AIP Digital Archive
Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
Over the past 20 years, Culham Laboratory has been involved in the development of ion sources. Initially these were positive ion systems using magnetic multipole sources for neutral beam heating in the fusion program. However, the development of high proton yield sources with a magnetic filter at Culham has led to a major program in negative ion sources based on the so-called volume-type source which has a similar design. This work has been the basis of a range of negative ion sources for industrial, defence, and fusion applications, all of which are described. A significant part of this work lies in the basic physics of these sources, both for modeling and ion beam acceleration. Numerical models of these are presented. Recently the effects of catalysts such as cesium on the discharge has been shown to cause considerable enhancement in H− and D− yield. The cesium itself also acts as a discharge component and a large source and accelerator for a pure cesium diagnostic beam has been developed. This technique is applicable to other vapors.
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