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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We propose a composite step method, designed for equality constrained optimization with partial differential equations. Focus is laid on the construction of a globalization scheme, which is based on cubic regularization of the objective and an affine covariant damped Newton method for feasibility. We show finite termination of the inner loop and fast local convergence of the algorithm. We discuss preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of the arising linear systems with projected conjugate gradient. Numerical results are shown for optimal control problems subject to a nonlinear heat equation and subject to nonlinear elastic equations arising from an implant design problem in craniofacial surgery.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Parallel in time methods for solving initial value problems are a means to increase the parallelism of numerical simulations. Hybrid parareal schemes interleaving the parallel in time iteration with an iterative solution of the individual time steps are among the most efficient methods for general nonlinear problems. Despite the hiding of communication time behind computation, communication has in certain situations a significant impact on the total runtime. Here we present strict, yet no sharp, error bounds for hybrid parareal methods with inexact communication due to lossy data compression, and derive theoretical estimates of the impact of compression on parallel efficiency of the algorithms. These and some computational experiments suggest that compression is a viable method to make hybrid parareal schemes robust with respect to low bandwidth setups.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We investigate spectral deferred correction (SDC) methods for time stepping and their interplay with spatio-temporal adaptivity, applied to the solution of the cardiac electro-mechanical coupling model. This model consists of the Monodomain equations, a reaction-diffusion system modeling the cardiac bioelectrical activity, coupled with a quasi-static mechanical model describing the contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle. The numerical approximation of the cardiac electro-mechanical coupling is a challenging multiphysics problem, because it exhibits very different spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, spatio-temporal adaptivity is a promising approach to reduce the computational complexity. SDC methods are simple iterative methods for solving collocation systems. We exploit their flexibility for combining them in various ways with spatio-temporal adaptivity. The accuracy and computational complexity of the resulting methods are studied on some numerical examples.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Language: German
    Type: book , doc-type:book
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-06-29
    Description: Aims. Detection and quantification of myocardial scars are helpful both for diagnosis of heart diseases and for building personalized simulation models. Scar tissue is generally charac­terized by a different conduction of electrical excitation. We aim at estimating conductivity-related parameters from endocardial mapping data, in particular the conductivity tensor. Solving this inverse problem requires computationally expensive monodomain simulations on fine discretizations. Therefore, we aim at accelerating the estimation using a multilevel method combining electrophysiology models of different complexity, namely the mono­domain and the eikonal model. Methods. Distributed parameter estimation is performed by minimizing the misfit between simulated and measured electrical activity on the endocardial surface, subject to the mono­domain model and regularization, leading to a constrained optimization problem. We formulate this optimization problem, including the modeling of scar tissue and different regularizations, and design an efficient iterative solver. We consider monodomain grid hierarchies and monodomain-eikonal model hierarchies in a recursive multilevel trust-region method. Results. From several numerical examples, both the efficiency of the method and the estimation quality, depending on the data, are investigated. The multilevel solver is significantly faster than a comparable single level solver. Endocardial mapping data of realistic density appears to be just sufficient to provide quantitatively reasonable estimates of location, size, and shape of scars close to the endocardial surface. Conclusion. In several situations, scar reconstruction based on eikonal and monodomain models differ significantly, suggesting the use of the more accurate but more expensive monodomain model for this purpose. Still, eikonal models can be utilized to accelerate the computations considerably, enabling the use of complex electrophysiology models for estimating myocardial scars from endocardial mapping data.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Solvers for partial differential equations (PDEs) are one of the cornerstones of computational science. For large problems, they involve huge amounts of data that need to be stored and transmitted on all levels of the memory hierarchy. Often, bandwidth is the limiting factor due to the relatively small arithmetic intensity, and increasingly due to the growing disparity between computing power and bandwidth. Consequently, data compression techniques have been investigated and tailored towards the specific requirements of PDE solvers over the recent decades. This paper surveys data compression challenges and discusses examples of corresponding solution approaches for PDE problems, covering all levels of the memory hierarchy from mass storage up to the main memory. We illustrate concepts for particular methods, with examples, and give references to alternatives.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Kaskade 7 is a finite element toolbox for the solution of stationary or transient systems of partial differential equations, aimed at supporting application-oriented research in numerical analysis and scientific computing. The library is written in C++ and is based on the \textsc{Dune} interface. The code is independent of spatial dimension and works with different grid managers. An important feature is the mix-and-match approach to discretizing systems of PDEs with different ansatz and test spaces for all variables. We describe the mathematical concepts behind the library as well as its structure, illustrating its use at several examples on the way.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-11-16
    Description: Multigrid methods for two-body contact problems are mostly based on special mortar discretizations, nonlinear Gauss-Seidel solvers, and solution-adapted coarse grid spaces. Their high computational efficiency comes at the cost of a complex implementation and a nonsymmetric master-slave discretization of the nonpenetration condition. Here we investigate an alternative symmetric and overconstrained segment-to-segment contact formulation that allows for a simple implementation based on standard multigrid and a symmetric treatment of contact boundaries, but leads to nonunique multipliers. For the solution of the arising quadratic programs, we propose augmented Lagrangian multigrid with overlapping block Gauss-Seidel smoothers. Approximation and convergence properties are studied numerically at standard test problems.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Background Mathematical optimisation models have recently been applied to identify ideal Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) locations that maximise coverage of Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). However, these fixed location models cannot relocate existing AEDs in a flexible way, and have nearly exclusively been applied to urban regions. We developed a flexible location model for AEDs, compared its performance to existing fixed location and population models, and explored how these perform across urban and rural regions. Methods Optimisation techniques were applied to AED deployment and OHCA coverage was assessed. A total of 2802 geolocated OHCAs occurred in Canton Ticino, Switzerland, from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2015. Results There were 719 AEDs in Canton Ticino. 635 (23%) OHCA events occurred within 100m of an AED, with 306 (31%) in urban, and 329 (18%) in rural areas. Median distance from OHCA events to the nearest AED was 224m (168m urban vs. 269m rural). Flexible location models performed better than fixed location and population models, with the cost to deploy 20 new AEDs instead relocating 171 existing AEDs to new locations, improving OHCA coverage to 38%, compared to 26% using fixed models, and 24% with the population based model. Conclusions Optimisation models for AEDs placement are superior to population models and should be strongly considered by communities when selecting areas for AED deployment. Compared to other models, flexible location models increase overall OHCA coverage, and decreases the distance to nearby AEDs, even in rural areas, while saving significant financial resources.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Da kohlenstofffaserverstärkte Kunststoffe (CFK) in anspruchsvollen sicherheitsrelevanten Einsatzgebieten wie im Automobilbau und in der Luftfahrt eingesetzt werden, besteht ein zunehmender Bedarf an zerstörungsfreien Prüfmethoden. Ziel ist die Gewährleistung der Sicherheit und Zuverlässigkeit der eingesetzten Bauteile. Aktive Thermografieverfahren ermöglichen die effiziente Prüfung großer Flächen mit hoher Auflösung in wenigen Arbeitsschritten. Ein wichtiges Teilgebiet der Prüfungen ist die Ortung und Charakterisierung von Delaminationen, die sowohl bereits in der Fertigung als auch während der Nutzung eines Bauteils auftreten können, und dessen strukturelle Integrität schwächen. ;In diesem Beitrag werden CFK-Strukturen mit künstlichen und natürlichen Delaminationen mit Hilfe unterschiedlich zeitlich modulierter Strahlungsquellen experimentell untersucht. Verwendet werden dabei Anregungen mit Blitzlampen und mit frequenzmodulierten Halogenlampen. Mittels Filterfunktionen im Zeit- und Frequenzbereich wird das Kontrast-zu-Rausch-Verhältnis (CNR) der detektierten Fehlstellen optimiert. Verglichen werden anschließend die Nachweisempfindlichkeit, das CNR und die Ortsauflösung der zu charakterisierenden Delaminationen für die unterschiedlichen Anregungs- und Auswertungstechniken. Ergänzt werden die Experimente durch numerische Simulationen des dreidimensionalen Wärmetransportes.
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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