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  • 1995-1999  (2)
  • 1995-1999  (2)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Ground water monitoring & remediation 19 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-6592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: Treatment of nitrogen in landfill leachate has received considerable attention recently because of the relatively low levels at which some nitrogen species (i.e., NH3) can be toxic to aquatic life forms. This study reports on the results of a three-year, pilot-scale field trial demonstrating the use of infiltration bed and nitrate barrier technology to achieve nitrogen removal in landfill leachate. The infiltration bed comprises an unsaturated sand layer overlying a saturated layer of waste cellulose solids (sawdust), which acts as a carbon source for heterotrophic denitrification. When loaded at a rate of 1 to 3 cm/day, the infiltration bed was successful at lowering leachate inorganic nitrogen (NH4++ NO3-) levels averaging 24.8 mg/L N by 89%, including 96% in the third year of operation. The surface water discharge criteria for un-ionized ammonia (NH3) were met on all occasions in the treated leachate during the second and third years of operation. Nitrogen attenuation is presumed to occur by a two-step process in which leachate NH4+ is first oxidized to NO3- in the unsaturated sand layer and then is converted to nitrogen gas (N2) by denitrification occurring in the underlying sawdust layer. Mass balance calculations suggest that the sawdust layer has sufficient carbon to allow denitrification to proceed for long periods (1.0 to 30 years) without replenishment. Because this technology is simple to construct and is relatively maintenance free, it should be attractive for use at smaller landfills where the installation of conventional treatment plants may not be feasible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: Canada ; fish ; hydroelectric reservoirs ; mercury ; Newfoundland ; return time
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Mercury levels in fish have been demonstrated to increase after impoundment with augmented levels of mercury predicted to decline as the reservoir ages. Previous research in Newfoundland predicted return rates in the order of 10 to 12 years for landlocked Atlantic salmon or ouananiche (Salmo salar) and 7 years for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). In order to test the validity of these predictions on a broader spatial and temporal scale, and develop more generally predictive ‘models’, mercury levels in three fish species were studied in 16 older Newfoundland hydroelectric reservoirs of various age (32 to 95 years) and area flooded (21 to 13,000 ha). Mercury concentrations were standardized to fish length and correlated with physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the sampling sites. Standard length mercury levels ranged from 0.23 to 0.86 ppm in ouananiche, 0.13 to 0.59 ppm in brook trout, and 0.22 to 0.72 in arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish in excess of the Canadian Safety Limit (0.5 ppm) were collected from 14 of 16 sites for ouananiche, 8 of 17 sites for brook trout, and 3 of 7 sites for arctic charr, including control lakes. Standard length fish mercury levels were correlated with reservoir age and (log10) area flooded for ouananiche and with pH for arctic charr. A multiple regression model was developed relating standard length mercury in ouananiche with reservoir age and log10 of the flooded area. There were no apparent relationship between reservoir characteristics and brook trout mercury concentrations. Based on this analysis, it is not possible, at present, to develop generally predictive models for all species found in Newfoundland impoundments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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