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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We propose rapid branching (RB) as a general branch-and-bound heuristic for solving large scale optimization problems in traffic and transport. The key idea is to combine a special branching rule and a greedy node selection strategy in order to produce solutions of controlled quality rapidly and efficiently. We report on three successful applications of the method for integrated vehicle and crew scheduling, railway track allocation, and railway vehicle rotation planning.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: This paper provides a generic formulation for rolling stock planning problems in the context of intercity passenger traffic. The main contributions are a graph theoretical model and a Mixed-Integer-Programming formulation that integrate all main requirements of the considered Vehicle-Rotation-Planning problem (VRPP). We show that it is possible to solve this model for real-world instances provided by our industrial partner DB Fernverkehr AG using modern algorithms and computers.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: This paper provides a highly integrated solution approach for rolling stock planning problems in the context of intercity passenger traffic. The main contributions are a generic hypergraph based mixed integer programming model and an integrated algorithm for the considered rolling stock rotation planning problem. The new developed approach is able to handle a very large set of industrial railway requirements, such as vehicle composition, maintenance constraints, infrastructure capacity, and regularity aspects. By the integration of this large bundle of technical railway aspects, we show that our approach has the power to produce implementable rolling stock rotations for our industrial cooperation partner DB Fernverkehr. This is the first time that the rolling stock rotations at DB Fernverkehr could be optimized by an automated system utilizing advanced mathematical programming techniques.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The Graduate-Level Research in Industrial Projects (G-RIPS) Program provides an opportunity for high-achieving graduate-level students to work in teams on a real-world research project proposed by a sponsor from industry or the public sector. Each G-RIPS team consists of four international students (two from the US and two from European universities), an academic mentor, and an industrial sponsor. This is the report of the Rail-Lab project on the definition and integration of robustness aspects into optimizing rolling stock schedules. In general, there is a trade-off for complex systems between robustness and efficiency. The ambitious goal was to explore this trade-off by implementing numerical simulations and developing analytic models. In rolling stock planning a very large set of industrial railway requirements, such as vehicle composition, maintenance constraints, infrastructure capacity, and regularity aspects, have to be considered in an integrated model. General hypergraphs provide the modeling power to tackle those requirements. Furthermore, integer programming approaches are able to produce high quality solutions for the deterministic problem. When stochastic time delays are considered, the mathematical programming problem is much more complex and presents additional challenges. Thus, we started with a basic variant of the deterministic case, i.e., we are only considering hypergraphs representing vehicle composition and regularity. We transfered solution approaches for robust optimization from the airline industry to the setting of railways and attained a reasonable measure of robustness. Finally, we present and discuss different methods to optimize this robustness measure.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: This paper proposes a highly integrated solution approach for rolling stock planning problems in the context of long distance passenger traffic between cities. The main contributions are a generic hypergraph-based mixed-integer programming model for the considered rolling stock rotation problem and an integrated algorithm for its solution. The newly developed algorithm is able to handle a large spectrum of industrial railway requirements, such as vehicle composition, maintenance constraints, infrastructure capacities, and regularity aspects. We show that our approach has the power to produce rolling stock rotations that can be implemented in practice. In this way, the rolling stock rotations at the largest German long distance operator Deutsche Bahn Fernverkehr AG could be optimized by an automated system utilizing advanced mathematical programming techniques.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Planning and operating railway transportation systems is an extremely hard task due to the combinatorial complexity of the underlying discrete optimization problems, the technical intricacies, and the immense size of the problem instances. Because of that, however, mathematical models and optimization techniques can result in large gains for both railway cus- tomers and operators, e.g., in terms of cost reductions or service quality improvements. In the last years a large and growing group of researchers in the OR community have devoted their attention to this domain devel- oping mathematical models and optimization approaches to tackle many of the relevant problems in the railway planning process. However, there is still a gap to bridge between theory and practice, with a few notable exceptions. In this paper we address three success stories, namely, long-term freight train routing (part I), mid-term rolling stock rotation planning (part II), and real-time train dispatching (part III). In each case, we describe real-life, successful implementations. We will dis- cuss the individual problem setting, survey the optimization literature, and focus on particular aspects addressed by the mathematical models. We demonstrate on concrete applications how mathematical optimization can support railway planning and operations. This gives proof that math- ematical optimization can support the planning of rolling stock resources. Thus, mathematical models and optimization can lead to a greater effi- ciency of railway operations and will serve as a powerful and innovative tool to meet recent challenges of the railway industry.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Rolling stock, i.e., rail vehicles, are among the most expensive and limited assets of a railway company. They must be used efficiently applying optimization techniques. One important aspect is re-optimization, which is the topic that we consider in this paper. We propose a template concept that allows to compute cost minimal rolling stock rotations under a large variety of re-optimization requirements. Two examples, involving a connection template and a rotation template, are discussed. An implementation within the rolling stock rotation optimizer rotor and computational results for scenarios provided by DB Fernverkehr AG, one of the leading railway operators in Europe, are presented.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Given two hypergraphs, representing a fine and a coarse "layer", and a cycle cover of the nodes of the coarse layer, the cycle embedding problem (CEP) asks for an embedding of the coarse cycles into the fine layer. The CEP is NP-hard for general hypergraphs, but it can be solved in polynomial time for graphs. We propose an integer rogramming formulation for the CEP that provides a complete escription of the CEP polytope for the graphical case. The CEP comes up in railway vehicle rotation scheduling. We present computational results for problem instances of DB Fernverkehr AG that justify a sequential coarse-first-fine-second planning approach.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Duty rostering problems occur in different application contexts and come in different flavors. They give rise to very large scale integer programs which ypically have lots of solutions and extremely fractional LP relaxations. In such a situation, heuristics can be a viable algorithmic choice. We propose an mprovement method of the Lin-Kernighan type for the solution of duty rostering problems. We illustrate its versatility and solution quality on three different applications in public transit, vehicle routing, and airline rostering with a focus on the management of preferences, fairness, and fatigue, respectively.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The rolling stock, i.e., railway vehicles, are one of the key ingredients of a running railway system. As it is well known, the offer of a railway company to their customers, i.e., the railway timetable, changes from time to time. Typical reasons for that are different timetables associated with different seasons, maintenance periods or holidays. Therefore, the regular lifetime of a timetable is split into (more or less) irregular periods where parts of the timetable are changed. In order to operate a railway timetable most railway companies set up sequences that define the operation of timetabled trips by a single physical railway vehicle called (rolling stock) rotations. Not surprisingly, the individual parts of a timetable also affect the rotations. More precisely, each of the parts brings up an acyclic rolling stock rotation problem with start and end conditions associated with the beginning and ending of the corresponding period. In this paper, we propose a propagation approach to deal with large planning horizons that are composed of many timetables with shorter individual lifetimes. The approach is based on an integer linear programming formulation that propagates rolling stock rotations through the irregular parts of the timetable while taking a large variety of operational requirements into account. This approach is implemented within the rolling stock rotation optimization framework ROTOR used by DB Fernverkehr AG, one of the leading railway operators in Europe. Computational results for real world scenarios are presented to evaluate the approach.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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