central nervous system and their innervation pattern in the peripheral nervous system of the pulmonate snail species, Lymnaea stagnalis and Helix pomatia, have been investigated immunocytochemically, by applying an antibody raised to GSPMFVamide. A significant number of immunoreactive neurons occurs in the central nervous system of both species (Lymnaea: ca 600–700, Helix: ca 400–500), but their distribution is different. In Lymnaea, labeled neurons are found in all central ganglia where a number of large and giant neurons, previously identified physiologically, reveal MIP immunoreactivity. In Helix, most of the immunolabeled neurons are small (12–30 µm) and concentrated in the buccal and cerebral ganglia; the parietal ganglia are free of labeled cells. In both species, the ganglionic neuropils, peripheral nerves, connectives, and commissures are richly supplied with immunolabeled fibers. The MIP-immunoreactive innervation pattern in the heart, intestine, buccal mass and radula, and foot is similar in both species, with labeled axonal bundles and terminal-like arborizations (buccal mass, foot) or a network of varicose fibers (heart, intestine). Intrinsic neurons are not present in these tissues. The application of GSPYFVamide inhibits the spontaneous contractions of the esophageal longitudinal musculature in Helix, indicating the bioactivity of the peptide. An outside-out patch-clamp technique has demonstrated that GSPYFVamide opens the K+ channels in central nerve cells of Helix. Injection of GSPYFVamide into the body cavity inhibits the feeding of starved Helix. A wide modulatory role of MIP at central and peripheral levels is suggested in Lymnaea and Helix, including the participation in intercellular signalling processes and remote neurohormonal-like control effects.
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