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  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (25,705)
  • Nuclear reactions  (4,460)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 511-514 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: CZE ; indirect UV detection ; metal ions ; ecological samples ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 561-564 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Retention factors ; Cinnamomi ramulus ; high-performance liquid chromatography ; capillary electrophoresis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 590-594 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Ion chromatography ; graphitic carbon stationary phases ; anions ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Inorganic anions could be separated on porous graphitic carbon stationary phases in ion chromatography. Ion exchange between eluent anions and sample anions on the stationary phase was confirmed by the retention behavior and the possibility of indirect photometric detection. The elution order of anions was different from that observed for commercially available anion exchangers. Chloride, nitrate, and sulfate contained in tap water could be determined in 7 min.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 603-608 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Solvation parameter model ; ystem constants for poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) HP-5 and poly(ethylene glycol) HP-INNOWax stationary phases ; temperature ; molecular interaction ; retention models ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 656-658 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) ; laser induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) ; fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) ; inulin ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 699-701 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Phenol derivatives ; RP-HPLC separation ; short RP column ; gradient elution ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 485-488 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Pyrethroids ; solid-phase microextraction ; water analysis ; temperature ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Synthetic pyrethroids are increasingly being used for insect control on field crops because of their advantageous environmental properties such as short field life, broad spectrum of insecticide activity, and relatively low mammalian toxicity. In the present work, experimental conditions were optimized for trace analysis of pyrethroids in water by using solid-phase microextraction followed by capillary gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, SPME-fiber diameter, and matrix were studied. SPME used off-line with a gas chromatograph electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) showed a linear response over a wide concentration range. Our results showed a strong temperature effect on pyrethroid extraction yield. The detection limit after 5 min of SPME-fiber exposure to the samples changed from 1 ppb (at 30°C) to 0.1 ppt (at 90°C), which is a 10000 increase in pyrethroid detection. The standard deviations of the analyte peak area ratios were typically in the range of 1-7% at 30°C and of 3 to 15% at 90°C. Best conditions for pyrethroids analysis were achieved using high temperature solution and a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane fiber. No matrix (river water) influence was observed on detection of the investigated pyrethroids.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive two-dimensional GC ; time-of-flight ; oil analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In this work a comprehensive two-dimensional system (GC×GC) was coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF/MS) for the analysis of oil samples. Group-types like the alkanes and saturated cyclic compounds (naphthenes), which are present in oil, are shown separately by selecting their unique masses. On selecting appropriate ion fragments, this method also permits the determination of sulfur- and oxygen-containing species in oil. Former results obtained by FID detection could be confirmed. After proper selection of unique ions in GC×GC-TOF both selectivity and sensitivity increase.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 497-501 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Historical remarks ; modern separation methods ; gas chromatography ; selective sorbents ; selectors ; discovery process ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The research conducted and the discoveries during the development of chromatography are briefly surveyed, with emphasis being placed on gas chromatography. Some actors are presented who played major roles en route from Tswett's original discovery to modern separation methods. The article is based mainly on personal memories and encounters. A few examples of the participation of our country in the development of chromatography are mentioned as well as international contacts. Some remarks are made on the use of selective sorbents or selectors in modern analytical separations. The paper closes with a few comments on the “philosophy” of the discovery process.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Silicone oil ; supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) ; micropacked columns ; MALDI-TOF ; GC/MS ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 297-303 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sample preparation ; gas extraction techniques ; membrane-type techniques ; water analysis ; soil analysis ; gas chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This review focuses on the role of so-called solventless methods of sample preparation in contemporary environmental analysis. The basic classification of this group of methods as well as the principal features and advantages of the techniques in current use are discussed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 317-323 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acids ; underivatized ; Ag+-HPLC ; resolution ; mixed mode retention ; hydrogen bonding ; competing acid ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Fatty acids (FAs) and fatty acid residues are generally methylated and analyzed by GC. The reasons for this are partly historic and partly because of the sensitivity advantage of flame ionization detection over UV absorption by the carboxylic acid functionality in saturated FAs. However, for strongly absorbing unsaturated acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), the sensitivity advantage is greatly reduced. Hence there seems little reason to waste time and introduce errors associated with methylation. Remarkably, this appears not to have been recognized. In this paper we describe our method development for the analysis of underivatized CLAs by silver ion HPLC separation on the ChromSpher Lipids column. Using mobile phases previously optimized for the analysis of the methylated CLAs, retention is excessive and a competing acid is required. Various combinations of small concentrations of acetic acid (3.0-2.5%) with acetonitrile (0.0-0.025%), respectively, yield similar resolution and run times. As well as its role as a competing acid, acetic acid acts as a general strong solvent and thus can be used alone as a modifier (without acetonitrile). However, for slightly shorter run times a mobile phase of 2.5% acetic acid and 0.025% acetonitrile was chosen as the optimum mobile phase for analysis. The separation of the free CLAs is clearly superior to those previously published and obtained in this study for the methylated CLAs. The additional specific strong interactions of the underivatized CLAs seem certain to be due to hydrogen bonding between the CLA carboxylic acid functionality and the large number of residual silanols on the surface of the silica support of the stationary phase.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 333-337 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; chiral separation ; chiral stationary phase ; separation of enantiomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new reciprocal π-basic chiral stationary phase (CSP) was designed based on the reciprocity conception of chiral recognition and prepared starting from (S)-leucine. The CSP thus prepared was applied in resolving various π-acidic N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino amides and esters and found to be very effective. Especially, N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino N,N-dialkyl amides were resolved very well on the new reciprocal CSP. From the chromatographic resolution results and based on the reciprocity conception of chiral recognition with the aid of Corey/Pauling/Koltan (CPK) molecular model studies, a chiral recognition mechanism which utilizes π-π interaction and simultaneously two hydrogen bonding interactions between the CSP and the analyte has been proposed. The CSP prepared in this study was also successful in resolving 3,5-dinitrophenylcarbamate derivatives of 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid esters.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary HPLC ; gradient elution ; temperature programming ; phenolic compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This paper describes a liquid chromatographic method using a reversed phase capillary column coupled to an UV detector for the quantitation of thirteen pollutant phenols. Chromatographic separation was carried out with gradient elution at 25.0 ± 0.1°C. The two major anisocratic elution modes (gradient elution and temperature programming) were evaluated. The detection limit range was 10-81 pg (100 nL injected). The chromatographic method combined with liquid-liquid extraction was applied to analysis of these compounds in river water. Recoveries of 75-103% were achieved for most of them.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 389-392 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary SFC ; zinc dialkyldithiophosphates ; lubricating oils ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 688-692 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Solid oxygen scavenger ; carrier gas purity ; manganous oxide ; glass press-fit connections ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemiluminescence ; diol compound ; oxalate ; post-column reaction ; ruthenium complex ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In this paper we propose a new post-column detection method for polyols containing 1,2-diol, 1,3-diol, and saccharides. The polyols are oxidized in a photochemical reactor to yield oxalate with subsequent chemiluminescence detection using [Ru(III)(bpy)3]3+. A mixing solution of eluate and oxidizing reagent is delivered to a reaction coil, which is then irradiated with ultraviolet light to promote the oxidation reaction. The detection limits for 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol) and 1,3-propanediol were 38 pmol and 23 pmol, respectively.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolithic column ; silica monolith ; HPLC ; capillary liquid chromatography ; capillary electrochromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Two types of monolithic silica columns derivatized to form an ODS phase, one prepared in a fused silica capillary (SR-FS) and the other prepared in a mold and clad with an engineering plastic (poly-ether-ether-ketone) (SR-PEEK), were evaluated. The column efficiency and pressure drop were compared with those of a column packed with 5-μm ODS-silica particles and of an ODS-silica monolith prepared in a mold and wrapped with PTFE tubing (SR-PTFE). SR-FS gave a lower pressure drop than a column packed with 5-μm particles by a factor of 20, and a plate height of 20 μm at a linear velocity below 1 mm/s. SR-PEEK showed higher flow-resistance than the other monolithic silica columns, but they still showed a minimum plate height of 8-10 μm and a lower pressure drop than popular commercial columns packed with 5-μm particles. The evaluation of SR-FS columns in a CEC mode showed much higher efficiency than in a pressure-driven mode.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 131-137 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: On-line coupled LC-GC ; nitrogen selective detection ; NPD ; carbazoles ; PANH ; personal exposure measurement ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A coupled LC-GC method for the analysis of carbazole-type PANH has been developed and evaluated. Group separation and isolation of carbazoles from interfering acridines in a complex sample matrix was accomplished by using a back-flush technique and an in situ end-capped dimethylaminopropyl silica column in the HPLC part of the system. On-line injection of the carbazole fraction into the GC column was performed with a loop-type interface utilizing concurrent solvent evaporation technique. An LOD of 1-3 pg of individual carbazole compounds was achieved by nitrogen selective detection using an NPD. The method is shown to be robust and is demonstrated by application to personal exposure measurement in an aluminum reduction plant.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 138-142 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; nucleosides ; short-end injection ; phenyl-bonded silica ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The influence of several experimental parameters (pH, ionic strength, organic modifier content of hydro-organic buffer) upon EOF, migration time, and retention factor has been studied in CEC with a phenyl-bonded silica column on a model mixture of five nucleosides. This paper illustrates the current interest in CEC as a method of resolving complex mixtures of neutral and ionic solutes and demonstrates the potential of the short-end injection method as a means of reducing analysis time.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 156-157 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; trichlorophenols ; ammonia ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Clean-up ; aliphatic hydrocarbons ; organochlorine compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 430-436 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Speciation ; digestion ; capillary electrophoresis ; ferrous ; ferric ; mineral analysis ; complexation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Capillary electrophoresis is used as a means of cation separation for cationic speciation analysis. Acceptable separation of ferrous and ferric iron was achieved by using a mixed complexing agent run buffer which gave stable species in solution. These iron species, and total iron, were determined simultaneously in certified reference materials with a single digestion step. A variety of digestion techniques were compared, primarily for their non-oxidative capabilities in order to preserve the oxidation state of iron in the mineral samples. The most favorable recoveries resulted from a continuous flow nitrogen purge technique. Total iron levels obtained from the CE method were compared with those determined by two spectroscopic techniques, with similar results obtained using the different instrumental methods.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 525-530 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Packed capillary liquid chromatography ; temperature programming ; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy ; polymer additives ; pneumatic nebulization ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Temperature-programmed packed capillary liquid chromatography has been coupled off-line to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, utilizing a commercially available interface with a pneumatic nebulizer rebuilt to handle low flow rates at elevated temperatures. The modified interface showed excellent performance with regard to non-aqueous reversed phase separations of polymer additives, resulting in constructed Gram-Schmidt chromatograms comparable to chromatograms obtained using UV detection. The spray of the in-house constructed nebulizer was not influenced by temperature changes of the column effluent, and hence temperature-programmed gradient separations could be used successfully. The relative standard deviation of peak height was 4.4% (n = 5) and the mass limit of detection was determined to be about 40 ng, using a polymer antioxidant as model compound. The present instrumental coupling has been used for characterization of the antioxidant Irgafos P-EPQ.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 19-26 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Microfabrication ; monolith ; electrochromatography ; peptides ; reactive ion etching ; reversed phase ; nanocolumns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Monolith columns are generally fabricated by polymerization of monomers within a column. This paper reviews an alternative strategy in which the bed is microfabricated in an inorganic material by ablation. Channels of 1.5 μm width and 10 μm depth were sculpted in quartz by deep reaction ion etching. Using this approach chromatographic beds were constructed in which cubic support structures were created and arranged in rows to mimic particles in a conventional column. Beds ranging from hundreds of thousands to millions of “particles” with volumes of 15 nL to 15 μL were produced. Columns that had been derivatized with an octadecyl silane stationary phase were used to separate both low molecular weight analytes and peptides in the CEC mode. Plate height in the CEC mode was 1.2 μm at maximum efficiency.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 44-46 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: In situ molecular imprinting ; continuous polymer rod ; miniaturized column ; chiral recognition ; diastereoselectivity ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Molecularly imprinted continuous polymer rods are prepared inside PEEK tubes of 1 mm i. d. by an in situ preparation technique; and chiral separations on such media have been demonstrated. The miniaturized column filled with (-)-cinchonidine-imprinted or (+)-cinchonine-imprinted polymer rods based on a copolymer of 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate permitted diastereoseparation of (-)-cinchonidine and (+)-cinchonine; the template molecule is retained to a greater extent than the corresponding antipode. Increasing the amount of cyclohexanol in the polymerization mixture decreased the backpressure of the resultant rod and the addition of latex beads suspended in water to the prepolymerization mixture affected the selectivity and affinity of the imprinted polymer rods. The column length is adjusted easily by cutting, thus allowing easy control of retention behavior and analysis time.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolith ; factor VIII ; affinity chromatography ; combinatorial peptide library ; peptide synthesis ; recombinant proteins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: FVIII is a very complex molecule of great therapeutic significance. It is purified by a sequence of chromatographic steps including immunoaffinity chromatography. A peptide affinity chromatography method has been developed using peptides derived from a combinatorial library. Spot technology using cellulose sheets has been applied for this purpose. The dual positional scanning strategy was used for identification of the amino acids in random positions. Approximately 5000 possible candidates found in the first screening round were reduced to a panel of 36. Six candidates have been selected empirically. Five peptides seem to be directed against the light chain of FVIII, one peptide seems to be directed against the heavy chain. The peptides have been immobilized on conventional beaded material and CIM polymethacrylate monoliths. Much better performance with respect to capacity and selectivity has been observed with the monolithic material. Exposure of the ligand and its ensuing accessibility are responsible for these properties.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 67-72 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; monolithic column ; electroosmotic flow ; retention mechanism ; aromatic compound ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new kind of monolithic capillary electrochromatography column with poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid) as the stationary phase has been developed. The stationary phase was found to be porous by scanning electron microscopy and the composition of the continuous bed was proved by IR spectroscopy to be the ternary polymer of styrene, divinylbenzene, and methacrylic acid. The effects of operating parameters, such as voltage, electrolyte, and organic modifier concentration in the mobile phase on electroosmotic flow were studied systematically. The retention mechanism of neutral solutes on such a column proved to be similar to that of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, fast analyses of phenols, chlorobenzenes, anilines, isomeric compounds of phenylenediamine and alkylbenzenes within 4.5 min were achieved.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 81-88 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolithic chromatography columns ; capillary electrochromatography (CEC) ; micro high performance liquid chromatography ; sol-gel based columns for chromatography ; fritless capillary chromatography columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Particle-loaded (3 μm, octadecylsilica) monolithic sol-gel columns have been prepared and selected characteristics measured. Several electrical properties may be calculated from simple current measurements in the column as a whole. Resistivity in the packed segment is approximately three times that in open segments, resulting in a 60% increase in field strength in the packed regions compared to the capillary with no packing. The surprisingly high specific permeability of these sol-gel columns is characteristic of 8-μm particles, which allows their operation in the microLC mode at pressures as low as 69 kPa where their efficiency is about 50,000 plates per meter and in the CEC mode where efficiency is about 106,000 plates per meter at 5 kV. There is a relatively rapid loss of efficiency with increasing linear velocity beyond 0.2 mm/s in microLC mode, which may be due to additional diffusion processes in the inter-particulate voids. A rapid loss of efficiency above 0.5 mm/s is also observed in the CEC mode, for the same reasons. Chromatographic retention behavior in either separation mode is characteristic of conventional octadecylsilica particles, indicating that analytes have significant access to the surface within the pores of the immobilized bonded phase.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 106-110 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Silica ; monolithic column ; aging ; mesopores ; pore size distribution ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Mesopore formation in silica gels having continuous macropores has been investigated. The macroporous wet silica gel prepared by the sol-gel process including phase separation was aged in a basic solvent making use of hydrolysis of urea in a closed condition. The mesopore structure was finally obtained by subsequent evaporation drying of solvent and heat-treatment at 600°C for 2 h. The dissolution-reprecipitation kinetics at the interfaces between wet gel skeletons and an external solvent affected the size and volume of pores formed within the skeletons. Below 120°C, mesopores suitable for various chromatographic applications have been formed typically within 24 h. On the other hand, at 200°C, the pore size attained the macropore dimensions (〉50 nm), and the whole macroporous morphology was significantly modified.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 143-148 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Analysis of anthraquinones ; capillary electrophoresis ; high-performance liquid chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The separation and determination of twelve anthraquinones, viz. anthraquinone 1, chrysphanol 2, aloe-emodin 3, alizarin 4, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid 5, purpurin 6, sennoside B 7, sennoside A 8, emodin 9, quinalizarin 10, rhein 11, and anthraflavic acid 12, were achieved by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection at 260 nm with a buffer solution containing 30 mM sodium borate (adjusted to pH = 10.56 with 0.05N NaOH) and acetonitrile (9 : 1) in CE or with a linear gradient elution containing 20 mM KH2PO4 with 0.05% phosphoric acid (pH = 2.91) and methanol in HPLC was found to be the most suitable approach for this separation. Contents of six components (2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11) in crude Rhei Rhizoma extract could easily be determined within 39 min by CE or 63 min by HPLC. The effects of buffers on this separation and the validation of the two methods were studied.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 167-181 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive two-dimensional GC ; GC×GC ; orthogonal chromatography ; GC/MS ; group type separations ; PCBs ; petroleum ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The writer of this review published in 1978 a three-part article on two-dimensional gas chromatography in the first three issues of this journal [1]. The review was written at a time when capillary column GC was still in its infancy. Commercial columns were (essentially) unavailable and sample introduction into capillary columns was done exclusively in the split mode. Two-dimensional separations were explored in only a few laboratories. The limitations of capillary column technology made this exercise rather difficult. The introduction of fused silica capillary columns in the early eighties drastically changed the landscape in which gas chromatography was practiced. It took the chromatographic community just a few years to convert from packed columns to capillary columns. Instrumentation and accessories specifically designed for capillary column use came onto the market. This writer had great hopes that the revolution in capillary column GC would be mirrored in the development of instrumentation for Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. This never materialized. On the contrary, tentative steps taken by a few manufacturers and suppliers of chromatographic equipment fizzled out. It was perhaps the introduction of relatively inexpensive and user friendly GC/MS instrumentation, in combination with nearly indestructible fused silica capillary columns that took away the incentive to develop commercially viable Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. Much of the thinking went like this: why insist on good chromatography if mass spectrometry can do the job without the need of complete separation. Some progress in the further development of conventional Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography has certainly been made over the last 20 years but there has not been a great deal of excitement. Applications have also been relatively sparse and they are limited to just a few areas. Science does not remain static and chromatography is no exception. Progress in gas chromatography is driven by new technology and ideas. Substantial improvements in two-dimensional GC were not forthcoming until Phillips and his research group introduced and implemented an entirely new form of Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, called comprehensive GC×GC. This breakthrough occurred only in 1991 [2]. It does take some time before scientists change attitudes and habits. There is always a time lag between the introduction of new technology and its general acceptance. The public's attitude toward comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography is probably no exception. The number of scientists who are actively pursuing this new branch of gas chromatography is still very small. It is often a single individual who carries the torch. J.B. Phillips' name is synonymous with comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography. He is not only its inventor and proponent but his fertile mind has initiated research in other related areas. Sadly, he passed aware shortly before this review was written. This contribution is dedicated to his memory.
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 677-680 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary ; fast separations ; mass spectrometry ; vacuum ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---There is a constant drive to speed up GC separations. Shorter analysis times provide more analyses per day, which reduces cost. One approach is to reduce column length and column diameter and columns of 0.15 mm i.d. have indeed grown in popularity. However, the majority of applications are still done with 0.25 mm and 0.32 mm columns.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 697-698 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gentiana rigescens Franch ; gentiopicroside ; swertiamarin ; MEKC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 479-484 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Programmable temperature vaporizing injection (PTV) ; thermal desorption ; gas chromatography ; mass spectrometry ; plasticizers ; polyethylene ; food wrapping film ; explosive powders ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Programmable Temperature Vaporizing Injection (PTV) has been used extensively as a means of injecting large volumes of samples to enhance sensitivity. This paper describes the use of PTV injection in the desorption mode for the analysis of a range of solid samples, and four examples of this application are described in detail. Detection by mass spectrometry was used extensively as a means of identification of the components in the various samples which were characterized.
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  • 36
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 373-378 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Open tubular columns ; capillary electrochromatography ; column efficiency ; injected volume ; applied voltage ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The effect of some instrumental parameters on column efficiency in open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OTCEC) has been evaluated. First, it was investigated whether band broadening due to the sample injection process is within a tolerable range when an open tubular column (OTC) of about 10 μm i. d. is used. As a result of the small injection profile factor (K2 = 1.3), injected volumes must be sufficiently small (less than 10 pL) to avoid a significant efficiency loss (〉5%) when hydrodynamic injection by siphoning is employed. Secondly, the kinetic performance of OTCs in a CEC system was estimated from the variation of the reduced plate height (h) with the reduced linear velocity (ν) which was controlled by the voltage applied. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the theoretical h versus ν curve and the experimental values for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons used as test compounds. Values of 0.25 for minimum h at an optimum ν of 16 are estimated, which permit separations with around 400,000 plates per meter to be obtained in less than 5 min. Finally, the possibility of estimating the diffusion coefficients of the solutes in the mobile phase from the plot of the height of a theoretical plate versus electroosmotic flow velocity is shown.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 393-396 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) ; micropacked capillary columns ; waxes ; restoring ; objects of art ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 38
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 409-412 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Cyclodextrin ; capillary electrophoresis ; system peak ; CHES 1 ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using a running buffer containing cyclodextrins (CDs) and 2-[N-cyclohexylamino]-ethanesulfonic acid (CHES), positive system peaks were observed in the analysis of a ganglioside mixture by CE-UV. These system peaks were related to CDs in the running buffer because these peaks were also detected when a plug of solution devoid of CDs but having the same CHES concentration and pH as the running buffer was injected. Neutral CDs were separated owing to the formation of inclusion complexes with the anionic CHES ion. One possible explanation for the positive system peaks is that the anionic CD-CHES inclusion complex is displaced by co-ions with higher UV absorptivity.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 39
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 445-448 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: O-Aryl,O-(1-methylthioethylideneamino)phosphates ; retention prediction ; quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) ; reversed-phase HPLC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Using factor analysis and stepwise linear regression methods, two parameters - CMR and ECCR - were selected from eight solute-related structure parameters as the most retention-influencing parameters. The relationships between the retention data (k ´) and the two structure parameters were established for 13 O-aryl,O-(1-methylthioethylideneamino)phosphate compounds under a wide range of experimental conditions. The retention data (k ´) of another seven compounds with similar structures were predicted using these QSRR equations. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental k ´ values and predicted ones.
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  • 40
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 595-599 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: GC-MS/MS ; PCDDs ; PCDFs ; human tissue ; fish tissue ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This paper outlines the possibilities of selectivity and sensitivity enhancement in measuring PCDD/F congeners using an ion trap GC-MS/MS. The pressure of the collision gas and the collision energy were optimized. The modified GC-MS/MS method was applied to the determination of PCDDs and PCDFs in human and fish tissues. Limits of quantification were about 1 pg/g of fat for all seventeen 2378 PCDD/Fs tested (starting amount of fat, 2 g).
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  • 41
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    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 600-602 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC separation ; lucidin ; Rubia tinctorum ; anthraquinones ; isocratic elution ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---An HPLC method has been developed for the separation of anthraquinones with particular attention to the determination of lucidin in commercially available sources of Rubia tinctorum aglycones. Variations of chromatographic conditions have been studied in order to provide suitable resolution of anthraquinones under isocratic conditions on an end-capped RP C18-column.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 42
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 637-643 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; fast separation ; flavan-3-ol ; flavonols ; vegetables ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A fast high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for analysis of prominent flavan-3-ols and flavonols in vegetables. Gradient elution with phosphoric acid-acetonitrile mixtures and phosphoric acid-methanol mixtures allowed fast and complete separation of the studied phenolic compounds within analysis times less than 10 min. The development of two elution gradients using methanol and acetonitrile as modifiers proved to be an excellent approach for the verification of the real polyphenolic composition in vegetables samples because the two optimized methods allowed the separation of the same number of compounds in the same elution order. Diode-array detection was employed for the provisional identification of phenolic compounds that were not available as standards. We preferred methanol as a modifier because it was less toxic and cheaper than acetonitrile. Detection limits ranged between 0.12 and 0.59 μg mL-1. High recoveries of phenolics from fresh vegetables were measured in all studied cases, independent of the phenolic structure, matrix, and vegetable in question. High levels of procyanidins between 150 and 450 mg kg-1 were found in all studied vegetables. Quantification of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides was only possible in marrow and onion, respectively.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 43
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 619-627 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantiomer separation ; mixed chiral selectors ; modified cyclodextrins ; gas chromatography ; PCB ; o,p´-DDD ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Columns containing different types of cyclodextrin derivatives have been evaluated for chiral gas chromatographic separation of atropisomeric PCBs, o,p´-DDT and o,p´-DDD. Separation was attempted on columns containing mixed chiral selectors, and the performance of two closely related selectors was also examined. The cyclodextrins were: permethylated-β-CD (PM-β-CD), heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-CD (2,3-M-6-TBDMS-β-CD), heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-hexyldimethylsilyl)-β-CD (2,3-M-6-THDMS-β-CD), and heptakis(2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-hexyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin (2,3-E-6-THDMS-β-CD). The cyclodextrins were dissolved in OV-1701 or in a dimethylsiloxane/silarylene copolymer containing 5% phenyl in the backbone. The application of mixed chiral selectors led to improved separations, however; at most eleven PCB congeners were separated on a single column. Chiral resolution of o,p´-DDD was achieved. The use of a dimethylsiloxane/silarylene copolymer as a matrix for the cyclodextrins is a promising approach. With such a matrix, blocking of the CD cavities by silicone substituent groups can be avoided, and a reasonable CD solubility can be provided. The selectivity of heptakis(2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-hexyldimethylsilyl)-β-CD and heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-hexyldimethylsilyl)-β-CD was quite different, the former selector could separate four congeners, while the latter separated ten congeners.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; UV detection ; organic acids ; background electrolyte optimization ; wine ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A simple technique is described for the routine capillary electrophoretic determination of organic acids in wine samples. Several aromatic and non-aromatic compounds, including phthalic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, boric acid, and phosphate, were evaluated as background electrolytes in order to obtain the highest resolution and detection sensivity. Factors that affect capillary electrophoretic separation such as the concentration and pH of the background electrolyte (BGE), the concentration of the electroosmotic flow modifier (EOF), and methanol addition to the electrolyte were investigated systematically. Tartaric, malic, succinic, acetic, and lactic acids were determined simultaneously in approximately six minutes using an electrolyte containing 3 mM phosphate and 0.5 mM myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) as electroosmotic flow modifier at pH 6.5. This method is quantitative, with recoveries in the 90-102% range and linear up to 50 mg L-1. The precision is better than 1% and the procedure shows the appropriate sensibility, with detection limits between 0.015 and 0.054 mg L-1. The proposed method was successfully employed for the determination of organic acids in wine samples by direct sample injection after appropriate dilution and filtration.
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  • 45
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 681-687 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Focused microwave assisted extraction ; close microwave-assisted extraction ; DDT ; soil samples ; experimental design ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Optimization of focused microwave (FMW)-assisted extraction of 4,4′-DDE, 4,4′-DDD, and 4,4′-DDT from soil samples was carried out using central composite designs. All the extracts were analyzed with GC/MS and some of them also with GC/AED using columns of different polarities for each of the techniques. The extraction of the analytes was carried out in two ways: with acetic acid as microwave radiation absorbent solvent and n-decane to concentrate the analytes and with reagent water and iso-octane as solvents. In the first case, the influence of the extraction temperature, the extraction time, and the addition of sodium chloride were studied and the optimum conditions for the extraction of 1 g of soil with 5 mL of acetic acid and 2 mL of n-decane were 1.30 mol L-1 sodium chloride at 98°C for 9.3 min. In the second case, the temperature was kept constant (94°C) and the influence of the concentration of sodium chloride and the extraction time were studied. The optimum conditions were 5 mL of a 2.0 mol L-1 sodium chloride together with 2 mL of iso-octane for 15 min. The recoveries obtained by water-FMW extraction were significantly lower than those obtained by the acetic acid-FMW procedure. These last recoveries were in good agreement with those obtained by closed microwave assisted-extraction with acetone-n-hexane as solvent.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 46
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 457-473 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Domestic lignite heating emissions ; isokinetic sampling ; polyaromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH) ; thiaarenes ; atomic emission detection (AED) ; pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD) ; high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) ; retention indices ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Lignite briquettes with different sulfur contents were burned in a common type of domestic heating system. The levels of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH, thiaarenes) and their alkylated and phenylated derivatives in the flue gas were determined. The analytical method described comprises isokinetic sampling, GC/full scan-MS for screening analysis, HPLC/wavelength programmable fluorescence detection (selected PAHs used as internal standards for GC), GC/atomic emission detection or GC/pulsed flame photometric detection (sulfur-selective detection of thiaarenes), GC/high resolution MS (verification and quantification of thiaarenes), and the determination of the gas chromatographic retention indices. In total 57 thiaarene species (individual compounds if possible and groups of isomeric compounds such as alkylated/phenylated species) were identified, their retention indices determined, and quantified as flue gas emission concentrations. Not only thiophene-related thiaarenes but also species with two sulfur atoms in the molecule (e. g. thienothiophene derivatives) were found. The thiaarene emission pattern is discussed, as is the correlation between the thiaarene emissions and the sulfur content of the different briquette types burned.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 47
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 489-496 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Flavor ; odorant ; headspace ; GC ; interaction ; electronic nose ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In order to understand the flavor of foods a multitude of scientific investigations have been carried out and a number of analytical tools for flavor research developed in the last few decades. Initially, scientific investigations focused mainly on the identification of all compounds that could contribute to the flavor. Olfactory GC techniques permitted the division of identified volatiles into odor-active and non-odor-active. Many techniques were developed to enhance the quality and the information content of the flavor results. Since the early 1990s, analytical investigations have dealt with interactions between food matrices and flavor compounds and the human influence on the retardation of odorants. New analytical methods concentrate on the headspace of the sample by using static or dynamic headspace analysis, or deal with measurements of volatile release in the mouth by a novel nose sampler and oral vapor GC. These useful tools clarify the effects of breathing, chewing, and saliva flow on flavor release. Though the human nose performs well at low concentrations of odorants, it is a medium-term aim to replace the use of the human nose by analytical techniques. Future investigations will probably deal with the interactions of odorants and the human receptors and it is mainly these receptors that will play a key role in aroma research. By analysis of the effects of odorants on the receptors the mechanisms of odor perception will be elucidated. This will enable the development of supporting analytical tools like electronic noses that really do function as noses, or “neural networks”.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography ; thermal desorption modulator ; temperature programming ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, two individual separations are coupled by means of a rotating thermal desorption modulator interface. The injection pulse introduced via the interface onto the second column should be as short as possible. Parameters affecting the modulator operation are studied. In the set-up used in this study, the temperature of the second column can be programmed independently from that of the first column. Optimization of the second-dimension separation to minimize peak broadening and maximize resolution is discussed and an elegant approach to determine second-dimension retention times using a non-constant modulation frequency is demonstrated. The high separation power of the comprehensive system is demonstrated by the analysis of technical and biota samples containing chlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Proteomics ; protein analysis ; multidimensional HPLC ; ion-exchange chromatography ; reversed phase chromatography ; comprehensive HPLC ; two-dimensional HPLC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The interactive modes of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of proteins provide a platform for the construction of a multidimensional HPLC system coupled to mass spectrometry. We present a system composed of both anion and cation exchanger columns, in the first dimension, and n-octadecyl bonded 1.5 μm nonporous silica columns in the second dimension. Both columns are operated under gradient conditions. A system suitability test with standard proteins showed that the total analysis can be performed within about 20 minutes. The fractions taken from the ion exchanger column are directly analyzed within one minute on the reversed phase column at a high flow rate. Two reversed phase columns are applied and operated alternatively: while the first column performs the separation within one minute, the analytes leaving the first dimension are enriched in an on-column focusing mode on top of the second column. The sample clean-up and enrichment is performed on a novel type of restricted access cation exchanger column with internal sulfonic acid groups and external diol groups. The columns exhibit a molecular weight exclusion limit for globular proteins of about 15 kDa. Our next studies will be directed towards the analysis of proteins and peptides from extracts of fibroblasts.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; industrial wastewater ; process development ; 4-amino-azobenzene-4′,5-disulfonic acid (AABDS) ; 4-amino-azobenzene (AAB) ; 4-amino-azobenzene-4′-sulfonic acid (AABS) ; 4-amino-azobenzene-4′,3,5-trisulfonic acid (AABTS) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the separation and determination of 4-amino-azobenzene-4′,5-disulfonic acid (AABDS) and its process-related impurities was developed. The separation was achieved on a μ-Bondapak C18 column using 0.15 M ammonium sulfate-acetonitrile (55:45) (v/v) as eluent. A UV-visible spectrophotometric detector fixed at 386 nm was used both for detection and quantitation. The method was used not only for quality assurance but also for process development and wastewater management of AABDS.
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  • 51
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 343-347 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: SPME ; desorption ; fiber conditioning ; field sampling ; sample preparation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; cyclodextrins ; heptakis(2,6-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; heptakis(2,6-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-3-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; heptakis(3,6-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; octakis(2,6-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-3-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin ; thermodynamic parameters ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Separation factors and thermodynamic data for the separation of various chiral analytes on different di-O-tert-butyldimethyl-silylated cyclodextrin derivatives are collected and described. Modifying the substitution pattern of the tert-butyldimethylsilyl group in position 2 and 3 or changing from β- to γ-cyclodextrin significantly affects the separation properties of the cyclodextrin derivatives.
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  • 53
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 547-553 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; static and dynamic headspace sampling ; sorptive and adsorptive extraction ; plant volatiles ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Static and dynamic headspace sampling have been applied for the enrichment of volatiles emitted by living plants. For solid phase microextraction (SPME) the sorptive fibers polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA) have been compared and, in accordance with the like-like principle, polar compounds exhibit more affinity for the PA fiber while apolar solutes favor the PDMS fiber. For dynamic sampling, tubes packed with PDMS particles show greater inertness than Tenax; some Tenax decomposition products, e.g. benzaldehyde and acetophenone, interfere with the analyses. With PDMS particles operated in the breakthrough mode, the obtained profiles are similar to those obtained by SPME on the PA fiber. Recoveries relative to a packed PDMS bed are 85% for Tenax, 2.4% for SPME-PDMS, and 6.2% for SPME-PA.
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  • 54
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 565-566 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; zinc dithiocarbamate ; vulcanization accelerator ; rubber gloves ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 55
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 583-589 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monofunctionalized cyclodextrins ; enantioselective capillary-HPLC ; immobilized chiral stationary phases ; separation of chiral drugs ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl-3-O-pentyl)-β-cyclodextrin was monofunctionalized by the regioselective introduction of exactly one ω-epoxyoctyl group at the primary site of the cyclodextrin. The site-specifically substituted cyclodextrin was immobilized to commercially available aminopropyl silica by nucleophilic opening of the epoxy function of the spacer substituent resulting in a lipophilic chiral stationary phase with broad applicability for enantiomer separations in capillary-HPLC under reversed-phase conditions.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: High performance size exclusion chromatography ; molecular weight ; lignin derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 474-478 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Solid-phase extraction, on-line derivatization, and measurement by ion trap mass spectrometry (ITD-MS) were used to investigate the biological degradation of pharmaceutical residues (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, diclofenac). The results of the single steps of sample pretreatment and analytical determination are reported. MS/MS measurements were performed on an ITD-MS by selecting collision induced dissociation of the molecular ions (M+) as parent ions to defined daughter ions. A pilot sewage plant and biofilm reactors operating under oxic and anoxic conditions were run as model systems with synthetic sewage water containing 10 to 50 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pharmaceuticals in concentrations of 10 μg/L. Clofibric acid displayed its persistent character in all cases. The pilot sewage plant and the oxic biofilm reactor showed comparable results for diclofenac and ibuprofen, which both were partly degraded. These results can explain the occurrence of these substances in sewage effluents and in the aquatic environment. A high degree of degradation was found especially for ibuprofen in the oxic biofilm reactor, which was attributed to adaptation of the biofilm to the residue. Two metabolites of ibuprofen could be identified on the basis of their mass spectra and comparison with literature data, viz. hydroxyibuprofen and carboxyibuprofen.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 519-521 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Scoparone ; phytoalexin ; citrus ; MEKC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new MEKC method has been developed to determine the amount of the phytoalexin, scoparone, in Citrus roots. The separation and analysis was achieved with a running buffer of 100 mM SDS, 25 mM phosphate and 12% (v/v) methanol pH 6.2. Separation was performed at 12 kV with 25°C and UV detection at 200 nm. A near complete recovery of scoparone was obtained with the extraction procedure. The MEKC method was compared with a fluorescence TLC method. The detection limit for scoparone with the MEKC method (2 μg/mL) was better than the TLC method (10 μg/mL).
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 93-99 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; monolithic column ; silica rod column ; fast separations ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The application of a new silica-based, monolithic-type HPLC-column for fast separations is presented. The column is prepared according to a new sol-gel process, which is based on the hydrolysis and polycondensation of alkoxysilanes in the presence of water soluble polymers. The method leads to “rods” made of a single piece of porous silica with a defined pore structure, i. e. macro- and mesopores. The main feature of silica rod columns is a higher total porosity, about 15% higher than of conventional particulate HPLC columns. The resulting column pressure drop is therefore much lower, allowing operation at higher flow rates including flow gradients. Consequently, HPLC analysis can be performed much faster, as it is demonstrated by various applications.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 100-105 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Preparative chromatography ; silica monoliths ; PrepROD™ ; productivity ; SMB-chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The use of monolithic silica sorbents for the isolation of substances by preparative liquid chromatography is demonstrated. Preparative liquid chromatography is recognized as a valuable technique for the isolation and purification of substances in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industry. The system technology has meanwhile reached a high standard, and the greatest future improvements are expected to arise from new and improved adsorbents. Monolithic silica sorbents offer some unique features for preparative liquid chromatography. They exhibit high efficiencies even at high flow rates due to their fast convective mass transfer and can therefore be used at very high mobile phase velocities, leading to high productivity and hence to maximum process economy. The benefits of this new type of adsorbent are illustrated for an example in batch-chromatographic mode and an example using the continuous simulated moving bed (SMB) technology.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 23 (2000), S. 235-244 
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive two-dimensional GC ; peak overlap ; statistical-overlap theory ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The need for two-dimensional gas chromatography is justified by the extent of peak overlap in one-dimensional gas chromatograms (GCs) of complex mixtures. Such overlap was predicted long ago by statistical-overlap theory (SOT). In this paper, SOT is conceptually reviewed and its predictions are shown to be quantitatively accurate. GCs of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls, pyridine- and nitrogen-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, fatty acid methyl esters, flavors and fragrances, and naphtha were simulated by commercial GC software on DB-1, DB-5, and Stabilwax stationary phases. The numbers of peak maxima in the GCs agreed with predictions of SOT, when the interval of time between successive peaks of pure compounds was described by Poisson statistics. This agreement was realized even though the time intervals actually are deterministic, not statistical. In addition, the numbers of mixture components were predicted with accuracy by regression of peak numbers against SOT. Similar regressions have been reported before, but the theory used here is more sophisticated and its predictions consequently are more accurate. Future directions for finalizing SOT are suggested.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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