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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit Primalheuristiken für gemischt-ganzzahlige, lineare Optimierungsprobleme (engl.: mixed integer program MIP). Zahlreiche Optimierungsprobleme aus der Praxis lassen sich als MIP modellieren, Beispiele hierfür sind u. a. Optimierungsprobleme im öffentlichen Nah- und Fernverkehr, bei logistischen Fragestellungen oder im Bereich der Chip-Verifikation. Das Lösen von MIP ist NP-schwer und wird heutzutage meistens mit Hilfe von Branch-and-Bound-basierenden Algorithmen versucht. Das Branch-and-Bound-Ver\-fah\-ren profitiert unter Umständen von bereits frühzeitig zur Verfügung stehenden Lösungen, daher sind wir sehr an heuristischen Verfahren interessiert, die in der Praxis schnell eine gute Lösung für eine große Zahl an MIPs liefern und somit die Lösezeit des Branch-and-Bound-Verfahrens erheblich beschleunigen können. Primalheuristiken sind Suchverfahren zum Auffinden zulässiger Lösungen eines MIP. Verschiedene Typen von Primalheuristiken sollen dabei den jeweiligen Bedarf des Anwenders zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten während der Branch-and-Bound-Suche decken. Während Start- und Rundeheuristiken zu Beginn des Löseprozesses eine große Rolle bei der Suche nach der ersten zulässigen Lösung haben, arbeiten Verbesserungs-heuristiken auf schon bekannten Lösungen, um neue, bessere Lösungen zu produzieren. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit Primalheuristiken, welche Teil des MIP-Lösers SCIP sind. Im ersten Kapitel werden nach der Erarbeitung grundlegender Definitionen viele der durch Tobias Achterberg und Timo Berthold in SCIP integrierten heuristischen Verfahren vorgestellt und kategorisiert. Auf dieser Grundlage bauen dann die Kapitel 2-4 der Arbeit auf. In diesen werden drei zusätzliche Heuristiken vorgestellt, im Einzelnen sind dies ZI Round, eine Rundeheuristik, welche zuerst von Wallace beschrieben wurde, außerdem eine 2-Opt-Heuristik für MIP und eine neue Startheuristik, Shift-And-Propagate. Großer Wert wird in jedem Kapitel auf die algorithmische Beschreibung der Heuristiken gelegt, die stets anhand von motivierenden Beispielen eingeführt und anhand von Pseudocode-Algorithmen begleitet werden. Zusätzlich enthält jedes Kapitel Auswertungen der mit den neuen Heuristiken gemessenen Ergebnisse von SCIP. Eine kurze Zusammenfassung in Kapitel 5 schließt diese Arbeit ab.
    Description: Many practically relevant problems can be formulated in terms of a mixed integer programming (MIP) model. MIP denotes the optimization of a linear objective function under a certain number of linear side constraints including the need for some of the involved variables to take integral solution values. Applications of MIP based optimization can be found in the area of public transit, scheduling, automatic vehicle routing, network design, etc. From a complexity point of view, MIP solving is known to be NP-hard and most commonly tried to be solved via Branch-and-Bound based algorithms. Branch-and-Bound algorithms benefit from early and good feasible solutions of a MIP in various ways. Primal heuristics are aimed at finding new solutions during the MIP solving process. There are different types of primal heuristics: while start heuristics are particularly valuable to find an early solution, improvement heuristics hopefully drive a given solution further towards optimality. This thesis focusses on primal heuristics which are part of the MIP-solving framework SCIP. The first chapter comes with basic definitions and a brief description of SCIP and the test set which we used. The remainder of the first chapter is an overview of the existing heuristics in SCIP which have been implemented by Achterberg and Berthold. In the following chapters we introduce three new heuristics which apply rounding or propagation techniques for their specific purpose, namely the new rounding heuristic ZI Round, taken from Wallace, a 2-Opt improvement heuristic for MIP and the propagation heuristic Shift-and-Propagate. It is characteristic of all three heuristics that they mainly apply computationally inexpensive algorithms. Each of them is presented in an own chapter, starting with an algorithmic description, followed by implementational details. All chapters close with a discussion of the computational results obtained with the respective implementations in SCIP.
    Language: English
    Type: bachelorthesis , doc-type:bachelorThesis
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
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    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: For mixed integer programming, recent years have seen a growing interest in the design of general purpose primal heuristics for use inside complete solvers. Many of these heuristics rely on an optimal LP solution. Finding this may itself take a significant amount of time. The presented paper addresses this issue by the introduction of the Shift-And-Propagate heuristic. Shift-And-Propagate is a pre-root primal heuristic that does not require a previously found LP solution. It applies domain propagation techniques to quickly drive a variable assignment towards feasibility. Computational experiments indicate that this heuristic is a powerful supplement of existing rounding and propagation heuristics.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
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    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the design of general purpose primal heuristics for use inside complete mixed integer programming solvers. Many of these heuristics rely on an optimal LP solution, which may take a significant amount of time to find. In this paper, we address this issue by introducing a pre-root primal heuristic that does not require a previously found LP solution. This heuristic, named Shift-and-Propagate , applies domain propagation techniques to quickly drive a variable assignment towards feasibility. Computational experiments indicate that this heuristic is a powerful supplement to existing rounding and propagation heuristics.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Modern MIP solving software incorporates dozens of auxiliary algorithmic components for supporting the branch-and-bound search in finding and improving solutions and in strengthening the relaxation. Intuitively, a dynamic solving strategy with an appropriate emphasis on different solving components and strategies is desirable during the search process. We propose an adaptive solver behavior that dynamically reacts on transitions between the three typical phases of a MIP solving process: The first phase objective is to find a feasible solution. During the second phase, a sequence of incumbent solutions gets constructed until the incumbent is eventually optimal. Proving optimality is the central objective of the remaining third phase. Based on the MIP-solver SCIP, we demonstrate the usefulness of the phase concept both with an exact recognition of the optimality of a solution, and provide heuristic alternatives to make use of the concept in practice.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-01-22
    Description: The SCIP Optimization Suite is a software toolbox for generating and solving various classes of mathematical optimization problems. Its major components are the modeling language ZIMPL, the linear programming solver SoPlex, the constraint integer programming framework and mixed-integer linear and nonlinear programming solver SCIP, the UG framework for parallelization of branch-and-bound-based solvers, and the generic branch-cut-and-price solver GCG. It has been used in many applications from both academia and industry and is one of the leading non-commercial solvers. This paper highlights the new features of version 3.2 of the SCIP Optimization Suite. Version 3.2 was released in July 2015. This release comes with new presolving steps, primal heuristics, and branching rules within SCIP. In addition, version 3.2 includes a reoptimization feature and improved handling of quadratic constraints and special ordered sets. SoPlex can now solve LPs exactly over the rational number and performance improvements have been achieved by exploiting sparsity in more situations. UG has been tested successfully on 80,000 cores. A major new feature of UG is the functionality to parallelize a customized SCIP solver. GCG has been enhanced with a new separator, new primal heuristics, and improved column management. Finally, new and improved extensions of SCIP are presented, namely solvers for multi-criteria optimization, Steiner tree problems, and mixed-integer semidefinite programs.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Mixed integer programming is a versatile and valuable optimization tool. However, solving specific problem instances can be computationally demanding even for cutting-edge solvers. Such long running times are often significantly reduced by an appropriate change of the solver's parameters. In this paper we investigate "algorithm selection", the task of choosing among a set of algorithms the ones that are likely to perform best for a particular instance. In our case, we treat different parameter settings of the MIP solver SCIP as different algorithms to choose from. Two peculiarities of the MIP solving process have our special attention. We address the well-known problem of performance variability by using multiple random seeds. Besides solving time, primal dual integrals are recorded as a second performance measure in order to distinguish solvers that timed out. We collected feature and performance data for a large set of publicly available MIP instances. The algorithm selection problem is addressed by several popular, feature-based methods, which have been partly extended for our purpose. Finally, an analysis of the feature space and performance results of the selected algorithms are presented.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Modern MIP solvers employ dozens of auxiliary algorithmic components to support the branch-and-bound search in finding and improving primal solutions and in strengthening the dual bound. Typically, all components are tuned to minimize the average running time to prove optimality. In this article, we take a different look at the run of a MIP solver. We argue that the solution process consists of three different phases, namely achieving feasibility, improving the incumbent solution, and proving optimality. We first show that the entire solving process can be improved by adapting the search strategy with respect to the phase-specific aims using different control tunings. Afterwards, we provide criteria to predict the transition between the individual phases and evaluate the performance impact of altering the algorithmic behavior of the MIP solver SCIP at the predicted phase transition points.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-01-22
    Description: The SCIP Optimization Suite is a powerful collection of optimization software that consists of the branch-cut-and-price framework and mixed-integer programming solver SCIP, the linear programming solver SoPlex, the modeling language Zimpl, the parallelization framework UG, and the generic branch-cut-and-price solver GCG. Additionally, it features the extensions SCIP-Jack for solving Steiner tree problems, PolySCIP for solving multi-objective problems, and SCIP-SDP for solving mixed-integer semidefinite programs. The SCIP Optimization Suite has been continuously developed and has now reached version 4.0. The goal of this report is to present the recent changes to the collection. We not only describe the theoretical basis, but focus on implementation aspects and their computational consequences.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Primal heuristics are an important component of state-of-the-art codes for mixed integer programming. In this paper, we focus on primal heuristics that only employ computationally inexpensive procedures such as rounding and logical deductions (propagation). We give an overview of eight different approaches. To assess the impact of these primal heuristics on the ability to find feasible solutions, in particular early during search, we introduce a new performance measure, the primal integral. Computational experiments evaluate this and other measures on MIPLIB~2010 benchmark instances.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Modern MIP solving software incorporates dozens of auxiliary algorithmic components for supporting the branch-and-bound search in finding and improving solutions and in strengthening the relaxation. Intuitively, a dynamic solving strategy with an appropriate emphasis on different solving components and strategies is desirable during the search process. We propose an adaptive solver behavior that dynamically reacts on transitions between the three typical phases of a MIP solving process: The first phase objective is to find a feasible solution. During the second phase, a sequence of incumbent solutions gets constructed until the incumbent is eventually optimal. Proving optimality is the central objective of the remaining third phase. Based on the MIP-solver SCIP, we demonstrate the usefulness of the phase concept both with an exact recognition of the optimality of a solution, and provide heuristic alternatives to make use of the concept in practice.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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