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  • 2020-2023  (8)
  • 2022  (8)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2022-03-30
    Description: We present an optimization model which is capable of routing and ordering trains on a microscopic level under a moving block regime. Based on a general timetabling definition (GTTP) that allows the plug in of arbitrarily detailed methods to compute running and headway times, we describe a layered graph approach using velocity expansion, and develop a mixed integer linear programming formulation. Finally, we present promising results for a German corridor scenario with mixed traffic, indicating that applying branch-and-cut to our model is able to solve reasonably sized instances with up to hundred trains to optimality.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2022-11-11
    Description: The covering of a graph with (possibly disjoint) connected subgraphs is a funda-mental problem in graph theory. In this paper, we study a version to cover a graph’svertices by connected subgraphs subject to lower and upper weight bounds, and pro-pose a column generation approach to dynamically generate feasible and promisingsubgraphs. Our focus is on the solution of the pricing problem which turns out to bea variant of the NP-hard Maximum Weight Connected Subgraph Problem. We com-pare different formulations to handle connectivity, and find that a single-commodityflow formulation performs best. This is notable since the respective literature seemsto have widely dismissed this formulation. We improve it to a new coarse-to-fine flowformulation that is theoretically and computationally superior, especially for largeinstances with many vertices of degree 2 like highway networks, where it provides aspeed-up factor of 5 over the non-flow-based formulations. We also propose a pre-processing method that exploits a median property of weight-constrained subgraphs,a primal heuristic, and a local search heuristic. In an extensive computational studywe evaluate the presented connectivity formulations on different classes of instances,and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed enhancements. Their speed-upsessentially multiply to an overall factor of well over 10. Overall, our approach allowsthe reliable solution of instances with several hundreds of vertices in a few min-utes. These findings are further corroborated in a comparison to existing districtingmodels on a set of test instances from the literature
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-11-24
    Description: Air freight is usually shipped in standardized unit load devices (ULDs). The planning process for the consolidation of transit cargo from inbound flights or locally emerging shipments into ULDs for outbound flights is called build-up scheduling. More specifically, outbound ULDs must be assigned a time and a workstation subject to both workstation capacity constraints and the availability of shipments which in turn depends on break-down decisions for incoming ULDs. ULDs scheduled for the same outbound flight should be built up in temporal and spatial proximity. This serves both to minimize overhead in transportation times and to allow workers to move freight between ULDs. We propose to address this requirement by processing ULDs for the same outbound flight in batches. For the above build-up scheduling problem, we introduce a multi-commodity network design model. Outbound flights are modeled as commodities; transit cargo is represented by cargo flow volume and unpack and batch decisions are represented as design variables. The model is solved with a standard MIP solver on a set of benchmark data. For instances with a limited number of resource conflicts, near-optimal solutions are found in under two hours for a whole week of operations.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-11-24
    Description: Finding connected subgraphs of maximum weight subject to additional constraints on the subgraphs is a common (sub)problem in many applications. In this paper, we study the Maximum Weight Connected Subgraph Problem with a given root node and a lower and upper capacity constraint on the chosen subgraph. In addition, the nodes of the input graph are colored blue and red, and the chosen subgraph is required to be balanced regarding its cumulated blue and red weight. This problem arises as an essential subproblem in district planning applications. We show that the problem is NP-hard and give an integer programming formulation. By exploiting the capacity and balancing condition, we develop a powerful reduction technique that is able to significantly shrink the problem size. In addition, we propose a method to strengthen the LP relaxation of our formulation by identifying conflict pairs, i.e., nodes that cannot be both part of a chosen subgraph. Our computational study confirms the positive impact of the new preprocessing technique and of the proposed conflict cuts.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-12-02
    Description: We consider the line planning problem in public transport in the Parametric City, an idealized model that captures typical scenarios by a (small) number of parameters. The Parametric City is rotation symmetric, but optimal line plans are not always symmetric. This raises the question to quantify the symmetry gap between the best symmetric and the overall best solution. For our analysis, we formulate the line planning problem as a mixed integer linear program, that can be solved in polynomial time if the solutions are forced to be symmetric. We prove that the symmetry gap is small when a specific Parametric City parameter is fixed, and we give an approximation algorithm for line planning in the Parametric City in this case. While the symmetry gap can be arbitrarily large in general, we show that symmetric line plans are a good choice in most practical situations.
    Language: German
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-12-01
    Description: We consider the line planning problem in public transport in the Parametric City, an idealized model that captures typical scenarios by a (small) number of parameters. The Parametric City is rotation symmetric, but optimal line plans are not always symmetric. This raises the question to quantify the symmetry gap between the best symmetric and the overall best solution. For our analysis, we formulate the line planning problem as a mixed integer linear program, that can be solved in polynomial time if the solutions are forced to be symmetric. The symmetry gap is provably small when a specific Parametric City parameter is fixed, and we give an approximation algorithm for line planning in the Parametric City in this case. While the symmetry gap can be arbitrarily large in general, we show that symmetric line plans are a good choice in most practical situations.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-12-05
    Description: We present an efficient algorithm that finds a globally optimal solution to the 2D Free Flight Trajectory Optimization Problem (aka Zermelo Navigation Problem) up to arbitrary precision in finite time. The algorithm combines a discrete and a continuous optimization phase. In the discrete phase, a set of candidate paths that densely covers the trajectory space is created on a directed auxiliary graph. Then Yen’s algorithm provides a promising set of discrete candidate paths which subsequently undergo a locally convergent refinement stage. Provided that the auxiliary graph is sufficiently dense, the method finds a path that lies within the convex domain around the global minimizer. From this starting point, the second stage will converge rapidly to the optimum. The density of the auxiliary graph depends solely on the wind field, and not on the accuracy of the solution, such that the method inherits the superior asymptotic convergence properties of the optimal control stage.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2022-12-06
    Description: The Flight Planning Problem is to find a minimum fuel trajectory between two airports in a 3D airway network under consideration of the wind. We show that this problem is NP-hard, even in its most basic version. We then present a novel A∗ heuristic, whose potential function is derived from an idealized vertical profile over the remaining flight distance. This potential is, under rather general assumptions, both admissible and consistent and it can be computed efficiently. The method outperforms the state-of-the-art heuristic on real-life instances.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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