total body fractional extraction
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary The total body clearance and fractional extraction of isoprenaline (ISO) have been determined, and the relation between these parameters and cardiac output established. Whether desipramine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, altered the plasma catecholamine response to ISO was also investigated. Seven healthy subjects were given i.v., infusions of ISO in two, consecutive 25-min periods, at constant dose rates of 31–43 and 80–124 pmol·kg−1·min−1, respectively. The total-body (ER), pulmonary (ERp) and forearm (ERf) fractional extractions and the total body clearance (CL) of ISO were obtained from measurements of cardiac output and the steady-state ISO concentration in mixed central venous, arterial and forearm venous plasma. ISO-induced increases in cardiac output resulted in increases in CL, decreases in ER and no consistent change in ERf. ERp did not differ from zero. ISO also produced a dose-dependent increase in the mixed venous plasma concentrations of noradrenaline and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG), and a decrease in that of adrenaline. Pretreatment with desipramine did not alter any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of ISO. Desipramine, however, reduced the mixed venous baseline plasma levels of noradrenaline (47%) and DOPEG (40%), and tended to reduce that of adrenaline (34%). It enhanced the plasma noradrenaline response 2.4-fold, abolished the plasma DOPEG response and did not alter the plasma adrenaline response to ISO. Hence, owing to its haemodynamic effects, ISO modifies its own pharmacokinetics which involve non-neuronal removal processes only. The increased DOPEG in plasma resulting from the ISO-induced increase in noradrenaline release was presynaptic in origin. Desipramine appears to reduce sympathetic activity. The enhancement by desipramine of the ISO-induced increase in plasma noradrenaline points towards recapture by neuronal uptake of at least 58% of the noradrenaline released in response to ISO.
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