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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology 9 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Multiple Components in the Unipolar Electrogram. Introduction: For many decades, the interpretation of unipolar electrograms (EGs) and ECGs was based on simple models of the heart as a current generator, e.g., the uniform dipole layer, and, more recently, the “oblique dipole layer.” However, a number of recent and old experimental data are inconsistent with the predictions of these models. To address this problem, we implemented a numerical model simulating the spread of excitation through a parallelepipedal myocardial slab, with a view to identifying the factors that affect the shape, amplitude, and polarity of unipolar EGs generated by the spreading wavefront. Methods and Results: The numerical model represents a portion of the left ventricular wall as a parallelepipedal slab (6.5 × 6.5 × 1 cm); the myocardial tissue is represented as an anisotropic bidomain with epi-endocardial rotation of fiber direction and unequal anisotropy ratio. Following point stimulation, excitation times in the entire volume are computed by using an eikonal formulation. Potential distributions are computed by assigning a fixed shape to the action potential profile. EGs at multiple sites in the volume are computed from the time varying potential distributions. The simulations show that the unipolar QRS waveforms are the sum of a “field” component, representing the effect of an approaching or receding wavefront on the potential recorded by a unipolar electrode, and a previously unrecognized “reference” component, which reflects the drift, during the spread of excitation, of the reference potential, which moves from near the positive to near the negative extreme of the potential distribution during the spread of excitation. Conclusion: The drift of the reference potential explains the inconsistencies between the predictions of the models and the actual shapes of the EGs. The drift modifies the slopes of EG waveforms during excitation and recovery and can be expected to affect the assessment of excitation and recovery times and QRS and ST-T areas. Removing the drift reestablishes consistency between potential distributions and electrographic waveforms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology 4 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Spread of Excitation in a Myocardial Volume. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to present simulations of excitation wavefronts spreading through a parallelepipedal slab of ventricular tissue measuring 6.5 × 6.5 × 1.0cm. Methods and Results: The slab incorporates the anisotropic properties of the myocardium including the transmural counterclockwise fiber rotation from epicardium to endocardium. Simulations were based on an eikonal model that determines excitation times throughout the ventricular wall, which is represented as an anisotropic bidomain. Excitation was initiated by delivering ectopic stimuli at various intramural depths. We also investigated the effect of a simplified Purkinje network on excitation patterns. Excitation wavefronts in the plane of pacing, parallel to epicardial-endocardial surfaces, were oblong with the major axis approximately oriented along the local fiber direction, with bulges and deformations due to attraction from rotating fibers in adjacent planes. The oblong intersections of the wavefront with planes at increasing distance from pacing plane rotated clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on pacing depth, but wavefront rotation was always less than fiber rotation in the same plane. For all pacing depths, excitation returned toward the plane of pacing. Return occurred in multiple, varying sectors of the slab depending on pacing depth, and was observed as close as 6 mm to the pacing site. Conclusion: Curvature of wavefronts and collision with boundaries of slab markedly affected local velocities. Shape and separation of epicardial isochrones and spatial distribution of epicardial velocities varied as a function of site and depth of pacing. When the Purkinje network was added to the model, epicardial velocities revealed the subendocardial location of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions. Considerable insight into intramural events could be obtained from epicardial isochrones. If validated experimentally, results may be applicable to epicardial isochrones recorded at surgery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology 4 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Potential Patterns in a 3-D Cardiac Depolarization Model, introduction: We present simulations of extracellular potential patterns elicited by delivering ectopic stimuli to a parallelepipedal slab of ventricular tissue represented as an anisotropic bidomain incorporating epiendocardial fiber rotation. Methods and Results: Simulations were based on an eikonal model that determines wave-front shapes throughout the slab at every time instant during the depolarization phase, coupled with an approximate model of the action potential profile. The endocardial face of the slab was in contact with blood and the composite volume was surrounded by an insulating medium. The effect of a simplified Purkinje network was also studied. Results: (1) For all pacing depths, except endocardial pacing, a central negative area and two potential maxima were observed at QKS onset in all intramural planes parallel to the cpicardium. In all planes, the axis joining the two maxima was approximately aligned with the direction of fibers in the plane of pacing. Endocardial pacing generated a different pattern, but only when blood was present; (2) During later stages of excitation, outflowing currents (from the wavefront toward the resting tissue) were always emitted, at all intramural depths, only from those portions of the wavefront that spread along fibers. At any given instant, the position of the two potential maxima in a series of planes parallel to the epicardium and intersecting the wavefront rotated as a function of depth, following the rotating direction of intramural fibers. Purkinje involvement modified the above patterns. Conclusion: Epicardial and endocardial potential maps provided information on pacing site and depth and on subsequent intramural propagation by reflecting the clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the deep positivity. Results may be applicable to epicardial and endocardial potential maps recorded at surgery or from endocavitary probes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Electrograms ; Bidomain model ; Reference potential ; Cardiac potential maps ; Anisotropic propagation ; Source splitting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The origin of the multiple, complex morphologies observed in unipolar epicardial electrograms, and their relationships with myocardial architecture, have not been fully elucidated. To clarify this problem we simulated electrograms (EGs) with a model representing the heart as an anisotropic bidomain with unequal anisotropy ratio, ellipsoidal ventricular geometry, transmural fiber rotation, epi-endocardial obliqueness of fiber direction and a simplified Purkinje network. The EGs were compared with those directly recorded from isolated dog hearts immersed in a conducting medium during ventricular excitation initiated by epicardial stimulation. The simulated EGs share the same multiphasic character of the recorded EGs. The origin of the multiple waves, especially those appearing in the EGs for sites reached by excitation wave fronts spreading across fibers, can be better understood after splitting the current sources, the potential distributions and the EGs into an axial and a conormal component and after taking also into account the effect of the reference or drift component. The split model provides an explanation of humps and spikes that appear in the QRS (the initial part of the ventricular EG) wave forms, in terms of the interaction between the geometry and direction of propagation of the wave front and the architecture of the fibers through which excitation is spreading. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC00: 8719Nn, 8710+e, 8719Hh
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Title: Adaptivity in Space and Time for Reaction-Diffusion Systems in Electrocardiology /; ZIB-Report 05-30
    Author: Franzone, Piero Colli
    Contributer: Deuflhard, Peter , Erdmann, Bodo , Lang, Jens , Pavarino, Luca Franco
    Publisher: Berlin :Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik,
    Year of publication: 2005
    Pages: 40 S.
    Series Statement: ZIB-Report ZIB-Report 05-30
    ISSN: 1438-0064
    Type of Medium: Book
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: Adaptive numerical methods in space and time are introduced and studied for multiscale cardiac reaction-diffusion models in three dimensions. The evolution of a complete heartbeat, from the excitation to the recovery phase, is simulated with both the anisotropic Bidomain and Monodomain models, coupled with either a variant of the simple FitzHugh-Nagumo model or the more complex phase-I Luo-Rudy ionic model. The simulations are performed with the {\sc kardos} library, that employs adaptive finite elements in space and adaptive linearly implicit methods in time. The numerical results show that this adaptive method successfully solves these complex cardiac reaction-diffusion models on three-dimensional domains of moderate sizes. By automatically adapting the spatial meshes and time steps to the proper scales in each phase of the heartbeat, the method accurately resolves the evolution of the intra- and extra-cellular potentials, gating variables and ion concentrations during the excitation, plateau and recovery phases.
    Keywords: ddc:000
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/postscript
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