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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Radiologe 40 (2000), S. 78-82 
    ISSN: 1432-2102
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Intranet ; Internet ; PACS ; Radiologie ; Key words ; Intranet ; Internet ; PACS ; Radiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The aim of the paper is to present the conceptual basis and capabilities of intranet applications in radiology. The intranet, which is the local brother of the internet can be readily realized using existing computer components and a network. All current computer operating systems support intranet applications which allow hard and software independent communication of text, images, video and sound with the use of browser software without dedicated programs on the individual personal computers. Radiological applications for text communication e.g. department specific bulletin boards and access to examination protocols; use of image communication for viewing and limited processing and documentation of radiological images can be achieved on decentralized PCs as well as speech communication for dictation, distribution of dictation and speech recognition. Discussion: The intranet helps to optimize the organizational efficiency and cost effectiveness in the daily work of radiological departments in outpatients and hospital settings. The general interest in internet and intranet technology will guarantee its continuous development.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, konzeptionelle Grundlagen und Möglichkeiten von Intranetanwendungen in der Radiologie aufzuzeigen. Das Intranet, das der lokale Bruder des Internets ist, kann gegenwärtig relativ einfach mit den bestehenden Computerkomponenten und einem Netzwerk realisiert werden. Alle aktuellen Betriebssysteme unterstützen Intranetanwendungen, mit denen sowohl Hardware – als auch Software – unabhängig mit Hilfe von sog. Browsern die Kommunikation von Text, Bild, Video und Ton möglich ist, ohne dass auf den peripheren Rechnern entsprechend spezielle Software vorhanden sein muss. Beispielhafte Anwendungen der Textkommunikation werden vorgestellt, wie z.B. abteilungsspezifische Informationen und Untersuchungsprotokolle, außerdem Anwendungen der Bild- und Tonkommunikation. Diskussion: Das Intranet eröffnet insbesondere im täglichen Einsatz radiologischer Abteilungen im ambulanten und stationärem Bereich neue Möglichkeiten zur organisatorischen Effizienzsteigerung und Kosteneffektivität. Das globale Interesse an der Inter- und Intranettechnologie sichert die kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 160 (1965), S. 312-318 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 6 (1996), S. 66-68 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: MR safety ; Intrauterine contraceptive device ; MR compatibility ; Biomedical materials
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Three intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUD) were examined in an experimental in vitro set-up to test their MR compatibility: Multiload CU375, Nova T (containing copper and silver), and Gyne T. The devices were fixed in a polycrylamide gel and exposed to the magnetic field and the radiofrequence (RF) of standard MR sequences (spin-echo, turbo-spin-echo, turboFLASH, and magnetization transfer prepared FLASH). The RF power of a turbo-spin-echo sequence was increased by a factor of 5. Temperatures of the IUDs and the gel were measured during the MR examination. No deflection of the IUDs exposed to the magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla was detected. Under normal imaging conditions no temperature increase could be observed. Using an increased RF power, a maximal temperature rise of 0.4°C per examination was seen. No differences between the gel and the IUDs were observed, indicating that there is no specific heating of the tested IUDs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain tumours ; Perfusion imaging ; Diffusion imaging ; Chemical shift imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Assessment of CNS neoplasms has focused traditionally on morphological analysis. Recent developments in MR sequence design now enable functional assessments. T1-weighted, as well as T2*-weighted, dynamic, gadolinium-enhanced, imaging can be used for assessment of vascularisation, permeability, and microcirculation of CNS neoplasms. Characterisation of cerebrovascular blood flow is possible using dynamic MR angiography, while neurofunctional imaging enables visualisation of local alterations in neuronal activity in stimulated cortical areas. Diffusion-weighted imaging can be used for improved delineation of neoplasms, while chemical shift imaging allows metabolic mapping of lesions and surrounding tissues. Implementation of these techniques can improve characterisation, information for therapy, planning and prognosis in clinical imaging of CNS neoplasms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Radiosurgery ; MPRAGE ; Spin echo ; Metastases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The authors report on a 3D sequence for MRI of the brain and its application in radiosurgical treatment planning of 35 brain metastases. The measuring sequence, called magnetization — prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE), was compared with 2D T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences following intravenous contrast-medium application in 19 patients with brain metastases. The average diameter of all lesions was similar in both sequences, with 16.8 and 17.0 mm for SE and MPRAGE, respectively. Target point definition was equal in 29 metastases, and in 6 cases superior on MPRAGE, due to better gray-white matter contrast and increased contrast enhancement. In cases of bleeding metastases there was improved depiction of internal structures in 3D MRI. Postprocessing of 3D MPRAGE data created multi-planar reconstruction along any chosen plane with isotropic spatial resolution, which helped to improve radiosurgical isodose distribution in 4 cases when compared to 2D SE. However, sensitivity of 3D MPRAGE to detect small lesions (〈 3 mm) was decreased in one patient with more than 50 metastases. We conclude that 3D gradient-echo (GE) imaging might be of great value for radiosurgical treatment planning, but does not replace 2D SE with its current parameters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 8 (1998), S. 517-527 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Doppler ; US ; MRI ; Angiography ; Contrast agents ; Tumour vascularity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance angiography ; Arteriovenous malformations ; Radiosurgery ; Image correlation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this methodological paper the authors report the stereotactic correlation of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques [MR-angiography (MRA), MRI, blood bolus tagging (STAR), and functional MRI] in 10 patients with ce rebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and its application in precision radiotherapy planning. The patient's head was fixed in a stereotactic localization system that is usable at the MR and the linear accelerator installations. Byphantom measurements different materials (steel, aluminium, titanium, plastic, wood, ceramics) used for the stereotactic system were tested for mechanical stability and geometrical MR image distortion. All metallic stereotactic rings (closed rings made of massive metal) led to a more or less dramatic geometrical distortion and signal cancellation in the MR images. The best properties —nearly no distortion and high mechanical stability are provided by a ceramic ring. If necessary, the re-maining geometrical MR image distortion can be “corrected” reducing displacements to the size of a pixel) by cal culations based on modelling the distortion as a fourth-order two-dimensional polynomial. Using this method multimodality matching can be performed automatically as long as all images are acquired ill the same examination and the patient is sufficiently immobilized. Precise definition ol the target volume could be performed by the radiotherapist either directly in MR images or in calculated projecon MR angiograms obtained by a maximum-intensity projection algorithm. As a result, information about the hemodynamics of the AVM was provided by a three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast flow measurement and a dynamic MRA with the STAR technique leading to an improved definition of the size of the nidus, the origin of the feeding arteries, and the pattern of the venous drainage. In addition functional MRI was performed in patients wit lesions close to the primary motor cortex area leading to an improved definition of structures at risk for high-dose application in radiosurgery. The differnet imaging techniques of MR provide a sensitive, noninvasive, 3D method for de fining target volume, critical structures, and for calculating dose distributions for radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, because dose calculation of radiosurgery at sufficient accuracy can be based on 3D MR data of the geometrical conformation of the patient's head.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 403 (1983), S. 421-432 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reaction
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B 2 (1984), S. 257-259 
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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