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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Hautarzt 50 (1999), S. 5-11 
    ISSN: 1432-1173
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Melatonin (N-Acetyl-5-Methoxytryptamin) ; Zirkadianer Rhythmus ; Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus ; Radikalfänger ; Key words Melatonin (N-acethyl-5-methoxytryptamin) ; Circadian rhythm ; Daily sleep induction ; ageing ; Free radical scavenger
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone with multiple functions in humans, produced by the pineal gland and stimulated by β-adrenergic receptors. Serum melatonin levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with low levels during the day, rise in the evening and maximum levels at night between 2 and 4 a.m.. Melatonin participates in the regulation of several physiological processes such as seasonal biological rhythm, daily sleep induction, aging and modulation of immunobiological defence reactions. Furthermore, melatonin has a highly lipophilic molecular structure facilitating penetration of cell membranes and serving as an extra- and intracellular free radical scavenger. Melatonin seems to quench mainly hydroxyl radicals, the most damaging of all free radicals. Melatonin may play a role in the etiology and treatment of several dermatoses e.g. atopic eczema, psoriasis and malignant melanoma. The influence of melatonin on hair growth is another aspect. Topical application of melatonin inhibits the development of UV-erythema. Penetration through skin after topical application and oral bioavailability auxit further investigations on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of melatonin.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Melatonin (N-Acetyl-5-Methoxytryptamin) ist ein unter dem Einflußβ-adrenerger Rezeptoren von der Glandula pinealis produziertes und sezerniertes Hormon mit vielfältigem Wirkungsspektrum. Die Ausschüttung des Hormons folgt einem zirkadianen Rhythmus mit niedrigen, gleichmäßigen Spiegeln tagsüber und einem abendlichen Ansteigen und nächtlichen Peak zwischen 2.00 und 4.00 Uhr. Melatonin beeinflußt den saisonalen Biorhythmus, den Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus, den Alterungsprozeß und moduliert immunbiologische Abwehrfunktionen. Zusätzlich besitzt Melatonin unabhängig von einem Rezeptorsystem durch seine starken lipophilen Eigenschaften die Fähigkeit, frei durch Zellmembranen zu diffundieren und im extra- wie intrazellulären Raum als Radikalfänger zu wirken. Die Affinität zu dem stark schädigenden Hydroxylradikal ist besonders groß. In der Dermatologie ergeben sich für Melatonin Perspektiven bei einigen Hauterkrankungen wie zum Beispiel dem atopischen Ekzem, der Psoriasis und dem malignen Melanom. Der Einfluß von Melatonin auf das Haarwachstum ist ein weiterer Aspekt. In topischer Anwendung hat Melatonin eine suppressive Wirkung auf die Ausbildung eines UV-Erythems. Über die Penetrationseigenschaften durch die Haut und die orale Verfügbarkeit liegen einige Erkenntnisse vor, die durch weitere Untersuchungen der Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik ergänzt werden können.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Key words Hydrothermal system ; Fluid geochemistry ; Stable isotopes ; Geochemical monitoring ; Taal Volcano
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The hydrologic structure of Taal Volcano has favored development of an extensive hydrothermal system whose prominent feature is the acidic Main Crater Lake (pH〈3) lying in the center of an active vent complex, which is surrounded by a slightly alkaline caldera lake (Lake Taal). This peculiar situation makes Taal prone to frequent, and sometimes catastrophic, hydrovolcanic eruptions. Fumaroles, hot springs, and lake waters were sampled in 1991, 1992, and 1995 in order to develop a geochemical model for the hydrothermal system. The low-temperature fumarole compositions indicate strong interaction of magmatic vapors with the hydrothermal system under relatively oxidizing conditions. The thermal waters consist of highly, moderately, and weakly mineralized solutions, but none of them corresponds to either water–rock equilibrium or rock dissolution. The concentrated discharges have high Na contents (〉3500 mg/kg) and low SO4/Cl ratios (〈0.3). The Br/Cl ratio of most samples suggests incorporation of seawater into the hydrothermal system. Water and dissolved sulfate isotopic compositions reveal that the Main Crater Lake and spring discharges are derived from a deep parent fluid (T≈300  °C), which is a mixture of seawater, volcanic water, and Lake Taal water. The volcanic end member is probably produced in the magmatic-hydrothermal environment during absorption of high-temperature gases into groundwater. Boiling and mixing of the parent water give rise to the range of chemical and isotopic characteristics observed in the thermal discharges. Incursion of seawater from the coastal region to the central part of the volcano is supported by the low water levels of the lakes and by the fact that Lake Taal was directly connected to the China sea until the sixteenth century. The depth to the seawater-meteoric water interface is calculated to be 80 and 160 m for the Main Crater Lake and Lake Taal, respectively. Additional data are required to infer the hydrologic structure of Taal. Geochemical surveillance of the Main Crater Lake using the SO4/Cl, Na/K, or Mg/Cl ratio cannot be applied straightforwardly due to the presence of seawater in the hydrothermal system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 41 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Journal of pineal research 37 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  An investigation of the antioxidative UV protective effect of melatonin was performed in an in vitro irradiation model with leukocytes. Leukocytes were isolated from EDTA-treated whole blood and taken up in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Five of 10 aliquots were incubated with 2 mmol/L melatonin and 5 with PBS as a control. The samples were irradiated by UV light (280–360 nm, max: 310 nm) at doses between 75 and 300 mJ/cm2 or left unirradiated. Radical formation was measured using the chemiluminescence technique. Staining with trypan blue was performed to assess cell viability. Melatonin significantly suppressed radical formation in cell solutions irradiated from 75 to 300 mJ/cm2 (P ≤ 0.001). Controls showed an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation as a sign of oxidative stress when irradiated with increasing UV doses and a maximum ROS formation under 300 mJ/cm2 UV light. The cytotoxicity of UV light was reduced by melatonin up to a UV dose of 1.5 J/cm2. Leukocytes were suitable cells for the evaluation of the efficacy of melatonin as a radical scavenger under UV light. The results confirm that the clinically observed UV protective effects of melatonin may be at least partially based on its radical scavenging properties.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Journal of pineal research 31 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are presumed to be involved in inflammatory UV reactions of the skin. This in vitro study was performed to investigate the suppressive effect of melatonin in interleukin-3 (IL-3) stimulated leukocytes. Neutrophilic granulocytes were isolated from EDTA-treated whole blood and placed in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing IL-3. Cell suspensions were either treated with PBS (control) or with increasing doses of melatonin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10 mmol). One PBS solution was left unirradiated and the other nine solutions (PBS and melatonin) were irradiated with 750 mJ/cm2 UVB light (280–360 nm, max: 310 nm). Radical formation was measured by the chemiluminescence technique. UV-irradiated leukocytes showed a 5-fold higher radical formation than unirradiated leukocytes. Melatonin, in increasing doses in powers of ten, led to a maximum suppression of free radicals at 10 nmol (P=0.01) and 1 mmol melatonin (P=0.001), showing a biphasic, non-linear, dose–response relationship. Melatonin, given in amounts of 0.1–10 mmol, led to a direct dose-dependent suppression of ROS. Radical formation was suppressed significantly in a range from 0.5 to 10 mmol (P=0.001). Melatonin is known to function as a radical scavenger and antioxidant; some of these melatonin effects may be receptor independent, while others may be receptor dependent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 41 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Products intended for individuals in contact with strongly adhering dirt often contain grit. Various clinical test methods have been developed for evaluating the potential of personal washing products to induce skin irritation. In the present study, differences in the irritant effects of washing products containing naturally-derived grit and synthetic grit were investigated in a forearm wash test. The forearms of 16 test subjects were washed in a total of 18 treatments (4 per day for 4 days, with 2 treatments on the 5th day). Treatment consisted of continuous washing for 2 min by a technician, who gently slid his fingertips with the lather up and down the forearm. Non-invasive instrumental measurements of skin barrier function were performed. Repetitive washing for 1 week lead to increased TEWL values, skin redness and decreased stratum corneum hydration. Results indicate differences in irritancy potential due to different types of grit, their surface and concentration. It is concluded that the repeated wash test seems to be adequate for rating personal washing products that contain grit.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Galeras volcano (4,200 m high), a recent active cone in southern Colombia, 7 km west of Pasto (population of 〉300,000) (Fig. 1), was chosen as South America's 'Decade volcano', to be studied extensively during the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction. Galeras showed signs of unrest ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Key words El Chichón Volcano ; Crater Lake ; Hydrothermal system ; Volcanic gases ; Stable isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano ejected more than 1 km3 of anhydrite-bearing trachyandesite pyroclastic material to form a new 1-km-wide and 300-m-deep crater and uncovered the upper 500 m of an active volcano-hydrothermal system. Instead of the weak boiling-point temperature fumaroles of the former lava dome, a vigorously boiling crater spring now discharges  / 20 kg/s of Cl-rich (∼15 000 mg/kg) and sulphur-poor ( / 200 mg/kg of SO4), almost neutral (pH up to 6.7) water with an isotopic composition close to that of subduction-type magmatic water (δD=–15‰, δ18O=+6.5‰). This spring, as well as numerous Cl-free boiling springs discharging a mixture of meteoric water with fumarolic condensates, feed the crater lake, which, compared with values in 1983, is now much more diluted (∼3000 mg/kg of Cl vs 24 030 mg/kg), less acidic (pH=2.6 vs 0.56) and contains much lower amounts of S ( / 200 mg/kg of SO4, vs 3550 mg/kg) with δ34S=0.5–4.2‰ (+17‰ in 1983). Agua Caliente thermal waters, on the southeast slope of the volcano, have an outflow rate of approximately 100 kg/s of 71  °C Na–Ca–Cl water and are five times more concentrated than before the eruption (B. R. Molina, unpublished data). Relative N2, Ar and He gas concentrations suggest extensional tectonics for the El Chichón volcanic centre. The 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne ratios in gases from the crater fumaroles (7.3Ra, 2560) and Agua Caliente hot springs (5.3Ra, 44) indicate a strong magmatic contribution. However, relative concentrations of reactive species are typical of equilibrium in a two-phase boiling aquifer. Sulphur and C isotopic data indicate highly reducing conditions within the system, probably associated with the presence of buried vegetation resulting from the 1982 eruption. All Cl-rich waters at El Chichón have a common source. This water has the appearence of a "partially matured" magmatic fluid: condensed magmatic vapour neutralized by interaction with fresh volcaniclastic deposits and depleted in S due to anhydrite precipitation. Shallow ground waters emerging around the volcano from the thick cover of fresh pumice deposits (Red waters) are Ca–SO4–rich and have a negative oxygen isotopic shift, probably due to ongoing formation of clay at low temperatures.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Cumbal Volcano Hydrothermal system Gases Fumaroles Springs Geochemistry Isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract. We present chemical and isotopic data for fumarolic vapor and thermal spring discharges from Cumbal Volcano, SW Colombia. In 1988 Cumbal showed signs of apparent reactivation. Gases and steam condensates were sampled from summit fumaroles (83–375°C) of Cumbal in 1988–1996 and discharges from thermal springs (15–37°C) on its flanks in 1995–1996. Based on relative CO2, total S (H2S+SO2), and HCl contents, fumarolic discharges are principally magmatic in composition. Fumarolic steam condensates (1993–1996) have δ18O values of –11.4 to +2.5‰ and δD values of –91 to –43‰. δ18O and δD compositions indicate mixing between local meteoric and magmatic waters. 3He/4He ratios in 1993–1996 samples (5.3–7.9 Rcor) are consistent with addition of mantle-derived helium. δ13CCO2 values for 1996 samples (–6.7 to –5.0‰) likely indicate contribution of marine-carbonate, organic sediment, and mantle-derived CO2. δ34SStotal compositions (–4.6 to +5.6‰) of 1988–1996 fumarolic discharges have magmatic signatures and may reflect cycles of deposition and remobilization of native sulfur. Thermal waters are acid-sulfate or bicarbonate in composition. Relative concentrations of chemical constituents of thermal waters imply that the composition of waters is controlled by absorption of magmatic volatiles into shallow ground- and surface waters, dilution with meteoric waters along flow paths, and dissolution of host rocks. δ18O and δD compositions are consistent with a meteoric origin of waters. δ34SStotal values for thermal spring gas discharges (9.6–10.5‰) suggest deposition of δ34S-depleted sulfur minerals along flow paths. Chemical and isotopic compositions of 1988–1995 fumarolic discharges provide evidence for input of magmatic volatiles into the Cumbal hydrothermal system. From 1995 to 1996, geochemical data show increasing hydrothermal signatures, suggesting a decline in magmatic volatile input.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-01-22
    Description: The SCIP Optimization Suite is a software toolbox for generating and solving various classes of mathematical optimization problems. Its major components are the modeling language ZIMPL, the linear programming solver SoPlex, the constraint integer programming framework and mixed-integer linear and nonlinear programming solver SCIP, the UG framework for parallelization of branch-and-bound-based solvers, and the generic branch-cut-and-price solver GCG. It has been used in many applications from both academia and industry and is one of the leading non-commercial solvers. This paper highlights the new features of version 3.2 of the SCIP Optimization Suite. Version 3.2 was released in July 2015. This release comes with new presolving steps, primal heuristics, and branching rules within SCIP. In addition, version 3.2 includes a reoptimization feature and improved handling of quadratic constraints and special ordered sets. SoPlex can now solve LPs exactly over the rational number and performance improvements have been achieved by exploiting sparsity in more situations. UG has been tested successfully on 80,000 cores. A major new feature of UG is the functionality to parallelize a customized SCIP solver. GCG has been enhanced with a new separator, new primal heuristics, and improved column management. Finally, new and improved extensions of SCIP are presented, namely solvers for multi-criteria optimization, Steiner tree problems, and mixed-integer semidefinite programs.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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