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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 80 (1996), S. 2458-2466 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Two-dimensional time-resolved density distributions of ground state barium (Ba) and copper (Cu) atoms as well as ground state yttrium oxide (YO) molecules have been measured by two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence during a pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) process of YBa2Cu3O7−x. The gas phase of PLD has been investigated at ambient oxygen gas pressures between vacuum and 1 Torr. Characteristic behaviors have been observed for each of the measured ground state species. This is due to different oxidation schemes with the ambient oxygen gas. Whereas YO molecules mainly formed near the expanding front of the ablation plume, Ba atoms immediately oxidized at the plume front. Cu atoms, however, did not react during the gas phase of PLD. In addition, a well defined boundary of the expanding front of the ablation plume has been observed at oxygen gas pressures above 100 mTorr. Measurements of density distributions of emissive Ba, Cu, and YO are also discussed. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 77 (1995), S. 5961-5967 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Effects of cumulative ablation on the ejection of particulates and molecular species in pulsed-laser deposition are studied by Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. When a fresh target is ablated, a large amount of particulates are ejected during several initial shots and rapidly decreased within the first ten shots of ablation. This is due to the ejection of powder residues which are struck on the target surface during the polishing process. After this period, ejection of particulates increased gradually and almost saturated after 200 shots. The saturation characteristic is empirically formulated as a function of the number of cumulative ablations. On the other hand, ejection of molecular species rapidly decreases during the initial 500 ablations and afterwards decreases more slowly with further ablation. The effects of cumulative ablation on the particle ejection are discussed in conjunction with the structural modification of the ablated surface observed by the scanning electron microscope. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Electron temperature Te and density ne in the source region of an electron cyclotron resonance discharge have been measured by incoherent Thomson scattering of the beam from a 0.5 J yttrium aluminum garnet laser. This is the first experiment in which this technique, routinely used on fusion plasmas, has been applied to a processing plasma. Measurements were made in an argon discharge at pressures from 0.3 to 2 mTorr and microwave powers from 250 to 1000 W. Velocity distributions were measured both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field and a slight anisotropy of electron temperature was observed for low-pressure discharges. Temperatures in the range of 1–5 eV and densities in the range of 2–10×1017 m−3 were measured. Te and ne were found to strongly depend on pressure but only weakly on the input power and discharge magnetic field. No deviations from a Maxwellian velocity distribution were observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thomson scattering from plasmas in high-pressure discharges for rare-gas halide excimer laser pumping was observed using an yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser with a second harmonic generator, combined with a double-monochromator to reject large signal from Rayleigh scattering. The results showed the electron velocity distribution to be Maxwellian which was different from prediction of computer simulations, while variation of electron density and temperature with time and gas composition was consistent with results of computer simulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 58 (1991), S. 2564-2566 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The thermalization of sputtered atoms in a magnetron discharge was investigated using laser-induced fluorescence. The results clearly indicated for the first time that the velocity distribution agrees well with the Thompson formula [M. W. Thompson, Philos. Mag. 18, 377 (1968)] for d/λ(very-much-less-than)1, while a thermalized component becomes appreciable for d/λ(approximately-greater-than)1, where d is the distance from the cathode surface and λ is the mean free path of sputtered atoms for collisions with filling gas atoms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 73 (1993), S. 3664-3667 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetron discharges are widely used as sputtering sources for thin film deposition. Despite the importance of the sheath region where the electric field can be very high, there have been few experimental investigations of this region in magnetron plasmas. We report values of the sheath thickness deduced from measurements of the electric field distribution using laser spectroscopy. With this technique, a transition which is normally forbidden becomes in the presence of an electric field partially allowed so that laser induced fluorescence on this transition can be used as a measure of the electric field. It was found that the sheath thickness was approximately equal to the maximum displacement, in the absence of collisions, of a secondary electron from the cathode surface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 67 (1990), S. 4420-4422 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Erasing magneto-optical disks were studied using constant frequency pulses. The magnetic layer was Gd12Tb12Fe76. The linear velocity was 7.2 m/s and writing and rewriting were done at 1.8 MHz. The magnetic field was the same during writing and erasing. If the erasing power is too low, bits are incompletely erased, and if the erasing power is too high, erase pulses nucleate domains. Erasing performance can be improved by high frequencies and low duty cycles. Erasing performance decreases as the magnetic field in the write direction becomes stronger. However, almost the same rewriting C/N as the original C/N can be obtained in a weak magnetic field. We obtained a rewriting C/N of 29 dB, while an original C/N was 31 dB at a magnetic field of +50 Oe.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 67 (1996), S. 769-774 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Plasmas are created in a cusp type magnetic trap using electron cyclotron resonance heating. The magnetic field is generated with permanent magnets forming a 12-pole, whereby the polarity at the ends of the rods has been reversed in order to obtain end plugs and to improve the plasma confinement. In this way, the plasma volume could be reduced such that the cross section was close to or smaller than the cutoff width of a circular waveguide. This increases the microwave power absorbed and gives a high plasma density even above the cutoff value. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report the first two-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array with each laser emitting a unique, nonredundant wavelength. This was achieved by implementing spatially chirped layers in the VCSEL structure and obliquely aligning the array axes to the direction of the thickness chirp. We obtained 77 wavelengths from a 7×11 VCSEL array with all the lasers emitting single mode. Uniform wavelength separation between neighboring lasers is achieved with the direction of increasing wavelength rastering through the array. All the lasers exhibit nearly the same optical and electrical properties, in spite of the intentionally implemented difference in the emission wavelengths.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 66 (1995), S. 1059-1061 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The importance of capacitively coupled radio frequency (rf) discharges has resulted in many attempts, by experiment and by simulation, to understand the dynamics of the discharge. Because of the time varying nature of the sheath potential, the sheath region is of special interest in these plasmas. Direct measurements are reported of the sheath electric fields in a helium plasma obtained using a laser induced fluorescence method. In the interpretation of these measurements, the time dependence of the fluorescence spectrum had to be considered. The measured electric field distributions can be used to deduce sheath widths. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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