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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 157 (1985), S. 73-82 
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. The coxo-trochanteral joint of the locust hindleg is supplied with five mechanoreceptive sense organs: A hairplate (HP) and a row of hairs (RH), two strand receptors (SR1, SR2) and a muscle receptor organ (MRO) (BrÄunig 1982). We report here an investigation of these mechanoreceptors with regard to their afferent responses to static and dynamic mechanical stimulation. 2. The only receptor suited for continuous measurement of joint position is the HP: its units are active over the entire range of possible joint positions and their number increases in proportion to the degree of joint levation (Fig. 3). The RH complements the HP as an additional sensor for extreme levation (Fig. 4). 3. Both SR are sensitive to the dynamic phase of joint depressions. Units of the multicellular SR1 respond over the entire range of joint movements, the single unit of SR2 is tuned to the lower half of that range (Fig. 5). 4. The sensory cell of the MRO is activated when the organ is stretched during depression of the joint (Fig. 6). Increasing slack of the organ during levation is compensated by activation of its receptor muscle. The MRO motor neuron is progressively excited with increasing joint levation, mainly by HP and RH (Figs. 6, 7, 8). 5. During stimulation of internal mechanoreceptors (SR1, SR2, and the sensory cell of the MRO) and during spontaneous motor activity the MRO motor neuron is co-activated with levator motor neurons (Figs. 9, 10). This mechanism may help to compensate for slack before the reflexes from HP and RH set in (see 4.). 6. The motor neuron of the MRO receptor muscle is not only activated by sense organs of the coxo-trochanteral joint, but also by proprioceptors of neighboring joints (Fig. 11). 7. Since all coxo-trochanteral joint receptors exert reflexes on motor neurons of power muscles and the efferent unit of the MRO, manipulation and extirpation of any one receptor must result in direct effects on the motor output of the metathoracic ganglion, but also additional indirect effects due to altered operation of the MRO.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 157 (1985), S. 83-89 
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Reflexes involving hind leg muscles during movement of the coxo-trochanteral joint were recorded after total ipsilateral deafferentation except for one of two groups of mechanoreceptors. These were (i) HP and RH, and (ii) SR1, SR2 and MRO. 2. Both groups of receptors influence coxotrochanteral and subcoxal, but not femoro-tibial muscles (Figs. 2, 3; Table 1). 3. Many subcoxal muscles are activated by both antagonistic groups of receptors. Their co-contraction may lock the subcoxal joint in a rigid position, thereby making it a firm support for resistance reflexes in more distal joints. 4. Reflexes onto coxo-trochanteral muscles were studied in more detail by direct selective mechanical stimulation of single receptors. All receptors elicit typical resistance reflexes: Sense organs sensitive to joint depression (SR1, SR2, MRO) activate levator motor units and inhibit depressor activity (Fig. 4). Sense organs sensitive to levation (HP, RH) cause analogous reactions of opposite sign (Fig. 5). 5. Tonic excitation by proprioceptors is necessary to maintain a certain level of spontaneous activity in certain motor neurons. For example after HP and RH extirpation, spontaneous activity of depressor motor units ceases, MRO ablation has comparable effects on levator units (Table 1).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 163 (1988), S. 835-840 
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The peripheral nerves of the suboesophageal ganglion of the locust,Locusta migratoria have been investigated with respect to their innervation by dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. The DUM neuron supply of the suboesophageal periphery was found to be strikingly sparse: No segmental DUM neurons could be found in all three mouthpart segments. While in the mandibular segment DUM neuron innervation appears to be missing entirely, both the maxillary and the labial peripheral nerves are supplied by a single, intersegmentally projecting prothoracic DUM neuron.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 160 (1987), S. 69-77 
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. A modification of iontophoretic cobalt injection stained small diameter nerves originating from the SOG of the locust,Locusta migratoria (Figs. 1, 2 A, 2B). These small nerves were called satellites as they are intimately associated with the major peripheral nerves of the mouthparts and the labrum. They follow these nerves into distal regions. 2. The satellite nerves contain the axons of only three neurons on each side of the SOG (Fig. 2C). These neurons exhibit complex dendritic ramifications in the anterior region of the ganglion (Figs. 3, 4). In the periphery, they establish a dense and widely distributed meshwork of presumed neurohemal terminals on the outer surface of the peripheral nerves of the SOG and the tritocerebrum (Fig. 2D, E). 3. Satellite neurons produce action potentials of long duration (up to 30 ms), which suggests that they are neurosecretory cells. Nerve potentials correlated with satellite neuron activity can be recorded from all peripheral nerves in the ventral half of the head, even in extremely distal regions. Finlayson 1978). Other neurosecretory cells, located within the central nervous system, appear to innervate specific targets, i.e. they do not release their products into the hemolymph (e.g. Evans and O'Shea 1978; O'Shea and Adams 1981). The present paper describes a new class of efferent neurons in the locust: Their cell bodies are located in the central nervous system (SOG), but like peripheral neurosecretory cells they use the outer surface of major peripheral nerves as a substrate for their terminals. Their properties strongly suggest that they are neurosecretory cells with neurohemal function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 283 (1980), S. 768-770 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In locusts the hindlegs are involved in a number of behavioural tasks like stepping, stridulating, kicking, swimming, steering in flight, grooming and help in changing body position. These movements do not follow all-or-nothing programmes imposed by the CNS but are modified in amplitude and ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 290 (1997), S. 641-654 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Endocrinology ; Intracellular staining ; Neuroanatomy ; Neurosecretion ; Octopamine ; Peripheral nervous system ; Locusta migratoria (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Identified dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurones of the locust Locusta migratoria were stained intracellularly with large amounts of cobalt to reveal their extensive peripheral branching patterns. Two neurones of the suboesophageal ganglion were studied as well as several neurones of thoracic ganglia. The peripheral branching pattern of all these neurones is described completely. As expected, the prevalent target organs of all DUM neurones are skeletal muscles. In addition several, but not all DUM neurones studied here form neurohaemal release sites on the surface of peripheral nerves and thus represent potential sources for octopamine acting as a neurohormone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 243 (1986), S. 517-524 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Muscle receptor organ ; Electron microscopy ; Tubular body ; Mechanosensory transduction ; Locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R.&F.)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The coxo-trochanteral muscle receptor organ of the hind leg of the locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R.&F.) has been investigated by use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy with special emphasis on its distal attachment site. The overall morphology of the receptor muscle, the sensory neuron and its dendrites was found to share many common features with other arthropod sense organs of that type with two important differences: (1) the connective tissue segment (= intercalated tendon) is extremely short compared to that of other muscle receptor organs; (2) the naked dendritic terminals of the non-ciliated, multipolar sensory neuron of the organ contain clusters of microtubules, interconnected by an amorphous matrix, that resemble the tubular bodies of ciliated, epithelial receptor cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Antennae ; Motoneurons ; Immunocytochemistry ; Cobalt labelling ; GABA ; Gryllus bimaculatus (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In crickets, a deutocerebral motoneuron sends axon collaterals to 6 of the 7 antennal muscles. Previous results indicated that this neuron exerts inhibition on these muscles and thus may be a common inhibitory motoneuron. In our present study, we show by doublelabelling, i.e. retrograde cobalt-filling and GABA-immunocytochemistry, that this neuron is GABA-immunoreactive, thus demonstrating that one common inhibitory motoneuron is part of the antennal motor system of crickets.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 260 (1990), S. 95-108 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Retrocerebral complex ; Neurosecretion ; DUM neurons ; Moulting ; Locusta migratoria (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The nervus corporis cardiaci III (NCC III) of the locust Locust migratoria was investigated with intracellular and extracellular cobalt staining techniques in order to elucidate the morphology of neurons within the suboesophageal ganglion, which send axons into this nerve. Six neurons have many features in common with the ‘dorsal, unpaired, median (DUM)’ neurons of thoracic and abdominal ganglia. Three other cells have cell bodies contralateral to their axons (contralateral neuron 1–3; CN 1–3). Two of these neurons (CN2 and CN3) appear to degenerate after imaginal ecdysis. CN3 innervates pharyngeal dilator muscles via its anterior axon in the NCC III, and a neck muscle via an additional posterior axon within the intersegmental nerve between the suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglia. A large cell with a ventral posterior cell body is located close to the sagittal plane of the ganglion (ventral, posterior, median neuron; VPMN). Staining of the NCC III towards the periphery reveals that the branching pattern of this nerve is extremely variable. It innervates the retrocerebral glandular complex, the antennal heart and pharyngeal dilator muscles, and has a connection to the frontal ganglion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
    Description: The Hemiptera is the largest non-endopterygote insect order comprising approximately 98,000 recent species. All species of the suborders Cicadomorpha (leafhoppers, spittlebugs, treehoppers and cicadas) and Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) feed by sucking sap from plant tissues and are thus often vectors for economically important phytopathogens. Except for the cicadas (Cicadomorpha: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) which produce air-borne sounds, all species of the suborders Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha communicate by vibrational (substrate-borne) signals. While the generation of these signals has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms of perception are poorly understood. This study provides a full description and 3D reconstruction of a large and complex array of six paired chordotonal organs in the first abdominal segments of the Rhododendron leafhopper Graphocephala fennahi (Cicadomorpha: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae). Further we were able to identify homologous organs in the closely related spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Cicadomorpha: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae) and the planthopper Issus coleoptratus (Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoroidea: Issidae). The configuration is congruent with the abdominal chordotonal organs in cicadas, where one of them is an elaborate tympanal organ. This indicates that these organs, together with the tymbal organ constitute a synapomorphy of the Tymbalia (Hemiptera excl. Sternorrhyncha). Our results contribute to the understanding of the evolution from substrate-borne to airborne communication in insects.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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