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• 2000-2004  (13)
• 1915-1919  (1)
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• 1
Electronic Resource
Springer
Marine biology 137 (2000), S. 1077-1090
ISSN: 1432-1793
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology
Notes: Abstract  We examined population structure in the wreckfish, Polyprion americanus, by assaying six microsatellite loci in 422 individuals collected throughout the geographic range. Eighteen hapuku, P. oxygeneios, were assayed at the same loci for use as an outgroup. Expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.49 to 0.88 and averaged 0.66. Allele-frequency distributions at those loci indicated that samples from the eastern North Atlantic, western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean were genetically similar, confirming the pattern seen in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Both mtDNA and microsatellite studies differentiated northern and southern wreckfish stocks. However, in contrast to the mtDNA studies, allelic variation at microsatellite loci clearly differentiated wreckfish from two Southern Hemisphere locations, Brazil and the South Pacific. Far more genetic variation was observed at microsatellite loci than with mtDNA RFLPs (haplotype diversity averaged 0.01), and we saw more evidence of population structure with the microsatellite loci. The differentiation between southern and northern wreckfish supports the distribution records, which indicate that wreckfish do not occur in the tropics. Temperature profiles and current patterns throughout the southern oceans apparently also prevent significant gene flow between the South Pacific and Brazilian samples.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 2
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 16 (2002), S. 0
ISSN: 1365-2036
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine
Notes: Background : Alverine citrate has been used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome for many years.Aims : To compare the efficacy and safety of a new formulation of alverine citrate, a 120-mg capsule, with placebo given three times daily for 12 weeks.Methods : One hundred and seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome were entered into this three-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. The primary end-point was relief of abdominal pain indicated by improvement in the scores for severity and frequency. Secondary efficacy variables included scores for other clinical symptoms and for overall well-being.Results : The severity and frequency of abdominal pain improved in 66% and 68% of patients treated with alverine citrate vs. 58% and 69% of the placebo group, but these differences were not significant. The mean percentage reduction in the scores for abdominal pain from baseline to the final assessment, although greater in the alverine citrate group (43.7%) compared with the placebo group (33.3%), was not statistically significant.Conclusions : Alverine citrate is no better than placebo at relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Future trials should be designed to take into account the high and persistent placebo response seen in this condition.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 3
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 20 (2004), S. 0
ISSN: 1365-2036
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine
Notes: Background : Symptom relief, through adherence to appropriate maintenance therapy, is the sole objective of treatment for patients with endoscopy-negative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.Aim : To compare the efficacy of ‘on-demand’ treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg vs. continuous treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg daily in patients with endoscopy-negative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.Methods : Endoscopy-negative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patients who achieved complete resolution of heartburn after short-term (2–4 weeks) treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg (n = 774) were randomized to receive either esomeprazole 20 mg on-demand (n =311) or lansoprazole 15 mg continuous daily treatment (n = 311) for 6 months.Results : Significantly more patients were willing to continue taking esomeprazole on-demand than lansoprazole continuous therapy after 6 months (93% vs. 88%; P = 0.02). This superior outcome was achieved despite patients on esomeprazole requiring medication only 38% as often as those on lansoprazole, leading to direct cost savings of more than one-third (36%). Furthermore, patients receiving esomeprazole 20 mg on-demand were more satisfied with their treatment after 1 month compared with patients taking lansoprazole 15 mg continuously.Conclusions : In patients with endoscopy-negative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, esomeprazole 20 mg on-demand is more acceptable to patients and is an economically more effective treatment than lansoprazole 15 mg continuously.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 4
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 12 (2002), S. 0
ISSN: 1600-0838
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
Notes: Acclimatization to moderate high altitude accompanied by training at low altitude (living high–training low) has been shown to improve sea level endurance performance in accomplished, but not élite, runners. Whether élite athletes, who may be closer to the maximal structural and functional adaptive capacity of the respiratory (i.e. oxygen transport from environment to mitochondria) system, may achieve similar performance gains is unclear. To answer this question, we studied 14 élite men and eight élite women before and after 27 days of living at 2500 m while performing high-intensity training at 1250 m. The altitude sojourn began 1 week after the USA Track and Field National Championships, when the athletes were close to their season's fitness peak. Sea level 3000-m time trial performance was significantly improved by 1.1% (95% confidence limits 0.3–1.9%). One-third of the athletes achieved personal best times for the distance after the altitude training camp. The improvement in running performance was accompanied by a 3% improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (72.1 ± 1.5–74.4 ± 1.5 ml kg− 1 min− 1). Circulating erythropoietin levels were near double initial sea level values 20 h after ascent (8.5 ± 0.5–16.2 ± 1.0 IU ml−1). Soluble transferrin receptor levels were significantly elevated on the 19th day at altitude, confirming a stimulation of erythropoiesis (2.1 ± 0.7–2.5 ± 0.6 μ g ml-1). Hb concentration measured at sea level increased 1 g dl−1 over the course of the camp (13.3 ± 0.2–14.3 ± 0.2 g dl−1). We conclude that 4 weeks of acclimatization to moderate altitude, accompanied by high-intensity training at low altitude, improves sea level endurance performance even in élite runners. Both the mechanism and magnitude of the effect appear similar to that observed in less accomplished runners, even for athletes who may have achieved near maximal oxygen transport capacity for humans.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 5
Electronic Resource
Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
Annual Review of Entomology 48 (2003), S. 455-484
ISSN: 0066-4170
Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
Topics: Biology
Notes: Abstract Gustatory receptors associated with feeding in phytophagous insects are broadly categorized as phagostimulatory or deterrent. No phytophagous insect is known that tastes all its essential nutrients, and the ability to discriminate between nutrients is limited. The insects acquire a nutritional balance largely "adventitiously" because leaves have an appropriate chemical composition. Sugars are the most important phagostimulants. Plant secondary compounds are most often deterrent but stimulate phagostimulatory cells if they serve as host-indicating sign stimuli, or if they are sequestered for defense or used as pheromone precursors. The stimulating effects of chemicals are greatly affected by other chemicals in mixtures like those to which the sensilla are normally exposed. Host plant selection depends on the balance of phagostimulatory and deterrent inputs with, in some oligophagous and monophagous species, a dominating role of a host-related chemical. Evolution of phytophagy has probably involved a change in emphasis in the gustatory system, not fundamentally new developments. The precise role of the gustatory systems remains unclear. In grasshoppers, it probably governs food selection and the amounts eaten, but in caterpillars there is some evidence that central feedbacks are also involved in regulating the amount eaten.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 6
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
British journal of dermatology 148 (2003), S. 0
ISSN: 1365-2133
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine
Notes: Summary Background Bowen's disease (BD; intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma) is therapeutically challenging because lesions, which may be multiple, are frequently located at sites that heal poorly. There is a small risk of progression to invasive carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for certain non melanoma skin cancers, but comparison studies with other, better-established therapies are limited. Objectives To compare the efficacy and tolerability of PDT and topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in BD. Methods Forty patients from two centres were randomized to either topical PDT or 5-FU. The PDT group was treated with 20% 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) applied 4 h before illumination with 100 J cm−2 narrowband red light (630 ± 15 nm). 5-FU was applied to lesions for 4 weeks. A repeat treatment cycle was performed after 6 weeks if required. Results Twenty-nine of 33 (88%) lesions treated with PDT initially responded completely, compared with 22 of 33 (67%) after 5-FU. After 12 months, two recurrences in the PDT group and six in the 5-FU group reduced complete clinical clearance rates to 82% and 48%, respectively. PDT was significantly more effective (P = 0·006, odds ratio 4·78, 95% confidence interval 1·56–14·62). In the 5-FU group, severe eczematous reactions developed around seven lesions, ulceration in three and erosions in two. No such reactions occurred following PDT. There was no difference in overall pain experienced during each therapy. Conclusions Topical ALA-PDT is more effective than topical 5-FU in the treatment of BD, with fewer adverse events. ALA-PDT should be considered one of the first-line therapeutic options for BD.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 7
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
Clinical and experimental dermatology 25 (2000), S. 0
ISSN: 1365-2230
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 8
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
Journal of fish biology 62 (2003), S. 0
ISSN: 1095-8649
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Biology
Notes: Red porgy Pagrus pagrus from the north-eastern, north-western and south-western Atlantic were found to be genetically distinct as determined by mitochondrial DNA analysis. There were no shared composite restriction fragment haplotypes, and nucleotide sequence differences averaged 2% among these locations.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 9
Electronic Resource
[s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
Nature 94 (1915), S. 589-589
ISSN: 1476-4687
Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
Notes: [Auszug] THE accompanying photograph (Fig. 1) represents the side of a steel bar. The bar was first marked by a punch in the way shown, and the punch marks were afterwards completely filed out. The side was then polished and the bar pulled in a testing machine beyond the elastic limit of the material. ...
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 10
Electronic Resource
Springer
The European physical journal 20 (2003), S. 111-112
ISSN: 1434-601X
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Physics
Notes: Abstract. The highly sensitive GASP array at the INFN Legnaro Laboratory was used to study the $\gamma$ -ray de-excitation of neutron-rich nuclei produced in the deep-inelastic processes which occur when 230 MeV 36S ions interact with a target of 176Yb. Yrast decay schemes were identified in over forty target-like fragments and in over twenty projectile-like fragments. Analysis of the data has resulted in extensions to the yrast decay sequences of the target-like species, 176Hf, 166Er, 172Yb, and 152Sm. New transitions have also been observed in a number of projectile-like species including 34P and 41Cl. Experimental results are compared with the results of shell model calculations.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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