Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Ascorbate treatment 30 min prior to sodium dichromate (20 or 30 mg/kg, s.c.) shows higher potency than that of glutathione (GSH) in protecting against both the metabolic disturbance and nephrotoxicity induced by dichromate. However, ascorbate treatment after 2 h of dichromate intoxication had no effect on dichromate-induced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) elevation 3 days after intoxication. In contrast, dichromate-induced glucosuria, which reached maximum levels at 3 days after treatment, was significantly decreased by GSH or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment, even if its administration was after 24 h of dichromate intoxication. Pretreatment with GSH depletors such as diethyl maleate (DEM) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) had no effect on dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity. GSH levels in the liver and kidney were not affected at 3 h after dichromate treatment. However, dichromate significantly increased tissue GSH levels with a marked increase in liver per kidney GSH ratio at 24 h after treatment, if food was withheld subsequent to dichromate treatment, indicating that GSH biosynthesis resulted from the accelerated protein breakdown. These results suggest that GSH-mediated dichromate reduction is not a kinetically favorable pathway in vivo; however, GSH plays an important role in protection against dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity. In addition, the cellular metabolism of dichromate in the early period after treatment is important in the pathogenesis of its nephrotoxicity.
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