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  • 2015-2019  (1,646)
  • 1890-1899  (103,870)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-02-26
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Primal heuristics play an important role in the solving of mixed integer programs (MIPs). They often provide good feasible solutions early and help to reduce the time needed to prove optimality. In this paper, we present a scheme for start heuristics that can be executed without previous knowledge of an LP solution or a previously found integer feasible solution. It uses global structures available within MIP solvers to iteratively fix integer variables and propagate these fixings. Thereby, fixings are determined based on the predicted impact they have on the subsequent domain propagation. If sufficiently many variables can be fixed that way, the resulting problem is solved first as an LP, and then as an auxiliary MIP if the rounded LP solution does not provide a feasible solution already. We present three primal heuristics that use this scheme based on different global structures. Our computational experiments on standard MIP test sets show that the proposed heuristics find solutions for about 60 % of the instances and by this, help to improve several performance measures for MIP solvers, including the primal integral and the average solving time.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Given a factorable function f, we propose a procedure that constructs a concave underestimor of f that is tight at a given point. These underestimators can be used to generate intersection cuts. A peculiarity of these underestimators is that they do not rely on a bounded domain. We propose a strengthening procedure for the intersection cuts that exploits the bounds of the domain. Finally, we propose an extension of monoidal strengthening to take advantage of the integrality of the non-basic variables.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-12-14
    Description: PIPS-SBB is a distributed-memory parallel solver with a scalable data distribution paradigm. It is designed to solve MIPs with a dual-block angular structure, which is characteristic of deterministic-equivalent Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programs (SMIPs). In this paper, we present two different parallelizations of Branch & Bound (B&B), implementing both as extensions of PIPS-SBB, thus adding an additional layer of parallelism. In the first of the proposed frameworks, PIPS-PSBB, the coordination and load-balancing of the different optimization workers is done in a decentralized fashion. This new framework is designed to ensure all available cores are processing the most promising parts of the B&B tree. The second, ug[PIPS-SBB,MPI], is a parallel implementation using the Ubiquity Generator (UG), a universal framework for parallelizing B&B tree search that has been successfully applied to other MIP solvers. We show the effects of leveraging multiple levels of parallelism in potentially improving scaling performance beyond thousands of cores.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-08-05
    Description: Mixed integer programming has become a very powerful tool for modeling and solving real-world planning and scheduling problems, with the breadth of applications appearing to be almost unlimited. A critical component in the solution of these mixed-integer programs is a set of routines commonly referred to as presolve. Presolve can be viewed as a collection of preprocessing techniques that reduce the size of and, more importantly, improve the ``strength'' of the given model formulation, that is, the degree to which the constraints of the formulation accurately describe the underlying polyhedron of integer-feasible solutions. As our computational results will show, presolve is a key factor in the speed with which we can solve mixed-integer programs, and is often the difference between a model being intractable and solvable, in some cases easily solvable. In this paper we describe the presolve functionality in the Gurobi commercial mixed-integer programming code. This includes an overview, or taxonomy of the different methods that are employed, as well as more-detailed descriptions of several of the techniques, with some of them appearing, to our knowledge, for the first time in the literature.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-03-11
    Language: English
    Type: masterthesis , doc-type:masterThesis
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Branch-and-bound (B&B) is an algorithmic framework for solving NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. Although several well-designed software frameworks for parallel B&B have been developed over the last two decades, there is very few literature about successfully solving previously intractable combinatorial optimization problem instances to optimality by using such frameworks.The main reason for this limited impact of parallel solvers is that the algorithmic improvements for specific problem types are significantly greater than performance gains obtained by parallelization in general. Therefore, in order to solve hard problem instances for the first time, one needs to accelerate state-of-the-art algorithm implementations. In this paper, we present a computational study for solving Steiner tree problems and mixed integer semidefinite programs in parallel. These state-of-the-art algorithm implementations are based on SCIP and were parallelized via the ug[SCIP-*,*]-libraries---by adding less than 200 lines of glue code. Despite the ease of their parallelization, these solvers have the potential to solve previously intractable instances. In this paper, we demonstrate the convenience of such a parallelization and present results for previously unsolvable instances from the well-known PUC benchmark set, widely regarded as the most difficult Steiner tree test set in the literature.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: The assessment of water quality is crucial for safeguarding drinking water resources and ecosystem integrity. To this end, sample preparation and extraction is critically important, especially when investigating emerging contaminants and the toxicity of water samples. As extraction methods are rarely optimised for bioassays but rather adopted from chemical analysis, this may result in a misrepresentation of the actual toxicity. In this study, surface water, groundwater, hospital and municipal wastewater were used to characterise the impacts of common sample preparation techniques (acidification, filtration and solid phase extraction (SPE)) on the outcomes of eleven in vitro bioassays. The latter covered endocrine activity (reporter gene assays for estrogen, androgen, aryl-hydrocarbon, retinoic acid, retinoid X, vitamin D, thyroid receptor), mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation test), genotoxicity (umu test) and cytotoxicity. Water samples extracted using different SPE sorbents (Oasis HLB, Supelco ENVI-Carb+, Telos C18/ENV) at acidic and neutral pH were compared for their performance in recovering biological effects. Acidification, commonly used for stabilisation, significantly altered the endocrine activity and toxicity of most (waste)water samples. Sample filtration did not affect the majority of endpoints but in certain cases affected the (anti-)estrogenic and dioxin-like activities. SPE extracts (10.4 × final concentration), including WWTP effluents, induced significant endocrine effects that were not detected in aqueous samples (0.63 × final concentration), such as estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic and dioxin-like activities. When ranking the SPE methods using multivariate Pareto optimisation an extraction with Telos C18/ENV at pH 7 was most effective in recovering toxicity. At the same time, these extracts were highly cytotoxic masking the endpoint under investigation. Compared to that, extraction at pH 2.5 enriched less cytotoxicity. In summary, our study demonstrates that sample preparation and extraction critically affect the outcome of bioassays when assessing the toxicity of water samples. Depending on the water matrix and the bioassay, these methods need to be optimised to accurately assess water quality.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-03-11
    Description: Markov state models are to date the gold standard for modeling molecular kinetics since they enable the identification and analysis of metastable states and related kinetics in a very instructive manner. The state-of-the-art Markov state modeling methods and tools are very well developed for the modeling of reversible processes in closed equilibrium systems. On the contrary, they are largely not well suited to deal with nonreversible or even nonautonomous processes of nonequilibrium systems. Thus, we generalized the common Robust Perron Cluster Cluster Analysis (PCCA+) method to enable straightforward modeling of nonequilibrium systems as well. The resulting Generalized PCCA (G-PCCA) method readily handles equilibrium as well as nonequilibrium data by utilizing real Schur vectors instead of eigenvectors. This is implemented in the G-PCCA algorithm that enables the semiautomatic coarse graining of molecular kinetics. G-PCCA is not limited to the detection of metastable states but also enables the identification and modeling of cyclic processes. This is demonstrated by three typical examples of nonreversible systems.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Molecular simulations are often used to analyse the stability of protein–ligand complexes. The stability can be characterised by exit rates or using the exit time approach, i.e. by computing the expected holding time of the complex before its dissociation. However determining exit rates by straightforward molecular dynamics methods can be challenging for stochastic processes in which the exit event occurs very rarely. Finding a low variance procedure for collecting rare event statistics is still an open problem. In this work we discuss a novel method for computing exit rates which uses results of Robust Perron Cluster Analysis (PCCA+). This clustering method gives the possibility to define a fuzzy set by a membership function, which provides additional information of the kind ‘the process is being about to leave the set’. Thus, the derived approach is not based on the exit event occurrence and, therefore, is also applicable in case of rare events. The novel method can be used to analyse the temperature effect of protein–ligand systems through the differences in exit rates, and, thus, open up new drug design strategies and therapeutic applications.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-07-26
    Description: A key task in the field of modeling and analyzing nonlinear dynamical systems is the recovery of unknown governing equations from measurement data only. There is a wide range of application areas for this important instance of system identification, ranging from industrial engineering and acoustic signal processing to stock market models. In order to find appropriate representations of underlying dynamical systems, various data-driven methods have been proposed by different communities. However, if the given data sets are high-dimensional, then these methods typically suffer from the curse of dimensionality. To significantly reduce the computational costs and storage consumption, we propose the method multidimensional approximation of nonlinear dynamical systems (MANDy) which combines data-driven methods with tensor network decompositions. The efficiency of the introduced approach will be illustrated with the aid of several high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: As data processing evolves towards large scale, distributed platforms, the network will necessarily play a substantial role in achieving efficiency and performance. Increasingly, switches, network cards, and protocols are becoming more flexible while programmability at all levels (aka, software defined networks) opens up many possibilities to tailor the network to data processing applications and to push processing down to the network elements. In this paper, we propose DPI, an interface providing a set of simple yet powerful abstractions flexible enough to exploit features of modern networks (e.g., RDMA or in-network processing) suitable for data processing. Mirroring the concept behind the Message Passing Interface (MPI) used extensively in high-performance computing, DPI is an interface definition rather than an implementation so as to be able to bridge different networking technologies and to evolve with them. In the paper we motivate and discuss key primitives of the interface and present a number of use cases that show the potential of DPI for data-intensive applications, such as analytic engines and distributed database systems.
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2021-11-02
    Description: Many real-world processes can naturally be modeled as systems of interacting agents. However, the long-term simulation of such agent-based models is often intractable when the system becomes too large. In this paper, starting from a stochastic spatio-temporal agent-based model (ABM), we present a reduced model in terms of stochastic PDEs that describes the evolution of agent number densities for large populations. We discuss the algorithmic details of both approaches; regarding the SPDE model, we apply Finite Element discretization in space which not only ensures efficient simulation but also serves as a regularization of the SPDE. Illustrative examples for the spreading of an innovation among agents are given and used for comparing ABM and SPDE models.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2021-02-03
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: General solutions of state machine replication have to ensure that all replicas apply the same commands in the same order, even in the presence of failures. Such strict ordering incurs high synchronization costs due to the use of distributed consensus or a leader. This paper presents a protocol for linearizable state machine replication of conflict-free replicated data types (CRDTs) that neither requires consensus nor a leader. By leveraging the properties of state-based CRDTs—in particular the monotonic growth of a join semilattice—synchronization overhead is greatly reduced. In addition, updates just need a single round trip and modify the state ‘in-place’ without the need for a log. Furthermore, the message size overhead for coordination consists of a single counter per message. While reads in the presence of concurrent updates are not wait-free without a coordinator, we show that more than 97 % of reads can be handled in one or two round trips under highly concurrent accesses. Our protocol achieves high throughput without auxiliary processes such as command log management or leader election. It is well suited for all practical scenarios that need linearizable access on CRDT data on a fine-granular scale.
    Language: English
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: In this paper, we consider the Cyclic Crew Rostering Problem with Fairness Requirements (CCRP-FR). In this problem, attractive cyclic rosters have to be constructed for groups of employees, considering multiple, a priori determined, fairness levels. The attractiveness follows from the structure of the rosters (e.g., sufficient rest times and variation in work), whereas fairness is based on the work allocation among the different roster groups. We propose a three-phase heuristic for the CCRP-FR, which combines the strength of column generation techniques with a large-scale neighborhood search algorithm. The design of the heuristic assures that good solutions for all fairness levels are obtained quickly, and can still be further improved if additional running time is available. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm using real-world data from Netherlands Railways, and show that the heuristic finds close to optimal solutions for many of the considered instances. In particular, we show that the heuristic is able to quickly find major improvements upon the current sequential practice: For most instances, the heuristic is able to increase the attractiveness by at least 20% in just a few minutes.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Language: German
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-10-24
    Description: Der KOBV-Jahresbericht informiert rückblickend im 2-Jahres-Rhythmus über die bibliothekarisch-fachlichen Entwicklungen im Verbund und die Projekte des Kooperativen Bibliotheksverbunds Berlin-Brandenburg (KOBV).
    Language: German
    Type: annualzib , doc-type:report
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  • 25
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-04-14
    Description: Cycle inequalities play an important role in the polyhedral study of the periodic timetabling problem in public transport. We give the first pseudo-polynomial time separation algorithm for cycle inequalities, and we contribute a rigorous proof for the pseudo-polynomial time separability of the change-cycle inequalities. Moreover, we provide several NP-completeness results, indicating that pseudo-polynomial time is best possible. The efficiency of these cutting planes is demonstrated on real-world instances of the periodic timetabling problem.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The concept of reduction has frequently distinguished itself as a pivotal ingredient of exact solving approaches for the Steiner tree problem in graphs. In this paper we broaden the focus and consider reduction techniques for three Steiner problem variants that have been extensively discussed in the literature and entail various practical applications: The prize-collecting Steiner tree problem, the rooted prize-collecting Steiner tree problem and the maximum-weight connected subgraph problem. By introducing and subsequently deploying numerous new reduction methods, we are able to drastically decrease the size of a large number of benchmark instances, already solving more than 90 percent of them to optimality. Furthermore, we demonstrate the impact of these techniques on exact solving, using the example of the state-of-the-art Steiner problem solver SCIP-Jack.
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-11-16
    Description: Electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry was employed for the determination of collision cross sections (CCS) of 25 synthetically produced peptides in the mass range between 540–3310 Da. The experimental measurement of the CCS is complemented by their calculation applying two different methods. One prediction method is the intrinsic size parameter (ISP) method developed by the Clemmer group. The second new method is based on the evaluation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories as a whole, resulting in a single, averaged collision cross-section value for a given peptide in the gas phase. A high temperature MD simulation is run in order to scan through the whole conformational space. The lower temperature conformational distribution is obtained through thermodynamic reweighting. In the first part, various correlations, e.g. CCS vs. mass and inverse mobility vs. m/z correlations, are presented. Differences in CCS between peptides are also discussed in terms of their respective mass and m/z differences, as well as their respective structures. In the second part, measured and calculated CCS are compared. The agreement between the prediction results and the experimental values is in the same range for both calculation methods. While the calculation effort of the ISP method is much lower, the MD method comprises several tools providing deeper insights into the conformations of peptides. Advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed. Based on the separation of two pairs of linear and cyclic peptides of virtually the same mass, the influence of the structure on the cross sections is discussed. The shift in cross section differences and peak shape after transition from the linear to the cyclic peptide can be well understood by applying different MD tools, e.g. the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) and the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF).
    Language: English
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-11-24
    Description: Muscle fibre cross sectional area (CSA) is an important biomedical measure used to determine the structural composition of skeletal muscle, and it is relevant for tackling research questions in many different fields of research. To date, time consuming and tedious manual delineation of muscle fibres is often used to determine the CSA. Few methods are able to automatically detect muscle fibres in muscle fibre cross sections to quantify CSA due to challenges posed by variation of bright- ness and noise in the staining images. In this paper, we introduce SLCV, a robust semi-automatic pipeline for muscle fibre detection, which combines supervised learning (SL) with computer vision (CV). SLCV is adaptable to different staining methods and is quickly and intuitively tunable by the user. We are the first to perform an error analysis with respect to cell count and area, based on which we compare SLCV to the best purely CV-based pipeline in order to identify the contribution of SL and CV steps to muscle fibre detection. Our results obtained on 27 fluorescence-stained cross sectional images of varying staining quality suggest that combining SL and CV performs signifi- cantly better than both SL based and CV based methods with regards to both the cell separation- and the area reconstruction error. Furthermore, applying SLCV to our test set images yielded fibre detection results of very high quality, with average sensitivity values of 0.93 or higher on different cluster sizes and an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 0.9778.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We show that the A-optimal design optimization problem over m design points in R^n is equivalent to minimizing a quadratic function plus a group lasso sparsity inducing term over n x m real matrices. This observation allows to describe several new algorithms for A-optimal design based on splitting and block coordinate decomposition. These techniques are well known and proved powerful to treat large scale problems in machine learning and signal processing communities. The proposed algorithms come with rigorous convergence guarantees and convergence rate estimate stemming from the optimization literature. Performances are illustrated on synthetic benchmarks and compared to existing methods for solving the optimal design problem.
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Mixed integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) are arguably among the hardest optimization problems, with a wide range of applications. MINLP solvers that are based on linear relaxations and spatial branching work similar as mixed integer programming (MIP) solvers in the sense that they are based on a branch-and-cut algorithm, enhanced by various heuristics, domain propagation, and presolving techniques. However, the analysis of infeasible subproblems, which is an important component of most major MIP solvers, has been hardly studied in the context of MINLPs. There are two main approaches for infeasibility analysis in MIP solvers: conflict graph analysis, which originates from artificial intelligence and constraint programming, and dual ray analysis. The main contribution of this short paper is twofold. Firstly, we present the first computational study regarding the impact of dual ray analysis on convex and nonconvex MINLPs. In that context, we introduce a modified generation of infeasibility proofs that incorporates linearization cuts that are only locally valid. Secondly, we describe an extension of conflict analysis that works directly with the nonlinear relaxation of convex MINLPs instead of considering a linear relaxation. This is work-in-progress, and this short paper is meant to present first theoretical considerations without a computational study for that part.
    Language: English
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Conflict learning algorithms are an important component of modern MIP and CP solvers. But strong conflict information is typically gained by depth-first search. While this is the natural mode for CP solving, it is not for MIP solving. Rapid Learning is a hybrid CP/MIP approach where CP search is applied at the root to learn information to support the remaining MIP solve. This has been demonstrated to be beneficial for binary programs. In this paper, we extend the idea of Rapid Learning to integer programs, where not all variables are restricted to the domain {0, 1}, and rather than just running a rapid CP search at the root, we will apply it repeatedly at local search nodes within the MIP search tree. To do so efficiently, we present six heuristic criteria to predict the chance for local Rapid Learning to be successful. Our computational experiments indicate that our extended Rapid Learning algorithm significantly speeds up MIP search and is particularly beneficial on highly dual degenerate problems.
    Language: English
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We introduce a concurrent solver for the periodic event scheduling problem (PESP). It combines mixed integer programming techniques, the modulo network simplex method, satisfiability approaches, and a new heuristic based on maximum cuts. Running these components in parallel speeds up the overall solution process. This enables us to significantly improve the current upper and lower bounds for all benchmark instances of the library PESPlib.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: Linear programming is a foundational tool for many aspects of integer and combinatorial optimization. This work studies the complexity of solving linear programs exactly over the rational numbers through use of an oracle capable of returning limited-precision LP solutions. It is shown that a polynomial number of calls to such an oracle and a polynomial number of bit operations, is sufficient to compute an exact solution to an LP. Previous work has often considered oracles that provide solutions of an arbitrary specified precision. While this leads to polynomial-time algorithms, the level of precision required is often unrealistic for practical computation. In contrast, our work provides a foundation for understanding and analyzing the behavior of the methods that are currently most effective in practice for solving LPs exactly.
    Language: English
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-02-07
    Description: In this article, we show that these well-established spectral algorithms (like PCCA+, Perron Cluster Cluster Analysis) also identify coherent sets of non-autonomous dynamical systems. For the identification of coherent sets, one has to compute a discretization (a matrix T) of the transfer operator of the process using a space-time-discretization scheme. The article gives an overview about different time-discretization schemes and shows their applicability in two different fields of application.
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Recently, Kronqvist et al. (2016) rediscovered the supporting hyperplane algorithm of Veinott (1967) and demonstrated its computational benefits for solving convex mixed-integer nonlinear programs. In this paper we derive the algorithm from a geometric point of view. This enables us to show that the supporting hyperplane algorithm is equivalent to Kelley's cutting plane algorithm applied to a particular reformulation of the problem. As a result, we extend the applicability of the supporting hyperplane algorithm to convex problems represented by general, not necessarily convex, differentiable functions that satisfy a mild condition.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceobject , doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Since railway companies have to apply for long-term public contracts to operate railway lines in public tenders, the question how they can estimate the operating cost for long-term periods adequately arises naturally. We consider a rolling stock rotation problem for a time period of ten years, which is based on a real world instance provided by an industry partner. We use a two stage approach for the cost estimation of the required rolling stock. In the first stage, we determine a weekly rotation plan. In the second stage, we roll out this weekly rotation plan for a longer time period and incorporate scheduled maintenance treatments. We present a heuristic approach and a mixed integer programming model to implement the process of the second stage. Finally, we discuss computational results for a real world tendering scenario.
    Language: English
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-11-16
    Description: In the planning process of public transportation companies, designing the timetable is among the core planning steps. In particular in the case of periodic (or cyclic) services, the Periodic Event Scheduling Problem (PESP) is well-established to compute high-quality periodic timetables. We are considering algorithms for computing good solutions for the very basic PESP with no additional extra features as add-ons. The first of these algorithms generalizes several primal heuristics that had been proposed in the past, such as single-node cuts and the modulo network simplex algorithm. We consider partitions of the graph, and identify so-called delay cuts as a structure that allows to generalize several previous heuristics. In particular, when no more improving delay cut can be found, we already know that the other heuristics could not improve either. The second of these algorithms turns a strategy, that had been discussed in the past, upside-down: Instead of gluing together the network line-by-line in a bottom-up way, we develop a divide-and-conquer-like top-down approach to separate the initial problem into two easier subproblems such that the information loss along their cutset edges is as small as possible. We are aware that there may be PESP instances that do not fit well the separator setting. Yet, on the RxLy-instances of PESPlib in our experimental computations, we come up with good primal solutions and dual bounds. In particular, on the largest instance (R4L4), this new separator approach, which applies a state-of-the-art solver as subroutine, is able to come up with better dual bounds than purely applying this state-of-the-art solver in the very same time.
    Language: English
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: In this paper we introduce a technique to produce tighter cutting planes for mixed-integer non-linear programs. Usually, a cutting plane is generated to cut off a specific infeasible point. The underlying idea is to use the infeasible point to restrict the feasible region in order to obtain a tighter domain. To ensure validity, we require that every valid cut separating the infeasible point from the restricted feasible region is still valid for the original feasible region. We translate this requirement in terms of the separation problem and the reverse polar. In particular, if the reverse polar of the restricted feasible region is the same as the reverse polar of the feasible region, then any cut valid for the restricted feasible region that \emph{separates} the infeasible point, is valid for the feasible region. We show that the reverse polar of the \emph{visible points} of the feasible region from the infeasible point coincides with the reverse polar of the feasible region. In the special where the feasible region is described by a single non-convex constraint intersected with a convex set we provide a characterization of the visible points. Furthermore, when the non-convex constraint is quadratic the characterization is particularly simple. We also provide an extended formulation for a relaxation of the visible points when the non-convex constraint is a general polynomial. Finally, we give some conditions under which for a given set there is an inclusion-wise smallest set, in some predefined family of sets, whose reverse polars coincide.
    Language: English
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: Learned clauses minimization (LCM) let to performance improvements of modern SAT solvers especially in solving hard SAT instances. Despite the success of LCM approaches in sequential solvers, they are not widely incorporated in parallel SAT solvers. In this paper we explore the potential of LCM for parallel SAT solvers by defining multiple LCM approaches based on clause vivification, comparing their runtime in different SAT solvers and discussing reasons for performance gains and losses. Results show that LCM only boosts performance of parallel SAT solvers on a fraction of SAT instances. More commonly applying LCM decreases performance. Only certain LCM approaches are able to improve the overall performance of parallel SAT solvers.
    Language: English
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-01-21
    Language: German
    Type: masterthesis , doc-type:masterThesis
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-01-22
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: We present a novel framework to mathematically describe the fare systems of local public transit companies. The model allows the computation of a provably cheapest itinerary even if prices depend on a number of parameters and non-linear conditions. Our approach is based on a ticket graph model to represent tickets and their relation to each other. Transitions between tickets are modeled via transition functions over partially ordered monoids and a set of symbols representing special properties of fares (e.g. surcharges). Shortest path algorithms rely on the subpath optimality property. This property is usually lost when dealing with complicated fare systems. We restore it by relaxing domination rules for tickets depending on the structure of the ticket graph. An exemplary model for the fare system of Mitteldeutsche Verkehrsbetriebe (MDV) is provided. By integrating our framework in the multi-criteria RAPTOR algorithm we provide a price-sensitive algorithm for the earliest arrival problem and assess its performance on data obtained from MDV. We discuss three preprocessing techniques that improve run times enough to make the algorithm applicable for real-time queries.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-12-11
    Description: Das deutsche Projekt DeepGreen (https://deepgreen.kobv.de/de/deepgreen/) arbeitet an einer automatisierten Lösung, um Artikeldaten (Volltexte und Metadaten) von wissenschaftlichen Verlagen abzuholen und an Repositorien zu liefern, die diese Artikel wiederum Open Access veröffentlichen können. Ausgangspunkt für das Projekt sind die überregional geförderten deutschen Allianz-Lizenzen. Diese enthalten eine Open-Access-Komponente, die es Autor*innen oder deren Institution erlaubt, ihre Artikel nach einer verkürzten Embargofrist in einem Repositorium ihrer Wahl Open Access zugänglich zu machen. DeepGreen wird seit 2016 von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft gefördert (1. Förderphase: 01.2016–12.2017; 2. Förderphase: 08.2018–07.2020) und besteht aus einem Konsortium aus 6 Institutionen: Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (KOBV), Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB), Bibliotheksverbund Bayern (BVB), Universitätsbibliothek der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Helmholtz Open Science Koordinationsbüro am Deutschen GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität Berlin (TUBB).
    Language: German
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: Since the elimination algorithm of Fourier and Motzkin, many different methods have been developed for solving linear programs. When analyzing the time complexity of LP algorithms, it is typically either assumed that calculations are performed exactly and bounds are derived on the number of elementary arithmetic operations necessary, or the cost of all arithmetic operations is considered through a bit-complexity analysis. Yet in practice, implementations typically use limited-precision arithmetic. In this paper we introduce the idea of a limited-precision LP oracle and study how such an oracle could be used within a larger framework to compute exact precision solutions to LPs. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that a polynomial number of calls to such an oracle and a polynomial number of bit operations, is sufficient to compute an exact solution to an LP. This work provides a foundation for understanding and analyzing the behavior of the methods that are currently most effective in practice for solving LPs exactly.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: Since the elimination algorithm of Fourier and Motzkin, many different methods have been developed for solving linear programs. When analyzing the time complexity of LP algorithms, it is typically either assumed that calculations are performed exactly and bounds are derived on the number of elementary arithmetic operations necessary, or the cost of all arithmetic operations is considered through a bit-complexity analysis. Yet in practice, implementations typically use limited-precision arithmetic. In this paper we introduce the idea of a limited-precision LP oracle and study how such an oracle could be used within a larger framework to compute exact precision solutions to LPs. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that a polynomial number of calls to such an oracle and a polynomial number of bit operations, is sufficient to compute an exact solution to an LP. This work provides a foundation for understanding and analyzing the behavior of the methods that are currently most effective in practice for solving LPs exactly.
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Language: English
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: For providing railway services the company's railway rolling stock is one if not the most important ingredient. It decides about the number of passenger or cargo trips the company can offer, about the quality a passenger experiences the train ride and it is often related to the image of the company itself. Thus, it is highly desired to have the available rolling stock in the best shape possible. Moreover, in many countries, as Germany where our industrial partner DB Fernverkehr AG (DBF) is located, laws enforce regular vehicle inspections to ensure the safety of the passengers. This leads to rolling stock optimization problems with complex rules for vehicle maintenance. This problem is well studied in the literature for example see [Maróti and Kroon, 2005; Gábor Maróti and Leo G. Kroon, 2007], or [Cordeau et al., 2001] for applications including vehicle maintenance. The contribution of this paper is a new algorithmic approach to solve the Rolling Stock Rotation Problem for the ICE high speed train fleet of DBF with included vehicle maintenance. It is based on a relaxation of a mixed integer linear programming model with an iterative cut generation to enforce the feasibility of a solution of the relaxation in the solution space of the original problem. The resulting mixed integer linear programming model is based on a hypergraph approach presented in [Ralf Borndörfer et al., 2015]. The new approach is tested on real world instances modeling different scenarios for the ICE high speed train network in Germany and compared to the approaches of [Reuther, 2017] that are in operation at DB Fernverkehr AG. The approach shows a significant reduction of the run time to produce solutions with comparable or even better objective function values.
    Language: English
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-02-17
    Description: In addition to the conventional Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), kinetic ITC (kinITC) not only gains thermodynamic information, but also kinetic data from a biochemical binding process. Moreover, kinITC gives insights into reactions consisting of two separate kinetic steps, such as protein folding or sequential binding processes. The ITC method alone cannot deliver kinetic parameters, especially not for multivalent bindings. This paper describes how to solve the problem using kinITC and an invariant subspace projection. The algorithm is tested for multivalent systems with different valencies.
    Language: English
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Programs that process linearly indexed fields with structured element types in a data-parallel way usually suffer from the fact that compilers fail to generate efficient code if the selected data layout appears inappropriate for the chosen target architecture. If their internal heuristics cannot proof a performance gain from a data-parallel execution, compilers may fall back to scalar code generation. Data access through proxy types together with a customized container is one means to assist the compiler in generating efficient machine code in these cases without changing the user code. We present an automated proxy-type generator (using Clang’s LibTooling) and a configurable C++ container that supports different data layouts in a transparent way.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The non-selective activation of central and peripheral opioid receptors is a major shortcoming of currently available opioids. Targeting peripheral opioid receptors is a promising strategy to preclude side effects. Recently, we showed that fentanyl-derived μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists with reduced acid dissociation constants (pKa) due to introducing single fluorine atoms produced injury-restricted antinociception in rat models of inflammatory, postoperative and neuropathic pain. Here, we report that a new double-fluorinated compound (FF6) and fentanyl show similar pKa, MOR affinity and [35S]-GTPγS binding at low and physiological pH values. In vivo, FF6 produced antinociception in injured and non-injured tissue, and induced sedation and constipation. The comparison of several fentanyl derivatives revealed a correlation between pKa values and pH-dependent MOR activation, antinociception and side effects. An opioid ligand's pKa value may be used as discriminating factor to design safer analgesics.
    Language: English
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-12-22
    Description: The simulation of gas transportation networks becomes increasingly more important as its use-cases broaden to more complex applications. Classically, the purpose of the gas network was the transportation of predominantly natural gas from a supplier to the consumer for long-term scheduled volumes. With the rise of renewable energy sources, gas-fired power plants are often chosen to compensate for the fluctuating nature of the renewables, due to their on-demand power generation capability. Such an only short-term plannable supply and demand setting requires sophisticated simulations of the gas network prior to the dispatch to ensure the supply of all customers for a range of possible scenarios and to prevent damages to the gas network. In this work we describe the modeling of gas networks and present benchmark systems to test implementations and compare new or extended models.
    Language: English
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Language: English
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: The analysis of infeasible subproblems plays an important role in solving mixed integer programs (MIPs) and is implemented in most major MIP solvers. There are two fundamentally different concepts to generate valid global constraints from infeasible subproblems. The first is to analyze the sequence of implications, obtained by domain propagation, that led to infeasibility. The result of this analysis is one or more sets of contradicting variable bounds from which so-called conflict constraints can be generated. This concept is called conflict graph analysis and has its origin in solving satisfiability problems and is similarly used in constraint programming. The second concept is to analyze infeasible linear programming (LP) relaxations. Every ray of the dual LP provides a set of multipliers that can be used to generate a single new globally valid linear constraint. This method is called dual proof analysis. The main contribution of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we present three enhancements of dual proof analysis: presolving via variable cancellation, strengthening by applying mixed integer rounding functions, and a filtering mechanism. Further, we provide an intense computational study evaluating the impact of every presented component regarding dual proof analysis. Secondly, this paper presents the first integrated approach to use both conflict graph and dual proof analysis simultaneously within a single MIP solution process. All experiments are carried out on general MIP instances from the standard public test set MIPLIB 2017; the presented algorithms have been implemented within the non-commercial MIP solver SCIP and the commercial MIP solver FICO Xpress.
    Language: English
    Type: reportzib , doc-type:preprint
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-08-04
    Description: Two-dimensional electronic spectra (2DES) provide unique ways to track the energy transfer dynamics in light-harvesting complexes. The interpretation of the peaks and structures found in experimentally recorded 2DES is often not straightforward, since several processes are imaged simultaneously. The choice of specific pulse polarization sequences helps to disentangle the sometimes convoluted spectra, but brings along other disturbances. We show by detailed theoretical calculations how 2DES of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex are affected by rotational and conformational disorder of the chromophores.
    Language: English
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Language: German
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-06-02
    Description: Due to the ubiquity of OpenMP and the rise of FPGA-based accelerators in the HPC world, several research groups have attempted to bring the two together by building OpenMP-to-FPGA compilers. This paper is a survey of the current state of the art (with a focus on the OpenMP target pragma). It first introduces and explains a design space for the compilers. Design space dimensions include how FPGA infrastructure is generated, how work is distributed, and where/how target outlining is done. A table concisely condenses the available information on the surveyed projects which are also summarized and compared. The paper concludes with possible future research directions.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-06-02
    Description: Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are of great interest for future high-performance computing and data analytics systems, since they are capable of efficient, highly-parallel data processing. Even though high-level synthesis became more popular in the last years, the effort of porting existing scientific software onto FPGAs is still considerable. We propose to use OpenMP target offloading as a solution, which we implement in a first prototype, making use of the preexisting OpenCL SDK of the FPGA vendor. Early results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and also reveal that further optimizations will be necessary such that code can be written in an FPGA-agnostic way.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-01-28
    Description: Based on experimental drug concentration profiles in healthy as well as tape-stripped ex vivo human skin, we model the penetration of the antiinflammatory drug dexamethasone into the skin layers by the one-dimensional generalized diffusion equation. We estimate the position-dependent free-energy and diffusivity profiles by solving the conjugated minimization problem, in which the only inputs are concentration profiles of dexamethasone in skin at three consecutive penetration times. The resulting free-energy profiles for damaged and healthy skin show only minor differences. In contrast, the drug diffusivity in the first 10 μm of the upper skin layer of damaged skin is 200-fold increased compared to healthy skin, which reflects the corrupted barrier function of tape-stripped skin. For the case of healthy skin, we examine the robustness of our method by analyzing the behavior of the extracted skin parameters when the number of input and output parameters are reduced. We also discuss techniques for the regularization of our parameter extraction method.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Language: English
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-02-14
    Language: English
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020-05-14
    Language: English
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: A colloidal particle is driven across a temporally oscillating one-dimensional optical potential energy landscape and its particle motion is analysed. Different modes of dynamic mode locking are observed and are confirmed with the use of phase portraits. The effect of the oscillation frequency on the mode locked step width is addressed and the results are discussed in light of a high-frequency theory and compared to simulations. Furthermore, the influence of the coupling between the particle and the optical landscape on mode locking is probed by increasing the maximum depth of the optical landscape. Stronger coupling is seen to increase the width of mode locked steps. Finally, transport across the temporally oscillating landscape is studied by measuring the effective diffusion coefficient of a mobile particle, which is seen to be highly sensitive to the driving velocity and mode locking.
    Language: English
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  • 67
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Language: English
    Type: masterthesis , doc-type:masterThesis
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Language: English
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Language: English
    Type: doctoralthesis , doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Language: English
    Type: masterthesis , doc-type:masterThesis
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Language: English
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2020-03-19
    Description: The reaction counts chemical master equation (CME) is a high-dimensional variant of the classical population counts CME. In the reaction counts CME setting, we count the reactions which have fired over time rather than monitoring the population state over time. Since a reaction either fires or not, the reaction counts CME transitions are only forward stepping. Typically there are more reactions in a system than species, this results in the reaction counts CME being higher in dimension, but simpler in dynamics. In this work, we revisit the reaction counts CME framework and its key theoretical results. Then we will extend the theory by exploiting the reactions counts’ forward stepping feature, by decomposing the state space into independent continuous-time Markov chains (CTMC). We extend the reaction counts CME theory to derive analytical forms and estimates for the CTMC decomposition of the CME. This new theory gives new insights into solving hitting times-, rare events-, and a priori domain construction problems.
    Language: English
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2022-01-25
    Language: English
    Type: annualzib , doc-type:report
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2020-05-14
    Language: English
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: This paper focuses on a special case of vehicle routing problem where perishable goods are considered. Deliveries have to be performed until a due date date, which may vary for different products. Storing products is prohibited. Since late deliveries have a direct impact on the revenues for these products, a precise demand prediction is important. In our practical case the product demands and vehicle driving times for the product delivery are dependent on weather conditions, i.e., temperatures, wind, and precipitation. In this paper the definition and a solution approach to the Vehicle Routing Problem with Perishable Goods is presented. The approach includes a procedure how historical weather data is used to predict demands and driving times. Its run time and solution quality is evaluated on different data sets given by the MOPTA Competition 2018.
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: The intersection cut paradigm is a powerful framework that facilitates the generation of valid linear inequalities, or cutting planes, for a potentially complex set S. The key ingredients in this construction are a simplicial conic relaxation of S and an S-free set: a convex zone whose interior does not intersect S. Ideally, such S-free set would be maximal inclusion-wise, as it would generate a deeper cutting plane. However, maximality can be a challenging goal in general. In this work, we show how to construct maximal S-free sets when S is defined as a general quadratic inequality. Our maximal S-free sets are such that efficient separation of a vertex in LP-based approaches to quadratically constrained problems is guaranteed. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to provide maximal quadratic-free sets.
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: We study the Flight Planning Problem for a single aircraft, where we look for a minimum cost path in the airway network, a directed graph. Arc evaluation, such as weather computation, is computationally expensive due to non-linear functions, but required for exactness. We propose several pruning methods to thin out the search space for Dijkstra's algorithm before the query commences. We do so by using innate problem characteristics such as an aircraft's tank capacity, lower and upper bounds on the total costs, and in particular, we present a method to reduce the search space even in the presence of regional crossing costs. We test all pruning methods on real-world instances, and show that incorporating crossing costs into the pruning process can reduce the number of nodes by 90\% in our setting.
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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