Debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotype
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary Marked interindividual variation has been observed in the pharmacokinetics of the antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine. The fact that its urinary excretion is dependent on urinary pH may account, in part, for such variation. The influence that genetic differences in hepatic metabolism of the debrisoquine-type may have on mexiletine pharmacokinetics was considered in this study. The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of mexiletine (250 mg administered intravenously) were investigated in 5 rapid extensive metabolisers (EM), 5 slow EM and 5 poor metabolisers (PM) of debrisoquine, under conditions of controlled urinary pH. Mexiletine disposition kinetics was found to be altered in PM individuals. These subjects showed higher total area under the curve (AUC), (15.7 versus 8.16 μg · h · ml−1) prolonged elimination half-lives (in serum and urine) (serum: 18.5 versus 11.6 h, urine: 19.2 versus 11.7 h) and lower total clearance values compared with EM (216 versus 450 ml · min−1). In this respect, slow EM individuals generally presented intermediate values of those pharmacokinetic parameters. A higher incidence of adverse-effects was also observed among slow EM and PM subjects. It is concluded that genetic differences in mexiletine oxidation of the debrisoquine-type have an influence on its observed pharmacokinetic variability. The clinical consequences are discussed.
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