Key words Reference material
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract Analytical instruments used for measurements of air and water pollution are calibrated by using reference materials such as standard gases and standard solutions. In Japan, since the middle of the 1970s, those reference materials which are traceable to the national standards maintained at national research institutes have been supplied to users by reference material producers. In order to establish the primary standards and to secure the traceability from the working standards to the national ones, various analytical methods such as coulometric, titrimetric and gravimetric analyses for purity determination and highly sensitive atomic spectrometry for trace analysis have been developed as the primary methods and reference methods. The Japanese Measurement Law, revised in 1992, has introduced a new traceability system in which a public organization, a "designated calibration body", can also prepare and maintain the national standards under the advice and instruction of national research institutes. The designated calibration body can provide calibration services to reference material producers (accredited calibration bodies) by using the national standards. The reference materials supplied in conformity with the traceability system include standard gases, pH standard solutions, metal standard solutions and non-metal ion standard solutions.
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