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  • 1995-1999  (2,288)
  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (2,287)
  • Nuclear reactions
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 74-78 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Polypeptides ; subcritical fluid chromatography ; supercritical fluid chromatography ; carbon dioxide ; additives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The effect of mobile phase modifier and additive on the chromatographic properties of various small polypeptides was explored under subcritical conditions. A polymeric column was used to separate various enkephalin analogs, bradykinin, and oxytocin using a carbon dioxide-based mobile phase with either an ethanol or a 2-methoxyethanol modifier. The role of the modifier was found to be secondary to that of the mobile phase additive. As progressively stronger acidic mobile phase additives were used, the peak profiles of the various polypeptides improved and retention decreased. Heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid was found to be the most useful additive for these types of solutes under near-critical conditions, while the potassium salt of heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid failed to elute any of the polypeptides. At low temperatures, pressure gradients with a carbon dioxide/ethanol/heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid ternary mobile phase produced reasonably good peak profiles with the polymeric column.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 83-88 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Large volume injection ; programmed-temperature vaporizer ; organic acids ; phenols ; derivatization ; trimethylsulfonium hydroxide ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The combination of on-line methylation using trimethylsulfonium hydroxide with large volume injection of 100 μL was evaluated for the analysis of organic acids and phenols in water. Solvent split injection was applied with complete evaporation of the solvent before analytes were transferred onto the GC column. Despite complete solvent removal, losses were very low compared to conventional splitless injection even for volatile acidic compounds such as propionic acid and phenol. This is explained by intermediate formation of low volatility trimethylsulfonium salts of the analytes which were held in the injector for long evaporation times of up to 10 min, if the evaporation temperature was as low as 10°C. Using a simple liquid/liquid extraction procedure, volatile fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, benzoic acids and phenols could be detected in 5 mL of water at concentrations of 0.04-0.1 μmol/L with GC/MS in full scan mode. Lactic, pyruvic, and also malonic acids could only be detected at higher levels because of their limited extractability from water as well as their poorer methylation yields. The method provides an easy way to sensitively detect acidic compounds of medium to high volatility in water. It was applied for screening of organic acids and phenols in batch cultures of anaerobic bacteria of which one example is shown.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 89-92 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; γ(δ)-thionolactones ; olfactometry ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The even numbered γ(δ)-thionolactones (C6-C12) were investigated, using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin as chiral stationary phases in capillary gas chromatography. The odor characteristics of γ(δ)-thionolactone enantiomers were investigated by enantioselective gas chromatography/olfactometry.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 93-96 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; PTV and on-column injectors ; milk fat triglycerides ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The PTV (Programmable Temperature Vaporizer) is a split/splitless injector which allows the sample to be introduced at a relatively low temperature, thus affording accurate and reproducible sampling. After injection the PTV is rapidly heated to transfer the vaporized components into the capillary column. This type of injector has proved to be an efficient tool for the evaluation of fatty acids, essential oils, and pesticides in food analysis. In this work the suitability of PTV for the analysis of milk fat purity by the Official EU method was evaluated. This method is based on the gas chromatographic determination of triglycerides only according to their total number of carbon atoms followed by the application of formulae deriving from multiple linear regressions. The analysis is currently carried out with a packed column or a short capillary column and an on-column injection system. Several samples of pure milk fat and mixtures of milk fat with foreign fat were analyzed with the same capillary column and by using both PTV and on-column injection systems. The results show that the gas chromatographic profile obtained by PTV is comparable with that obtained by the on-column injector, while repeatability and reproducibility data meet the requirements indicated in the Official Method. Therefore, this study demonstrates that it is possible to use the PTV instead of the on-column injector to determine the purity of milk fat with this method.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 153-158 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Vapor analysis ; nerve agents ; sulfur mustard ; data acquisition ; automation ; valve injection ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and sarin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a “standard length” column, the system can either be calibrated or used for performing high speed gas analyses. When using a flame ionization detector, the detection limit was ca. 100 ppb (ca. 0.5-1.0 mg/m3). This technique is applied in inhalation toxicokinetic studies of nerve agents and mustard gas in the guinea pig.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 159-163 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Multi-dimensional chromatography ; LC-GC ; AED ; memory effects ; fossil fuel ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Conventional operation of the GC Atomic Emission Detector (AED) system involves backflushing of the microwave induced plasma (MIP) during the elution of small volumes of solvent from the GC column. When performing multi-dimensional, on-line LC-GC-AED, significantly larger solvent volumes are introduced into the system and must subsequently be removed. Thus solvent venting procedures are required and the backflushing of the plasma must be extended to facilitate solvent but not solute removal. This study demonstrates the significance of memory effects imparted upon the MIP of the AED if solvent venting is incomplete. Comparison of conventional GC-AED and multi-dimensional LC-GC-AED is made with respect to a fossil fuel sample.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 164-170 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Food packaging ; functional barrier ; gas chromatography ; laminated paperboard ; mass spectrometry ; single sided headspace ; paperboard ; plastic film ; polymer film ; test cell ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new cell for single sided headspace sampling has been developed for the analysis of volatile organic compounds from food packaging paperboard and laminated paperboard. The cell, which samples the volatile organic compounds over a selected surface, is useful for determining the barrier function of laminated paperboards with respect to volatile compounds. The analysis of volatile organic compounds is carried out by purge and trap capillary gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometric detection and compound identification. The new sampling cell was constructed to facilitate specific analysis of organic compounds from only one side of a laminated paperboard. The construction and the operating principles of the new sampling device are described. The repeatability of the single sided headspace procedure was found to be quite good. Relative standard deviations of about 5-7% were obtained for the major compounds quantified in replicate headspace analyses of a laminated paperboard. The volatile compounds released from the inner side of a food packaging paperboard sample with different surface composition on the two sides were determined. The barrier function against volatile organic compounds of some laminated paperboards was investigated employing the new headspace cell.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 181-182 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; microwave induced emission spectrometry ; speciation ; mercury ; SPME, headspace SPME ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 171-176 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) ; solid phase extraction (SPE) ; phenylurea(s) ; herbicide(s) ; monuron ; linuron ; diuron ; isoproturon ; monolinuron ; drinking water ; environmental water ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The present paper describes the application of capillary electrophoresis in the micellar mode to the separation and quantitative determination of five phenylurea herbicides, viz. monuron, linuron, diuron, isoproturon, and monolinuron, in water samples. Using uncoated fused silica capillary and phosphate-borate buffer (pH 7.0) containing SDS, the five pesticides are resolved in less than 15 min and quantitatively determined by an ultraviolet detector at 244 nm. Method optimization and validation parameters are presented. Good linearity and repeatability were observed for all the compounds studied (correlation coefficients 0.999). The feasibility of the method developed was tested by simultaneous determination of these herbicides in environmental and drinking water samples at the minimum residue levels (MRLs) (0.1 μg/L) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration procedure.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 11-16 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Pyrolysis gas chromatography ; microstructure determination ; syndiotactic copolymers ; styrenes ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The composition and microstructure of syndiotactic para-methylstyrene/styrene copolymer was determined by a pyrolysis gas chromatography (Py-GC) method. This method uses the styrene and para-methylstyrene monomer peak intensities to determine the styrene and para-methylstyrene composition in the copolymer. The number average sequence length of styrene was calculated by using the triad peak intensities. Because of the low concentration of para-methylstyrene in the copolymer, the number average sequence length of para-methylstyrene was determined with formulas that incorporate the copolymer composition and the number average sequence length of styrene. The distribution of para-methylstyrene defined by the terms “percent of single units” and “percent of desired distribution” was calculated by the number average sequence of para-methylstyrene. This method has been tested with copolymers containing up to 24 mole% of para-methylstyrene. The composition results from Py-GC of para-methylstyrene and styrene copolymers used in this study were in excellent agreement with 1H-NMR results.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 29-32 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; electroosmotic flow ; frit ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The formation of bubbles in capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is well documented: possible origins include Joule heating and variations in EOF velocity on passing from the stationary phase through the frit and into the open tube. Methods for the prevention of bubble formation are discussed which are confirmed by experimental results. Using frit lengths varying from 1 mm to 6 mm it is shown how frit length is directly related to the likelihood of bubble formation and how this is affected by applied voltage. It is shown that the change in applied voltage across a capillary affects the formation of bubbles and also that rebonding octadecylsilane (ODS) onto the silica frit after formation of the frit can minimize the formation of bubbles and how this effects the chromatography. A method is also described for increasing the robustness of silica capillaries using a column coupler along with modifications made to conventional capillary electrophoresis equipment to cater for CEC.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; CE ; chemical migration ; food contact plastics ; dihydroxybenzenes ; packaging ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A capillary electrophoresis method has been developed to determine 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene in the food simulants distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 15% ethanol, and olive oil. Both substances, used as monomers and additives to make food packaging plastics, could be analyzed within 15 min. The 1,4-dihydroxybenzene isomer was unretained and eluted with the electroosmotic flow, and so the CE method can give only a semi-quantitative estimate of this isomer if it is present as a migrant. The analytical recovery for the 1,2- and 1,3-isomers from spiked simulants was good at 87% to 98% except for 1,2-dihydroxybenzene which could only be recovered to the extent of 58% from olive oil. Calibration graphs were linear and the limit of detection for each substance was 0.6 mg/kg, which is well below migration limits for these substances. It is concluded that CE offers a rapid and reliable analysis for the control of migration from plastics intended for food contact which employ 1,2-dihydroxybenzene or 1,3-dihydroxybenzene during manufacture, and offers a screening method for 1,4-dihydroxybenzene migration.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Programmed temperature vaporization (PTV) ; GC-AED ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Programmed temperature vaporization injection (PTV) coupled to gas chromatography and atomic emission detector (AED) has been studied for large volume injection of gaseous samples. As examples of the effectiveness of the technique, the results of the analysis of a series of headspace samples of foods such as garlic and onion, and of landfill gases are presented. The volumes of gaseous samples reconcentrated varied from a few milliliters up to liters depending on analyte dilution, through focusing onto a sorbent trap, then rapid liberation into the GC-AED system by programmed thermal desorption. Despite the high carrier gas flow rates associated with direct PTV-GC, AED performance and sensitivity were unaffected. The detailed elemental information obtained from the PTV-GC-AED analyses was confirmed using a PTV coupled to a gas chromatograph with ion trap detector mass spectrometer as detector (PTV-GC-ITD/MS).
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 55-58 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography ; sample dissolving solvent ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin ; micellar electrokinetic chromatography ; separation of regioisomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 63-66 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Divinylbenzene copolymers ; exclusion limit ; size exclusion chromatography ; surface area ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: RP-HPLC ; GC-MS ; trioxanes ; thermolysis products ; quantitative analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 231-234 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Trace analysis ; air samples ; BTX ; equilibrium-sorptive enrichment ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 235-238 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Cryogenic modulation ; LMCS ; GC×GC ; multidimensional GC ; comprehensive gas chromatography ; petroleum analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 245-246 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chloride ; suppressed ion chromatography ; concrete ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 547-552 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Water analysis ; polar pollutants ; solid-phase extraction ; chemically-modified polymeric resins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This study assesses how the physical characteristics of styrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins affect the extent to which they are modified when they are functionalized, and how they affect recoveries in on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of some polar phenolic compounds, pesticides, and metabolites from water samples which were analyzed by liquid chromatography and UV detection. For this purpose, three commercial PS-DVB resins with different physical characteristics (Amberchrom GC-161m and two different PLRP-S resins) were chemically modified by placing a hydrophilic group, an o-carboxybenzoyl moiety, on their surface; although the physical characteristics are different, the extent of modification did not vary significantly. The results from the SPE process with each sorbent were related to their physical and chemical properties. The polymers with higher surface area provided better recoveries. Moreover, the recoveries for these analytes were better with the chemically-modified polymers due to the higher polarity of these sorbents. The best recovery values were with the sorbent obtained from the chemical modification of Amberchrom GC-161m, the commercial sorbent with higher surface area. For instance, in the analysis of 50 mL of a sample of 2 μg L-1, the recovery of phenol was 40% with Amberchrom GC-161m and 65% with the chemically-modified Amberchrom GC-161m.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 414-416 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Selenium ; water ; SPME ; GC/MS ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method for the selective determination of Se4+ and Se6+ using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS analysis is presented. Se4+ is selectively derivatized by reaction with 4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine to form the corresponding piazselenolo complex, extracted by the SPME fiber, and determined by GC/MS. The RSD at a 5 μg/L concentration was 9.88% and the theoretical detection limit 6 ng/L. The method was employed to test real matrices; tap and river water were analyzed before and after spiking giving a recovery rate of 102% in river water and 97% in tap water.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Mycotoxin ; T2 ; solid phase microextraction ; GC/FID ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 683-686 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Vacuum gas oils ; packed column chromatography ; n-paraffins ; carbon number distribution ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Gas chromatographic methods are of widespread use in the petroleum industry for assessing petroleum and derivatives quality. The feedstocks for catcracking processes are very sensitive to the n-paraffin contents, which can be accurately determined using capillary column chromatography. Nevertheless, packed column chromatography does have potential advantages, viz. sometimes shorter analysis times, lower costs, higher column capacity, for vacuum gas oil analysis. This paper presents a method for such a determination using a Dexsil-300 packed column. The results obtained (n-alkane contents, carbon number distribution) agree fairly well with those obtained on a 30 m × 0.25 mm DB-1 fused silica capillary column.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC-MS) ; methylcitric acid (MCA) ; inherited metabolic disease ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Methylcitric acid (2-hydroxybutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid-MCA) is a structural analogue of citric acid, but due to an additional methyl group it is a chiral molecule with two stereogenic centers and thus four stereoisomers are conceivable. MCA occurs naturally as prominent metabolite in body fluids of patients with inherited metabolic diseases such as propionic acidemia, methylmalonic aciduria, or holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Therefore methylcitric acid is considered to be an important diagnostic marker for these diseases. MCA is most likely produced from accumulated propionyl-CoA in these diseases by the enzyme si-citrate synthase from the citric acid cycle; however, there are other enzymes known which could catalyze the same reaction with different stereoselectivity, such as re-citrate synthase or the more specific enzyme methylcitrate synthase, found in microorganisms. Almost all methods dealing with MCA in the literature are non-enantioselective. For that reason there is no information about occurrence of MCA enantiomers in healthy people, patients with propionic acidemia, methylmalonic aciduria, or holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency and about value of enantiomeric distribution for diagnosis and long-term treatment. The enantioselective analysis of MCA as corresponding trimethyl ester was achieved by enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using heptakis-(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin as chiral stationary phase. The described method allows a reliable screening of MCA in complex matrices like urine without time consuming sample preparation and with mass selective detection. During this investigation urine samples from various patients and healthy controls were analyzed. As concluded, MCA is a good diagnostic marker and can be easily measured by the method presented. Only the two stereoisomers (2S,3R) and (2S,3S) were detectable in patients and healthy controls. The varying ratios of these stereoisomers cannot presently be correlated with the health status of patients, although there are some indications that this might be possible. However, the quantitative levels of MCA, determined as the ratio of MCA absolute peak area divided by 1,000 to the creatinine contents of urine samples in this investigation, showed a dependence on the state of health and MCA would thus also be a possible marker for long-term treatment. Such a substance is of major interest nowadays since there are different studies searching for such a long-term marker in propionic acidemia or methylmalonic aciduria.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 294-296 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; capillary ; fused silica ; rotenone ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Deproteinization ; polychlorobiphenyls ; polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins ; restricted-access reversed-phase packings ; sample preparation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 300-302 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Supercritical-fluid-extraction ; supercritical-fluid-chromatography ; vitamin E ; pharmaceuticals ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 303-304 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; food analysis ; pesticide residues ; thiabendazole ; imazalil ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 30
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 315-321 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Glycopeptide antibiotics ; chiral selectors ; Teicoplanin ; enantioseparations ; CZE ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Baseline separation of the enantiomers of a number of negatively charged amino and mandelic acid derivatives was achieved in less than 10 min by capillary electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide coated capillary, using the “partial filling method” (PFM) with submillimolar concentration of Teicoplanin (TE) as the chiral selector. The influence of the charge and concentration of TE, electrolyte solution composition and pH, on the enantioresolution was examined. Further proofs were brought to corroborate the hypothesis that the enantiorecognition takes place at the D-Ala-D-Ala binding site, whose blockade is responsible for the antibacterial activity of glycopeptide antibiotics. While the dependence of the chiral recognition capabilities of TE on electrolyte solution composition and pH could limit its applicability, improved sensitivity, reduction of TE wall adsorption, resulting in a good efficiency, and high cost reduction, due to the very small amount of chiral selector required, were shown as advantages of the PFM adopted in this study.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 31
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 305-307 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: High temperature gas chromatography ; chocolate analysis ; triacylglycerols determination ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 309-314 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; isomers ; pneumocandins ; separation ; transition metal ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The novel separation of a 3-hydroxyproline containing a semi-synthetic macrocyclic antifungal agent from its structurally related 4-hydroxyproline isomer using capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is described. The molecular weight of the two compounds is 1093 Daltons and they differ only in the placement of a proline -OH group. The separation is achieved using capillaries packed or coated with ODS particles (C18) or with glycerol bound to silica through a carbon chain linker. The presence of a transition metal (Ni(II), Ag(I), Zn(II), or Cu(II)) as buffer additive in the phosphate buffer (pH=2.5):CH3CN (75:25, v/v) is essential to achieve a baseline separation. HPLC columns packed with similar ODS particles showed no selectivity. Capillaries packed or coated with C18 material under similar conditions showed partial selectivity compared to the glycerol capillaries. Some fundamental aspects of CEC, such as capillary temperature, applied voltage, and buffer composition were varied in order to study the mechanism of the separation. This mechanistic study included the testing of first and second row transition metal ions (individually or in combination), the use of organic solvents, the use of an ion pair reagent, and the use of β- and γ-cyclodextrin to assess the impact on the separation. The resolution was dependent on the metal ion concentration and is consistent with a mechanism of metal-oxygen complexation through the hydroxyl groups of the two isomers and glycerol.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Large volume on-column injection ; partially concurrent solvent evaporation ; solvent trapping ; retaining precolumn ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---When 0.53 mm i.d. uncoated precolumns connected to a solvent vapor exit are used for sample introduction with partially concurrent solvent evaporation, substantial losses of volatile solutes are often observed. They were found to be the consequence of solute accumulation at the front end of the flooded zone, which in turn is the result of a strong pressure drop over the flooded zone owing to the formation of plugs of sample liquid. The pressure drop causes significant solvent evaporation at the front, which enriches the solute material there and causes its loss. The use of 0.32 mm i.d. restrictions between the uncoated precolumn and the vapor exit greatly reduced this problem.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 335-338 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC trace analysis of C2-C4 hydrocarbons ; signal-to-noise ratio, improvement ; post column cryogenic trapping ; thermal remobilization ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method for the improvement of signal-to-noise ratios and hence detection limits in capillary gas chromatographic trace analysis of C2-C4 hydrocarbons was developed. It is based on the post column cryogenic trapping of the separated hydrocarbons using liquid nitrogen as coolant and its fast reinjection into the detector by rapid heating of the capillary tubing used for trapping. The improved signal-to-noise ratios were applied to decrease the sample volume and/or to lower the detection limit 10 to 27 times. The concentrations of these hydrocarbons in an urban air sample determined without and with post column cryogenic trapping were in good agreement but the precision was better when applying the cryogenic trapping mode.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 35
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 647-665 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Two-dimensional GC ; statistical method of overlap ; petroleum ; fuels ; enviromental samples ; organochlorine compounds ; flavors ; aromas ; foods ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The writer of this review published in 1978 a three-part article on two-dimensional gas chromatography in the first three issues of this journal [1]. The review was written at a time when capillary column GC was still in its infancy. Commercial columns were (essentially) unavailable and sample introduction into capillary columns was done exclusively in the split mode. Two-dimensional separations were explored in only a few laboratories. The limitations of capillary column technology made this exercise rather difficult. The introduction of fused silica capillary columns in the early eighties drastically changed the landscape in which gas chromatography was practiced. It took the chromatographic community just a few years to convert from packed columns to capillary columns. Instrumentation and accessories specifically designed for capillary column use came onto the market. This writer had great hopes that the revolution in capillary column GC would be mirrored in the development of instrumentation for Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. This never materialized. On the contrary, tentative steps taken by a few manufacturers and suppliers of chromatographic equipment fizzled out. It was perhaps the introduction of relatively inexpensive and user friendly GC/MS instrumentation, in combination with nearly indestructible fused silica capillary columns that took away the incentive to develop commercially viable Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. Much of the thinking went like this: why insist on good chromatography if mass spectrometry can do the job without the need for complete separation. Some progress in the further development of conventional Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography has certainly been made over the last 20 years but there has not been a great deal of excitement. Applications have also been relatively sparse and they are limited to just a few areas. Science does not remain static and chromatography is no exception. Progress in gas chromatography is driven by new technology and ideas. Substantial improvements in two-dimensional GC were not forthcoming until Phillips and his research group introduced and implemented an entirely new form of Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, called comprehensive two-dimensional GC, or GC×GC. This breakthrough occurred only in 1991 [2]. It does take some time before scientists change attitudes and habits. There is always a time lag between the introduction of new technology and its general acceptance. The public's attitude toward comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography is probably no exception. The number of scientists who are actively pursuing this new branch of gas chromatography is still very small. It is often a single individual who carries the torch. J.B. Phillips' name is synonymous with comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. He is not only its inventor and proponent but his fertile mind has initiated research in other related areas. Sadly, he passed away shortly before this review was written. This contribution is dedicated to his memory.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 36
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 483-486 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; alumina ; evaporative light-scattering detection ; non-polar lipids ; wax esters ; sterol esters ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This study describes the performance and capacity of alumina as stationary phase in an HPLC-ELSD (evaporative light-scattering detection) method optimized for the separation of the non-polar lipid classes hydrocarbons, wax esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, and sterols, including quantitative determination of these lipid classes in natural samples. By using gradient elution and constant equilibration times between injections, highly reproducible separations of triacontane, stearyl oleate, and cholesterol oleate were accomplished with a binary mobile phase system. Phase A contained 0.5% tetrahydrofuran in hexane and phase B 20% isopropanol and 20% tetrahydrofuran in hexane. The same system was also used to determine the non-polar lipid classes in a zooplankton sample, the major lipid class being wax esters, followed by triacylglycerols, sterol esters, sterols, and hydrocarbons. Substantial amounts of an unknown compound, possibly acylated glyceryl ethers, were also found. The equilibration time of alumina was relatively slow compared to a polyvinyl alcohol stationary phase used earlier by the authors and calibration curves for different lipid classes were more uniform and linear with alumina.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 521-526 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Multichannel silicone trap ; water analysis ; flow rate ; methanol ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The application of Multichannel Silicone Rubber Traps for the direct analysis of organic compounds in water was studied. The optimum collection flow rate for a 10 mL sample was found to be ca. 150 μL·min-1. The effect of methanol on the retention power of the trap was evaluated. The addition of a methanol fraction of up to 40% to the water standards did not show any loss in collection efficiency. It was shown that the extraction of organic compounds from water with the multichannel trap is uncomplicated, i. e. methanol is not required to achieve accurate analyses, concentration of the sample onto the trap is by gravity flow, and excess water remaining in the multichannel trap after water extraction is removed by centrifugation. With the use of the multichannel silicone rubber trap a wide boiling point range of compounds were analyzed from aqueous samples at levels of 1-4 μg·L-1.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 38
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 509-513 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fast GC ; fast temperature programming ; resistive heating techniques ; short columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---One possible way to speed up a gas chromatographic analysis is the application of fast temperature programming by using resistive heating techniques. With this heating technique programming rates up to 20° per second can be reached. A relative standard deviation of retention times better than 0.2% is obtained. Using fast temperature programming the analysis-times of a mineral oil sample, an industrial oligomer sample, and toxic compounds in diesel fuel have been reduced 5 to 20 times, compared to a standard temperature programmed analysis. In most cases resistive heating cannot be applied to reduce the analysis time of a complex sample. The use of fast temperature programming is preferable to the use of short columns and columns operated at above-optimum carrier gas velocities.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 39
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 79-82 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; thickeners ; monosaccharides ; PMMA capillaries ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Gelling agents based on polysaccharides have become extremely important in the food industry. As more and more products like soups and sauces have become available in lyophilized form, thickeners have to be added to give a controlled consistency to the finished meal. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed to investigate the monosaccharide composition of hydrolyzed thickeners. 2-Aminoanthracene was used as a derivatization reagent to allow sensitive fluorescence detection. This system was applied to a set of standard thickeners as well as to food samples.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 40
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 109-115 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Solid-phase microextraction ; capillary gas chromatography ; volatile polar compounds ; water matrix ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method was developed for the analysis of volatile polar compounds in a water matrix using open cap vials Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC). Both SPME techniques - direct sampling and headspace - were tested. Optimization of experimental conditions - exposure time, desorption time, with headspace SPME in addition the influence of the temperature and ionic strength of the sample solution on compound sorption, and finally GC response - were investigated. The analytes were extracted by directly immersing the 85 μm polyacrylate fiber in the aqueous sample or in the headspace. The linear range of the preconcentration process and the precision were examined. The amount of polar analytes sorbed on the fiber was determined and was found to be concentration dependent; it amounted to 0.014-0.64% in the concentration range of 0.00425-425 ppm studied in aqueous solution for direct sampling SPME and to 0.011-2.76% for solutions of concentration 0.0425-255 ppm for headspace SPME. The limits of determination were ascertained. Headspace SPME was applied to the analysis of real-life samples.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 41
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 123-125 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography (GC) ; atomic emission detection (AED) ; human plasma ; drug monitoring ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fast gas chromatography ; peak band broadening ; packed capillary columns ; narrow-bore columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 43
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 149-152 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Large volume on-column injection ; flooded zone ; capacity of 0.53 mm i. d. precolumns ; solvent trapping ; solvent vapor exit ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---0.53 mm i. d. uncoated precolumns of about 10 m in length followed by a solvent vapor exit have become a standard set-up for large volume on-column injection. It went unnoticed, however, that the introduction of a vapor exit requires two modification of previous working guidelines. First, the capacity of the precolumn to retain sample liquid is increased by a factor of 2.3-3 as a result of the around 100 times higher carrier gas flow rate. Secondly, it must be considered that this gain in retention of liquid is lost again upon closure of the exit: as the gas flow rate is reduced to a few mL/min, the layer of the residual sample liquid expands about 2.3-3 times. Hence, closure should occur late, and a section of the precolumn must be assigned for this secondary spreading.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ; silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC) ; cheese ; analysis ; silver-ion chromatography ; tandem-column Ag+-HPLC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, reportedly consisting of six components, was recently resolved into 12 peaks attributed to CLA isomers using silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). In this study, the coupling of two analytical silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography columns (tandem-column Ag+-HPLC) in series led to the enhanced resolution of CLA isomers. Many CLA isomers were baseline resolved and the pair 18 : 2 8,10 c/t and 18 : 2 7,9 c/t found in cheese products, was resolved for the first time. In this work, a similar commercial CLA mixture was separated into 16 peaks, while CLA isomers from cheese also gave rise to 16 peaks. As expected, the CLA isomers were separated into three geometric groups in the order trans,trans, cis/trans, and cis,cis. Semi-preparative Ag+-HPLC, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of the dimethyloxazoline derivatives, was used to confirm the identity of the newly resolved positional CLA isomers. The double bond configuration of CLA isomers was established by gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two minor t,t CLA isomers found in cheese, presumably 18 : 2 t6t8 and 18 : 2 t13t15, were also separated. The CLA isomeric composition of 16 commercial cheese products was determined.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 45
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    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 33-38 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; chiral separation ; negatively charged chiral selectors ; capillary filling methods ; dual systems ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Data on the use of two chiral selectors, namely 18-crown-6 tetracarboxylic acid and a negatively charged cyclodextrin derivative (sulfated-β-cyclodextrin or carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin), in the same background electrolyte are presented. The use of such dual systems has a considerable influence on the resolution, as illustrated for the separation of tryptophan derivatives. Reduction of the consumption of chiral selector without significant loss in resolution was obtained by only partly filling the capillary and applying a run buffer without selector. This is illustrated for the chiral separation of tryptophan hydroxamate and the diastereomeric and enantiomeric separation of the dipeptide α/b-AspPhe-OMe.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Ethanol ; mobile phase ; factorial planning ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 391-394 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: REMPI-TOFMS ; laser mass spectrometry ; supersonic jet ; GC-MS ; interface ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The laser-based methods Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Resonance-Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) can be used as highly selective detection modes for gas chromatography (GC). One major prerequisite for successful application of these detection methods is the availability of appropriate and reliable interfaces between the GC effluent and the molecular beam inlet. When a pulsed supersonic molecular beam (jet) source is used, the analyte molecules are efficiently cooled, allowing maximum selectivity of the laser spectroscopic detection methods. However, several technical problems have to be solved for practical realization of a GC-supersonic jet valve hyphenation. The pulsed jet interface should not interfere with the GC properties and the supersonic molecular beam properties. Further a good working cycle for the conversion from the continuously flowing GC current to the pulsed jet gas flow should be attained. This paper presents a novel setup of a GC-pulsed jet interface. The construction allows temporal and spatial compression of the analyte molecules in jet gas pulse and thus an increase of the detection sensitivity. Moreover, the GC effluent comes into contact only with glass surfaces and not with valve parts like plungers and seals. This reduces memory effects and sample decomposition. The valve setup is tested with a REMPI-TOFMS instrument.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 48
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    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 379-385 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: CZE ; indirect UV detection ; anions and organic acids ; environmental samples ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect UV detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and organic acids in environmental samples. Various aromatic acids (benzoic, phthalic, trimellitic, and pyromellitic acids) were evaluated as background electrolytes (BGEs) to give high resolution and detection sensitivity. Co-electroosmotic conditions such as the concentration of BGE, electrolyte pH, and EOF modifier were systematically investigated. Three inorganic anions and ten organic acids were determined simultaneously in 10 min using an electrolyte containing 10 mM phthalic acid, 0.5 mM myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), and 5% methanol (MeOH) (v/v) at pH 5.60. Linear plots for the test solutes were obtained in the concentration range 0.01-1.0 mM with detection limits in the range 5-30 μM. The proposed method was successfully demonstrated for the determination of inorganic anions and organic acids in natural water, soil, and plant extracts after direct sample injection.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 49
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    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 386-390 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sulfur chemiluminescence detection ; sulfur simulated distillation ; boiling point distribution ; simultaneous FID/SCD analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A gas chromatographic system for the simultaneous acquisition of hydrocarbon and sulfur chromatograms was developed. Detection of sulfur compounds is achieved using a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) mounted in series with a flame ionization detector (FID). A constant fraction of the effluent of the FID is transferred to the SCD by means of a fixed restrictor. Unlike previous versions of this approach, the FID is not used to generate the chemiluminescent sulfur species. Rather, the FID is operated under optimum conditions for hydrocarbon analysis and a furnace is used to generate the chemiluminescent sulfur species. The system permits dual acquisition of the hydrocarbon and sulfur signals in a single analysis with a single column, since the detectors are operated in a serial fashion. The application of sulfur simulated distillation using this approach was examined, since this requires simultaneous universal and sulfur selective detection. Precision of absolute response of both the FID and SCD was typically less than 2% RSD for a standard reference material.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 50
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    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 395-402 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; pulsed splitless injection ; pesticide residues ; matrix effects ; retention gap ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The applicability of pulsed splitless injection to the gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables has been evaluated. 22 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes, including those known to be liable to matrix induced response enhancement, were selected for the study. The parameters of pressure pulse have been tested for optimum performance of injection. Application of the pressure pulse was found to decrease matrix effects during analyses of real samples. Further decline of matrix effects was obtained using higher sample injection volumes. The installation of a deactivated retention gap was necessary to obtain good peak shapes with injection volumes exceeding 1 μL of sample. Up to 4 μL was then injected without peak distortion and consequent loss of resolution. Using 4 μL pulsed splitless injection, matrix effects were almost completely eliminated even at very low concentration levels of analytes. The highest matrix effects observed for tested compounds at the lowest concentration level tested were in the range of 110-122%.
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  • 51
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    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 403-413 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Constant length optimization ; constant efficiency optimization ; efficiency-optimized flow rate ; fast GC ; film inefficiency factor ; high pressure drop ; speed-optimized flow rate ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: At the high pressure drop required for the fast analysis of complex mixtures, the equations for the column plate height, H, and plate duration, Q, as functions of the carrier gas velocity, u, differ substantially from the equations for the same quantities expressed via the carrier gas flow rate, F. While u as an independent pneumatic variable is more convenient for the theoretical studies, F is a more convenient as a control parameter in practical applications. Equations for H vs. u and for Q vs. u from Parts 1 and 2 are transformed here into expressions for H vs. F and Q vs. F. An efficiency-optimized flow rate (EOF) and a speed-optimized flow rate (SOF) are found. Expressions for these two quantities are considerably simpler than their velocity-based counterparts. In particular, SOF does not depend on column length, film thickness, and pressure drop.
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  • 52
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 421-423 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin ; 2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin ; γ-dithiolactones ; olfactometry ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 53
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 565-588 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Kovats retention index ; vapor pressure ; boiling point ; Wilson activity coefficient ; binary phase diagrams ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Non-ideal mixing in a dimethylsilicone stationary phase is modeled according to the Wilson activity coefficient. Pure liquid vapor pressures of alkylated compound series are calculated from capillary GLC retention with the functional group heat of solution in a polymer solvent. The new method uses the Kovats index, molar mass, and functional group to determine the bubble line of a compound. Boiling points at reduced and normal pressure are compared to literature values of 194 gasoline components. An unlike molecular pair interaction parameter is derived, using only bubble line data of the pure liquids. Binary phase diagrams are constructed and compared to vapor liquid equilibrium data.
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  • 54
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    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 595-598 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Xylitol ; samarium ; weak association ; equilibrium constant ; capillary electrophoresis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Computer modeling of GC ; computer simulation of GC ; computer-assisted GC analysis ; GC multicolumn analysis ; heart cutting GC analysis ; computer-assisted column design ; computer-assisted selectivity tuning ; retention index mapping ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The analysis of four components in a mixture containing many possible interferents is simplified by heart-cutting serially connected columns containing stationary phases of widely different polarities. The design of the proper lengths of the two columns and timing the heart-cuts is accomplished with the aid of a computer simulation of the problem. The computer program calculates the proper lengths of column to produce the shortest analysis time and also outputs the predicted chromatograms from both columns. The chromatogram from the first column is used to construct the timing gates for the heart-cuts and the chromatogram from the second or analytical column is used to set integration gates for the selected compounds of interest.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 276-278 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Cyclic carbonates ; thermal stability ; chemical stability ; gas phase chromatography ; liquid phase chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; conductivity detection ; inorganic anions ; organic acids ; electrodipcoats ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 283-286 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Evaporative light scattering detection ; capillary nebulizer ; packed capillary ; columns ; high temperature liquid chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 609-612 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Cyclodextrins ; 2-p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalenesulfonate ; indirect fluorimetric detection ; liquid chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Cyclodextrins (CD's) were visualized by postcolumn mixing with 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene sulfonate (TNS) in liquid chromatography. The indirect detection is based on fluorescence enhancement due to the formation of an inclusion complex between TNS and CD's. β-CD gave larger signal intensity than α- and γ-CD. Different selectivities were observed for alkyl-bonded silica stationary phases with different chain length.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Organochlorine compounds ; pesticides ; food analysis ; tomatoes ; GLC-ECD ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method is described for the simultaneous extraction and determination of twenty organochlorine pesticides residues [hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α, β, γ, δ), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and its epoxide (HE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-endosulfan, o,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT, dicofol, methoxychlor, and mirex] that were spiked in tomatoes. Samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, and the extract was subjected to a rapid clean-up using a Florisil column. The residues were determined by GLC-ECD using two columns of different polarity. The calibration graph correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9903 to 0.9990. The recoveries ranged from 95 to 99% with relative standard deviation ranging from 0.5 to 14.7% in the concentration range 0.005 to 0.2 μg/g. The limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 0.05 μg/g and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.174 μg/g.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 22 (1999), S. 628-630 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: p-Nitrophenol ; urine ; SPME ; GC/MS ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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