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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We propose an efficient column generation method to minimize the probability of delay propagations along aircraft rotations. In this way, delay resistant schedules can be constructed. Computational results for large-scale real-world problems demonstrate substantial punctuality improvements. The method can be generalized to crew and integrated scheduling problems.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We propose a novel integer programming approach to transfer minimization for line planning problems in public transit. The idea is to incorporate penalties for transfers that are induced by “connection capacities” into the construction of the passenger paths. We show that such penalties can be dealt with by a combination of shortest and constrained shortest path algorithms such that the pricing problem for passenger paths can be solved efficiently. Connection capacity penalties (under)estimate the true transfer times. This error is, however, not a problem in practice. We show in a computational comparison with two standard models on a real-world scenario that our approach can be used to minimize passenger travel and transfer times for large-scale line planning problems with accurate results.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-12-15
    Description: This paper introduces the "line connectivity problem", a generalization of the Steiner tree problem and a special case of the line planning problem. We study its complexity and give an IP formulation in terms of an exponential number of constraints associated with "line cut constraints". These inequalities can be separated in polynomial time. We also generalize the Steiner partition inequalities.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/postscript
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Every day, millions of people are transported by buses, trains, and airplanes in Germany. Public transit (PT) is of major importance for the quality of life of individuals as well as the productivity of entire regions. Quality and efficiency of PT systems depend on the political framework (state-run, market oriented) and the suitability of the infrastructure (railway tracks, airport locations), the existing level of service (timetable, flight schedule), the use of adequate technologies (information, control, and booking systems), and the best possible deployment of equipment and resources (energy, vehicles, crews). The decision, planning, and optimization problems arising in this context are often gigantic and “scream” for mathematical support because of their complexity. This article sketches the state and the relevance of mathematics in planning and operating public transit, describes today’s challenges, and suggests a number of innovative actions. The current contribution of mathematics to public transit is — depending on the transportation mode — of varying depth. Air traffic is already well supported by mathematics. Bus traffic made significant advances in recent years, while rail traffic still bears significant opportunities for improvements. In all areas of public transit, the existing potentials are far from being exhausted. For some PT problems, such as vehicle and crew scheduling in bus and air traffic, excellent mathematical tools are not only available, but used in many places. In other areas, such as rolling stock rostering in rail traffic, the performance of the existing mathematical algorithms is not yet sufficient. Some topics are essentially untouched from a mathematical point of view; e.g., there are (except for air traffic) no network design or fare planning models of practical relevance. PT infrastructure construction is essentially devoid of mathematics, even though enormous capital investments are made in this area. These problems lead to questions that can only be tackled by engineers, economists, politicians, and mathematicians in a joint effort. Among other things, the authors propose to investigate two specific topics, which can be addressed at short notice, are of fundamental importance not only for the area of traffic planning, should lead to a significant improvement in the collaboration of all involved parties, and, if successful, will be of real value for companies and customers: • discrete optimal control: real-time re-planning of traffic systems in case of disruptions, • model integration: service design in bus and rail traffic. Work on these topics in interdisciplinary research projects could be funded by the German ministry of research and education (BMBF), the German ministry of economics (BMWi), or the German science foundation (DFG).
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/postscript
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The Vehicle Positioning Problem (VPP) consists of the assignment of vehicles (buses, trams or trains) of a public transport or railway company to parking positions in a depot and to timetabled trips. Such companies have many different types of vehicles, and each trip can be performed only by vehicles of some of these types. These assignments are non-trivial due to the topology of depots. The parking positions are organized in tracks, which work as one- or two-sided stacks or queues. If a required type of vehicle is not available in the front of any track, shunting movements must be performed in order to change vehicles' positions, which is undesirable and should be avoided. In this text we present integer linear and non-linear programming formulations for some versions of the problem and compare them from a theoretical and a computational point of view.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/postscript
    Format: application/postscript
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The Vehicle Positioning Problem (VPP) is a classical combinatorial optimization problem in public transport planning. A number of models and approaches have been suggested in the literature, which work for small problems, but not for large ones. We propose in this article a novel set partitioning model and an associated column generation solution approach for the VPP. The model provides a tight linear description of the problem. The pricing problem, and hence the LP relaxation itself, can be solved in polynomial resp. pseudo-polynomial time for some versions of the problems.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/postscript
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: In this paper a bottom-up approach of automatic simplification of a railway network is presented. Starting from a very detailed, microscopic level, as it is used in railway simulation, the network is transformed by an algorithm to a less detailed level (macroscopic network), that is sufficient for long-term planning and optimization. In addition running and headway times are rounded to a pre-chosen time discretization by a special cumulative method, which we will present and analyse in this paper. After the transformation we fill the network with given train requests to compute an optimal slot allocation. Then the optimized schedule is re-transformed into the microscopic level and can be simulated without any conflicts occuring between the slots. The algorithm is used to transform the network of the very dense Simplon corridor between Swiss and Italy. With our aggregation it is possible for the first time to generate a profit maximal and conflict free timetable for the corridor across a day by a simultaneously optimization run.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We provide an introduction into the mathematics of and with paths. Not on the shortest, but hopefully on an entertaining path!
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Wir stellen in dieser Arbeit ein mathematisches Optimierungsmodell zur Bestimmung eines optimalen Linienplans vor, das sowohl die Fahrzeiten und die Anzahl der Umstiege berücksichtigt als auch die Kosten des Liniennetzes. Dieses Modell deckt wichtige praktische Anforderungen ab, die in einem gemeinsamen Projekt mit den Verkehrsbetrieben in Potsdam (ViP) formuliert wurden. In diesem Projekt wurde der Linienplan 2010 für Potsdam entwickelt. Unsere Berechnungen zeigen, dass die mathematische Optimierung in nichts einer "Handplanung" des Liniennetzes nachsteht. Im Gegenteil, mit Hilfe des Optimierungsprogramms ist es möglich, durch Veränderung der Parameter mehrere verschiedene Szenarien zu berechnen, miteinander zu vergleichen und Aussagen über minimale Kosten und Fahrzeiten zu machen.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: German
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/postscript
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The track allocation problem, also known as train routing problem or train timetabling problem, is to find a conflict-free set of train routes of maximum value in a railway network. Although it can be modeled as a standard path packing problem, instances of sizes relevant for real-world railway applications could not be solved up to now. We propose a rapid branching column generation approach that integrates the solution of the LP relaxation of a path coupling formulation of the problem with a special rounding heuristic. The approach is based on and exploits special properties of the bundle method for the approximate solution of convex piecewise linear functions. Computational results for difficult instances of the benchmark library TTPLIB are reported.
    Keywords: ddc:510
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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