Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Atomic defects which migrate and trap at impurity probe atoms can be labelled by the changes they induce in the hyperfine interactions of the probe nuclei. Many studies have been made using perturbed γ−γ angular correlations (PAC) and the111In probe because of the excellent resolution of different sites. Identification of the bound states is the key problem in applying hyperfine interactions methods to point defects studies. In this study three structure-sensitive methods are applied to help identify the atomic structures of various multivacancy complexes in Pt and Au: (1) Quadrupole interaction parameters are compared with results of point-charge calculations of electric-field gradients for 20 structures containing 1–4 vacancies in the fcc lattice. (2) Hyperfine interactions induced by decorating vacancy complexes with hydrogen atoms are measured and interpreted with the assistance of point-charge calculations. (3) Transformations between complexes observed by annihilation of vacancies by mobile self-interstitials are used to test the consistency of the identifications. Using these methods in conjunction with analysis of the trapping behavior which occurs during annealing of damaged samples, structural models are presented for divacancy (2V), 3V and 4V complexes in Pt, and 3V and 4V complexes in Au. The activation temperatures of the 3V defect in Au and Pt are determined to be 162 K and 390 K, respectively, and activation temperatures of defects in Ni, Cu, Pt and Au are compared. For Pt, trapping of H at 1V and 2V complexes is observed to lead to small changes in the quadrupole interactions, consistent with well shielded protonic charges. However, trapping at 3V and 4V complexes leads to very large changes which we attribute to atomic restructuring to the defect complexes. Finally, the application of the same methodology to interpret recent experiments on NiAl, an ordered alloy, is described.
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