Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Four fluvalinate formulations differed in their residual toxicity to female two-spotted spider mite (TSM), Tetranychus urticae adults; the emulsifiable concentrate (EC) was the most toxic. In contrast, there was little difference in toxicity between the formulations with the European red mite (ERM) Panonychus ulmi with the exception of the EC formulation which was the least toxic. Fluvalinate 2F caused minimal (〈10%) TSM and ERM egg mortality. Fluvalinate 2F was more toxic and caused greater larval dispersal for the TSM compared to the ERM at the field concentration and below. The toxicity of fluvalinate 2F to TSM and ERM protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults was low, approximately 〈20% at field concentration. Dispersal was the main response to fluvalinate and this was positively correlated with increasing concentration. The combined mortality and dispersal LC50 was five times lower for ERM protonymphs and adults, but 11 times higher for ERM deutonymphs compared to equivalent TSM life stages. Fluvalinate 2F reduced TSM development from the protonymph and deutonymph stages to a greater extent compared to the ERM. The mortality response to fluvalinate 2F was unaffected by host type (peach or apple) for the TSM whereas ERM mortality was higher on apple compared to peach. TSM dispersal was higher from apple compared to peach whereas ERM dispersal was similar on both host types. Oviposition by both mite species was lower on apple than peach leaves. A 1 h exposure to fluvalinate 2F reduced ERM oviposition for 12 days.
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