Frontal eye fields
Neck muscle afferents
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Interstitiospinal neurons were activated by antidromic stimulation of the spinal cord ventromedial funiculus at C1 and C4 in cerebellectomized cats under chlor alose anesthesia. Neurons responding only to C1 were classified as N cells and those responding both to C1 and C4 were classified as D cells, as in previous experiments (Fukushima et al. 1980a). Vestibular branching interstitiospinal and reticulospinal neurons were also identified as in the previous experiments. Stimulation of the ipsilateral pericruciate cortex evoked firing in 31% of N cells, 41% of D cells and 35% of vestibular branching neurons, while stimulation of the contralateral cortex excited 6% of N cells, 29% of D cells and 14% of vestibular branching neurons. Response latencies ranged from 2 to 15 ms after the effective pulse. By measuring the thresholds of activation of these neurons while changing the depth of the stimulating electrodes, and by mapping the cortical areas, it was shown that the lowest threshold areas were in the frontal eye fields and the anterior sigmoid gyrus near the presylvian sulcus (Area 6). Stimulation of the latter area often evoked neck or shoulder muscle contraction. Stimulation in the deep layers of the ipsilateral superior colliculus evoked firing in about 20% of interstitiospinal neurons and about 42% of vestibular branching neurons, with typical latencies 2–3 ms after the effective pulse, while stimulation of the contralateral superior colliculus was rarely effective. N cells and D cells responded similarly. Thresholds for activation were high in the intermediate tectal layers and declined as the electrodes entered the underlying tegmentum. This suggests that the superior colliculus is not the main source of synaptic inputs to these neurons. Low threshold points were found above the deep fiber layer when stimulating electrodes were inserted into the pretectum. Stimulation of the C2 biventer cervicis nerve excited about 8% of N cells, 18% of D cells, and 15% of vestibular branching neurons bilaterally with typical latencies around 10 ms. Similar results were obtained when C2 splenius nerves were stimulated. The fibers responsible for such excitation are probably group II, since stimuli stronger than 1.8 times threshold of the lowest threshold fibers were needed to evoke excitation. Response decrement was often observed when stimuli were repeated at 1/s, while no such decrement was observed at the rate of 1/3 s. When the convergence of cortical and labyrinthine excitatory inputs was studied, 36% of interstitiospinal neurons received single inputs either from the pericruciate cortex or from the labyrinth, 22% of neurons received convergent excitation from both and the remaining 42% did not respond to either stimulus. Although vestibular branching neurons rarely received labyrinthine inputs, they frequently showed convergence of excitation to stimulation of the frontal cortex, superior colliculus and vestibular nuclei.
Type of Medium: