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  • English  (32)
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  • English  (32)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Markov Decision Processes (MDP) or Partially Observable MDPs (POMDP) are used for modelling situations in which the evolution of a process is partly random and partly controllable. These MDP theories allow for computing the optimal control policy for processes that can continuously or frequently be observed, even if only partially. However, they cannot be applied if state observation is very costly and therefore rare (in time). We present a novel MDP theory for rare, costly observations and derive the corresponding Bellman equation. In the new theory, state information can be derived for a particular cost after certain, rather long time intervals. The resulting information costs enter into the total cost and thus into the optimization criterion. This approach applies to many real world problems, particularly in the medical context, where the medical condition is examined rather rarely because examination costs are high. At the same time, the approach allows for efficient numerical realization. We demonstrate the usefulness of the novel theory by determining, from the national economic perspective, optimal therapeutic policies for the treatment of the human immunodefficiency virus (HIV) in resource-rich and resource-poor settings. Based on the developed theory and models, we discover that available drugs may not be utilized efficiently in resource-poor settings due to exorbitant diagnostic costs.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: We present the theory of “Markov decision processes (MDP) with rare state observation” and apply it to optimal treatment scheduling and diagnostic testing to mitigate HIV-1 drug resistance development in resource-poor countries. The developed theory assumes that the state of the process is hidden and can only be determined by making an examination. Each examination produces costs which enter into the considered cost functional so that the resulting optimization problem includes finding optimal examination times. This is a realistic ansatz: In many real world applications, like HIV-1 treatment scheduling, the information about the disease evolution involves substantial costs, such that examination and control are intimately connected. However, a perfect compliance with the optimal strategy can rarely be achieved. This may be particularly true for HIV-1 resistance testing in resource-constrained countries. In the present work, we therefore analyze the sensitivity of the costs with respect to deviations from the optimal examination times both analytically and for the considered application. We discover continuity in the cost-functional with respect to the examination times. For the HIV-application, moreover, sensitivity towards small deviations from the optimal examination rule depends on the disease state. Furthermore, we compare the optimal rare-control strategy to (i) constant control strategies (one action for the remaining time) and to (ii) the permanent control of the original, fully observed MDP. This comparison is done in terms of expected costs and in terms of life-prolongation. The proposed rare-control strategy offers a clear benefit over a constant control, stressing the usefulness of medical testing and informed decision making. This indicates that lower-priced medical tests could improve HIV treatment in resource-constrained settings and warrants further investigation.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Markov Decision Processes (MDP) or Partially Observable MDPs (POMDP) are used for modelling situations in which the evolution of a process is partly random and partly controllable. These MDP theories allow for computing the optimal control policy for processes that can continuously or frequently be observed, even if only partially. However, they cannot be applied if state observation is very costly and therefore rare (in time). We present a novel MDP theory for rare, costly observations and derive the corresponding Bellman equation. In the new theory, state information can be derived for a particular cost after certain, rather long time intervals. The resulting information costs enter into the total cost and thus into the optimization criterion. This approach applies to many real world problems, particularly in the medical context, where the medical condition is examined rather rarely because examination costs are high. At the same time, the approach allows for efficient numerical realization. We demonstrate the usefulness of the novel theory by determining, from the national economic perspective, optimal therapeutic policies for the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource-rich and resource-poor settings. Based on the developed theory and models, we discover that available drugs may not be utilized efficiently in resource-poor settings due to exorbitant diagnostic costs.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Well-mixed stochastic chemical kinetics are properly modelled by the chemical master equation (CME) and associated Markov jump processes in molecule number space. If the reactants are present in large amounts, however, corresponding simulations of the stochastic dynamics become computationally expensive and model reductions are demanded. The classical model reduction approach uniformly rescales the overall dynamics to obtain deterministic systems characterized by ordinary differential equations, the well-known mass action reaction rate equations. For systems with multiple scales there exist hybrid approaches that keep parts of the system discrete while another part is approximated either using Langevin dynamics or deterministically. This paper aims at giving a coherent overview of the different hybrid approaches, focusing on their basic concepts and the relation between them. We derive a novel general description of such hybrid models that allows to express various forms by one type of equation. We also check in how far the approaches apply to model extensions of the CME for dynamics which do not comply with the central well-mixed condition and require some spatial resolution. A simple but meaningful gene expression system with negative self-regulation is analysed to illustrate the different approximation qualities of some of the hybrid approaches discussed.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Well-mixed stochastic chemical kinetics are properly modeled by the chemical master equation (CME) and associated Markov jump processes in molecule number space. If the reactants are present in large amounts, however, corresponding simulations of the stochastic dynamics become computationally expensive and model reductions are demanded. The classical model reduction approach uniformly rescales the overall dynamics to obtain deterministic systems characterized by ordinary differential equations, the well-known mass action reaction rate equations. For systems with multiple scales, there exist hybrid approaches that keep parts of the system discrete while another part is approximated either using Langevin dynamics or deterministically. This paper aims at giving a coherent overview of the different hybrid approaches, focusing on their basic concepts and the relation between them. We derive a novel general description of such hybrid models that allows expressing various forms by one type of equation. We also check in how far the approaches apply to model extensions of the CME for dynamics which do not comply with the central well-mixed condition and require some spatial resolution. A simple but meaningful gene expression system with negative self-regulation is analysed to illustrate the different approximation qualities of some of the hybrid approaches discussed. Especially, we reveal the cause of error in the case of small volume approximations.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Human mobility always had a great influence on the spreading of cultural, social and technological ideas. Developing realistic models that allow for a better understanding, prediction and control of such coupled processes has gained a lot of attention in recent years. However, the modeling of spreading processes that happened in ancient times faces the additional challenge that available knowledge and data is often limited and sparse. In this paper, we present a new agent-based model for the spreading of innovations in the ancient world that is governed by human movements. Our model considers the diffusion of innovations on a spatial network that is changing in time, as the agents are changing their positions. Additionally, we propose a novel stochastic simulation approach to produce spatio-temporal realizations of the spreading process that are instructive for studying its dynamical properties and exploring how different influences affect its speed and spatial evolution.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-11-02
    Description: Many real-world processes can naturally be modeled as systems of interacting agents. However, the long-term simulation of such agent-based models is often intractable when the system becomes too large. In this paper, starting from a stochastic spatio-temporal agent-based model (ABM), we present a reduced model in terms of stochastic PDEs that describes the evolution of agent number densities for large populations. We discuss the algorithmic details of both approaches; regarding the SPDE model, we apply Finite Element discretization in space which not only ensures efficient simulation but also serves as a regularization of the SPDE. Illustrative examples for the spreading of an innovation among agents are given and used for comparing ABM and SPDE models.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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