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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of physical chemistry 〈Washington, DC〉 62 (1958), S. 1594-1595 
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied electrochemistry 3 (1973), S. 53-60 
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract The anode products formed when electrowinning lead from lead sulphate dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic have been determined when using a carbonaceous anode. Results indicate that electrolytic decomposition proceeds by the overall reaction $$PbSO_4 + C \to Pb + CO_2 + SO_2 $$ However at low current densities the CO2 content increases by the reaction $$C + SO_2 \rightleftharpoons CO_2 + \frac{1}{v}S_v $$ The secondary reactions of the cathodically produced lead also increase the CO2 and sulphur yields according to the following overall reactions $$2PbO + C \to 2Pb + CO_2 $$ and $$PbS \to Pb + \frac{1}{v}S_v $$ All the above electrochemical reactions are extensively polarized and chlorine co-evolution starts at low current densities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied electrochemistry 3 (1973), S. 45-52 
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Low faradaic yields of Pb were found when electrolysing melts containing PbSO4 in solvents of either LiCl-KCl eutectic or Li2SO4-K2SO4-Na4SO4 eutectic and employing low current densities. For all current densities employed, the decrease in current efficiency became greater as the lead sulphate concentration was increased but the influence of other sulphates was less pronounced. From studies of the reaction of lead with the melt and a chronopotentiometric study of cathodic processes, we have found the following two reactions occur: (a) Cathodic deposition of lead by the reversible reaction Pb2+ +2e⇌Pb (b) Secondary non-electrochemical reaction of the electrodeposit 4Pb+5PbSO4→PbS+4PbO.PbSO4 The rate of the latter reaction is sufficient to account for the lowering in current efficiencies. No evidence could be found to support direct reduction of the sulphate anion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied electrochemistry 2 (1972), S. 23-29 
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract The simple optical cell described is useful for providing supplementary information on the evolution of gases during the electrolysis of fused salts or other electrolytes. Its use with PbS-PbCl2 and PbS-PbCl2-NaCl melts demonstrated that, for anodic sulphur gas production, residual gas evolution occurs, indicating the formation of a chemisorbed species as a reaction intermediate. Dissolution of the sulphur in the melt also takes place; its rate increases with increase in temperature and sulphide concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 32 (1986), S. 1459-1465 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper focuses on two aspects of smelting operation that are highly dependent on the rate of heat transfer in the molten bath. As a consequence of the elevated temperature and the corrosive nature of the fluoride mixture, the cell sidewalls are designed so that some electrolyte will freeze onto them, protecting the carbon from erosion and at the same time insulating the cell against excessive heat loss. The thickness and dynamic variation of this frozen ledge are determined by the convective heat transfer from the bath to the freeze surface.Another situation where the rate of convective heat flow exerts a subtle influence is the dissolution of aluminium oxide powder in the bath. The localized feeding of large quantities of the powder causes transient electrolyte freezing on some of the added material, hindering its dissolution and causing the formation of an alumina sludge below the molten aluminium pad.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Surface and Interface Analysis 19 (1992), S. 139-144 
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In the smelting of aluminium, HF fumes are produced that are subsequently trapped by absorption onto alumina. The factors that affect the adsorption capacity of alumina have been studied previously and are well established, but the mechanism by which HF adsorbs onto the alumina surface is not well understood.In this study, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the nature of the surface adsorption of HF on alumina. XPS is particularly well suited to the study of this type of gas adsorption process.Laboratory-prepared samples were studied with particular interest in evidence for Al—F bonding, or in fluoride species formed by reaction with —OH or —O. Also of interest was the role of sodium, since it is segregated to the surface of the alumina during calcination.Al—F bonding was observed on only one sample type. An Al—F interaction was identified when the alumina had been predried and dry HF was absorbed. When moisture was present no AlF3 formation was observed. This suggests that under conventional conditions (i.e. moisture present) the adsorption of HF involves a weak interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, with intermediate layers of water. After heating the samples containing weakly bound HF to 500°C, no Al—F interaction was observed. Much of the HF was desorbed at 700°C.An Na-F interaction was observed in all fluoride-adsorbed samples; however, this can only account for a small proportion of the total fluoride adsorbed.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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