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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 72 (1992), S. 3514-3521 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The structural properties of GaAs, InAs, GaP, and InP implanted by Fe or Ti at 150 keV/400 keV and doses of 1012–1×1015 cm−2 and the depth distribution of the implants are comparatively studied before and after annealing with and without a Si3N4 cap. Results of Rutherford backscattering, x-ray double-crystal diffractometry, and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy experiments are presented. Fe redistributes strongly in all materials upon annealing, Ti does not redistribute at all. The driving force of redistribution of Fe is not classical diffusion but reaction with implantation-induced defects and stoichiometric imbalances. The actual defect chemistry of the as-implanted arsenides is found to be fundamentally different from the as-implanted phosphides since in the latter case the mass ratio of the constituents is much larger and the specific energy for amorphization is much lower. Consequently, redistribution of Fe in the phosphides and the arsenides differs qualitatively from each other.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 73 (1993), S. 4825-4830 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The distribution of Fe implanted at medium (1–4×1014 cm−2) and low (2×1012 cm−2) doses into InGaAs and annealed with or without a cap is investigated and the degree of compensation of such implanted regions is assessed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry profiles of low dose implanted Fe reveal a substantial role of the capping layer. Fe concentrations below as well as above the estimated metal vacancy concentration produced by implantation are observed. The effect of the cap strongly depends on the wet chemical surface preparation before insulator deposition. A correlation of the magnitude of the Fe accumulation at the InGaAs surface with defect related photoluminescence intensity is established. On the basis of the substitutional-interstitial diffusion model the barrier effects of the various caps for host and dopant atoms are analyzed. The best semi-insulating properties were obtained for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiO2 caped samples using a H2SO4:H2O2:H2O=1:1:125 surface preparation before deposition resulting in a 53% incorporation of Fe. A high electrical activation is proved directly by capacity-voltage profiles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 71 (1992), S. 5699-5702 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Low leakage current p+/n step junctions with mechanically stable ohmic contacts to p+ layer are fabricated on n-InP wafers simultaneously by a simple procedure consisting of vacuum evaporation of Ni, Zn, and Au followed by a short heat treatment at 340 °C. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and deep level transient spectroscopy are employed to characterize the diodes fabricated and to understand their structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 70 (1991), S. 2604-2609 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The redistribution of Fe and Ti implanted into InP and its recrystallization is studied using 〈m1;37.6p〉various thermal annealing techniques. Fe and Ti profiles are measured by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy and recrystallization by Rutherford backscattering channeling. Ti shows absolutely superior thermal stability under any circumstances as compared to Fe. Iron always accumulates at the surface and at a depth of approximately twice the projected range Rp. After high-dose implantation Fe additionally accumulates in the 0.8Rp region. At similar doses Ti still shows no diffusion and only faint accumulation between the surface and Rp.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The optimum conditions for the fabrication of semi-insulating InP epitaxial layers grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition are investigated in a comparative study of the structural, electrical, and diffusive properties of Fe- and Ti-doped material. Thermally stable InP:Fe layers with resistivities approaching the intrinsic limit can be prepared in an environment of n-type material if the Fe concentration does not exceed but is close to its solubility limit of 8×1016 cm−3 at 640 °C. In contact with p-type layers, however, semi-insulating characteristics of InP:Fe turn out to be difficult to reproduce because of a pronounced interdiffusion of Fe and p-type dopants. Here, Ti doping of InP is shown to be a useful scheme for the fabrication of high-resistivity layers. New processes for the deposition of InP:Ti using (C5H5)2Ti(CO)2 and Ti[N(CH3)2]4 as metalorganic precursors are described in detail. Ti is found to compensate up to 2×1016 cm−3 of shallow acceptors in metalorganic chemical-vapor-phase-deposition-grown InP. Ti-doped InP layers containing more electrically active deep Ti donors than net shallow acceptors exhibit semi-insulating characteristics with a resistivity of 5×106 Ω cm. Codoping of InP:Fe with Ti turns out to be a universal process for the preparation of thermally stable high-resistivity layers. If the material is appropriately grown, Fe+Ti doping compensates both excess shallow donors and excess shallow acceptors up to concentrations of 8×1016 and 2×1016 cm−3, respectively. In contrast to InP:Fe, resistivities in excess of 107 Ω cm are obtained in contact with both symmetric n- and p-type current injecting contacts. Moreover, codoping of semi-insulating InP:Fe with Ti is found to suppress the interdiffusion of Fe and p-type dopants. Therefore, the outdiffusion and accumulation of Fe in other regions of complex device structures can be significantly reduced. The interdiffusion of Fe and p-type dopants as well as its suppression by additional doping with Ti, finally, is studied in detail, which enables a comprehensive model accounting for this phenomenon to be developed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 133 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report three patients with severe, localized scleroderma, and with elevated titres of antinuclear antibodies, who were treated by plasmapheresis in combination with systemic steroid therapy. The therapeutic effectiveness of plasmapheresis was assessed on the basis of improvement in cutaneous and joint lesions. In all cases, significant improvement occurred after 2 months of therapy. Thus, in addition to treating systemic sclerosis, plasmapheresis can also be recommended for treatment of severe cases of localized scleroderma with elevated titres of antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to ss-DNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Biomembranes 266 (1972), S. 584-596 
    ISSN: 0005-2736
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters 12 (1964), S. 114-116 
    ISSN: 0031-9163
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 412 (1984), S. 253-272 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: ATOMIC PHYSICS
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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