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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (16,218)
  • Nuclear reactions  (4,460)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Space science reviews 84 (1998), S. 199-206 
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions ; Nucleosynthesis ; Abundances ; Stars:Evolution ; Interior ; Rotation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We first recall the observational and theoretical facts that constitute the so-called 3He problem. We then review the chemical anomalies that could be related to the destruction of 3He in red giants stars. We show how a simple consistent mechanism can lead to the destruction of 3He in low mass stars and simultaneously account for the low 12C/13C ratios and low lithium abundances observed in giant stars of different populations. This process should both naturally account for the recent measurements of 3He/H in galactic HII regions and allow for high values of 3He observed in some planetary nebulae. We propose a simple statistical estimation of the fraction of stars that may be affected by this process.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 127-135 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: membrane mass spectrometer ; kinetic measurements ; anaerobic biofilm ; acetate ; inhibition ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A small, stirred, 14.4-mL tank reactor was designed to serve as a measurement cell for short-term investigation of microbial kinetics. A mass spectrometer membrane probe allowed the measurement of the dissolved gases of hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. pH was measured by an electrode and controlled by addition of acid or alkali. The highly sensitive measurement of gases with low solubility allowed rapid measurements at very low conversion. In kinetic experiments, a stepwise increase of substrate concentration (method A) and continuous feed of substrate (method B) were used, allowing quick estimation of substrate kinetics. Acetate conversion in mixed culture biofilms from a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Substrate inhibition was found to be negligible in the concentration range studied. Experiments at various pH values showed that the undissociated acid form was the kinetic determinant. Kinetic parameters for Haldane kinetics of protons were KSH = 1.3 × 10-5 mol m-3 and KIH = 8.1 × 10-3 mol m-3. With free acid (HAc) as the rate determining species, the kinetic parameters for method A were KSHAc = 0.005 mol m-3 and KIHAc = 100 mol m-3 and for method B were KSHAc = 0.2 mol m-3 and KIHAc = 50 mol m-3. The maximum biomass activity occurred at around pH 6.5. Acetate was exclusively converted to methane and CO2 at pH 〉 6. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 127-135, 1998.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 187-197 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: algal cultures ; photosynthetic efficiency ; light saturation effect ; spatial dilution of light ; Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis ; tubular and flat photobioreactors ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The light saturation effect imposes a serious limitation on the efficiency with which solar energy can be utilized in outdoor algal cultures. One solution proposed to reduce the intensity of incident solar radiation and overcome the light saturation effect is “spatial dilution of light” (i.e., distribution of the impinging photon flux on a greater photosynthetic surface area), but consistent experimental data supporting a significant positive influence of spatial light dilution on the productivity and the photosynthetic efficiency of outdoor algal cultures have never been reported. We used a coiled tubular reactor and compared a near-horizontal straight tubular reactor and a near-horizontal flat panel in outdoor cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under defined operating conditions for optimum productivity. The photosynthetic efficiency achieved in the tubular systems was significantly higher because their curved surface “diluted” the impinging solar radiation and thus reduced the light saturation effect. This interpretation was supported by the results of experiments carried out in the laboratory under continuous artificial illumination using both a flat and a curved chamber reactor. The study also showed that, when the effect of light saturation is eliminated or reduced, productivity and solar irradiance are linearly correlated even at very high diurnal irradiance values, and supported findings that outdoor algal cultures are light-limited even during bright summer days. It was also observed that, besides improving the photosynthetic efficiency of the culture, spatial dilution of light also leads to higher growth rates and lowers the cellular content of accessory pigments; that is, it reduces mutual shading in the culture. The inadequacy of using volumetric productivity as the sole criterion for comparing reactors of different surface-to-volume ratio and of the areal productivity for evaluating the performance of elevated photobioreactors operated outdoors is stressed; it is furthermore suggested that the photosynthetic efficiency achieved by the culture also be calculated to provide a suitable parameter for comparison of different algal cultivation systems operated under similar climatic conditions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 187-197, 1998.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 211-215 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: protein ; conformational memory ; organic solvent ; molecular imprinting ; enzyme ; catalysis ; transition state analogue ; bovine serum albumin ; β-lactoglobulin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The induction of catalytic activity in proteins by lyophilization in the presence of a transition state analogue (biomolecular imprinting) has been attempted. It was shown that proteins which were freeze-dried with n-isopropyl-4-nitrobenzyl-amine (a transition state analogue for the reaction of dehydrofluorination of 4-fluoro-4-[p-nitrophenyl] butan-2-one) displayed higher β-elimination activity as compared to their-non-imprinted counterparts. It was also found that native bovine serum albumin has a high dehydrofluorination activity towards the above substrate with kinetic parameters rather similar to those of a catalytic antibody prepared by Shokat et al. (1989). A comparison of the kinetic parameters determined in this study with those obtained for analogous catalytic antibodies and imprinted polymers was made. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 57: 211-215, 1998.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 62-70 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: plasmid stability ; recombinant microorganism ; continuous culture ; Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 pFRC20P ; degradation of aromatic compounds ; chlorobenzoate ; methylbenzoate ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Plasmid stability of recombinant Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 pFRC20P, a strain capable of mineralizing 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-methylbenzoate, was investigated in continuous culture. The hybrid cosmid pFRC20P enables the strain to mineralize 4-methylbenzoate. Rapid plasmid loss was observed under nonselective conditions using 3-chlorobenzoate as the substrate. Plasmid stability decreased with increasing dilution rate. Despite the growth advantage of the generated plasmid free cells a total depletion of plasmid bearing cells was not observed. After approximately 50 generations the fraction of plasmid bearing cells reached a constant level of 10%, which was stably maintained during the next 25 generations. Cells from this stage were used to inoculate a new culture that resulted in a stable level of 50% plasmid bearing cells. By a temporary substrate change to selective conditions (4-methylbenzoate), this level could be further increased to 70%. Literature models on plasmid stability could not be applied to describe the experimental data. Therefore, a new but unstructured model was developed to describe the experimental results. The model is based on the existence of three subpopulations: a plasmid free one, an original plasmid bearing one with a growth disadvantage compared to plasmid free cells, and a second plasmid bearing subpopulation with increased stability that is generated from the original one and has a growth rate comparable to the plasmid free cells. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 62-70, 1998.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 79-86 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Alcaligenes eutrophus ; hydrogenase ; NADH regeneration ; HLADH ; organic solvent ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A soluble NAD-dependent hydrogenase contained in Alcaligenes eutrophus was evaluated as a coenzyme regenerating catalyst in an organic-aqueous two-phase (predominantly organic) system. The horse-liver alcohol-dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyzed reduction of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol was used as a model reaction. The impact of different solvents (selected to span a large variety of principal properties) on the stability and activity of the HLADH, using substrate-driven regeneration, was studied. Solvents suitable for the HLADH were then selected for an evaluation of the hydrogenase-driven coenzyme regeneration. Hydrophobic solvents such as heptane, toluene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were found to be suitable for the coupled reactions catalyzed by HLADH and hydrogenase. Nonimmobilized cells, permeabilized with cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide, were the most efficient preparation for the regeneration of NADH. The use of this preparation in heptane (10% water) was optimized with respect to the yield obtained in the HLADH-catalyzed reduction of cyclohexanone. Using the optimized conditions, yields of 99% cyclohexanol were obtained. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 79-86, 1988.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 95-108 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Xanthan fermentation ; impeller type ; power consumption ; mixing ; oxygen transfer ; Xanthan productivity ; product quality ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rheological complexity of Xanthan fermentations presents an interesting problem from a mixing viewpoint, because the phenomena of poor bulk blending and low oxygen mass transfer rates inherent in highly viscous fermentations (and their consequences) can be systematically investigated, even at the pilot plant scale. This study in a 150 L fermentor compares the physical and biological performance of four pairs of impellers: a standard Rushton turbine, a large diameter Rushton turbine, a Prochem Maxflo T, and a Scaba 6SRGT. Accurate in-fermentor power measurements, essential for the comparison of impellers in relation to operating costs are also reported. It is demonstrated that the agitator performance in Xanthan fermentations is very specific and the choice of which impeller to use in bioreactors to obtain enhanced performance is dependant on the applied criterion. None of the criterion favored the use of the standard Rushton turbine, therefore suggesting that there are strong grounds for retrofitting these impellers with either large diameter impellers of similar design or with novel agitators. In addition, fluid dynamic modeling of cavern formation has clearly highlighted the importance of a well mixed and oxygenated region for providing the capacity for high microbial oxygen uptake rates which govern Xanthan productivity and quality. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 95-108, 1998.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 121-125 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: sucrose monoester synthesis ; lipase-catalyzed acylation ; water activity (a w) ; regioselectivity ; salt hydrate pair ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sucrose monoesters of a fatty acid were synthesized by using lipase in a solvent-free system. When lipase from Mucor miehei was used as a catalyst with capric acid as the donor and sugar as the acceptor, sucrose 6-monocaprate was predominantly produced in a yield of 25.3%. The yield of product was significantly increased by the direct addition of a suitable pair of solid salt hydrates to the reaction mixture to control the water activity (aw). Among the salt hydrate pairs investigated, the barium hydroxide, 8/1H2O pair resulted in the highest yield of the product. This salt addition method was also successfully employed for acylation of primary hydroxyl groups in various unprotected mono- and disaccharides such as glucose, galactose, fructose, trehalose, mannose, maltose, and lactose. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 121-125, 1998.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 118-120 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: biocompatibility ; microfabrication ; biohybrid organs ; immunoisolation ; Islets of Langerhans ; silicon ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A microfabricated silicon-based biocapsule for the immunoisolation of cell transplants is presented. The biocapsule-forming process employs bulk micromachining to define cell-containing chambers within single crystalline silicon wafers. These chambers interface with the surrounding biological environment through polycrystalline silicon filter membranes. The membranes are surface micromachined to present a high density of uniform pores, thus affording sufficient permeability to oxygen, glucose, and insulin. The pore dimensions, as small as 20 nm, are designed to impede the passage of immune molecules and graft-borne viruses. The underlying filter-membrane nanotechnology has been successfully applied in controlled cell culture systems (Ferrari et al., 1995), and is under study for viral elimination in plasma fractionation protocols. Here we report the encouraging results of in vitro experiments investigating the biocompatibility of the microfabricated biocapsule, and demonstrate that encapsulated rat neonatal pancreatic islets significantly outlive and outperform controls in terms of insulin-secretion capability over periods of several weeks. These results appear to warrant further investigations on the potential of cell xenografts encapsulated within microfabricated, immunoisolating environments for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 118-120, 1998.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 145-154 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: bioavailability ; PAH ; biodegradation ; dissolution ; hydrodynamic ; mixing ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the dissolution rate of crystalline naphthalene as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was studied in stirred batch reactors with varying impeller speeds. Mass transfer from naphthalene melts of different surface areas to the aqueous phase was measured and results were modeled according to the film theory. Results were generalized using dimensionless numbers (Reynolds, Schmidt, and Sherwood). In combined mass transfer and biodegradation experiments, the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the degradation rate of naphthalene by Pseudomonas 8909N was studied. Experimental results were mathematically described using mass-transfer and microbiological models. The experiments allowed determination of mass-transfer and microbiological parameters separately in a single run. The biomass formation rate under mass transfer limited conditions, which is related to the naphthalene biodegradation rate, was correlated to the dimensionless Reynolds number, indicating increased bioavailability at increased mixing in the reactor liquid. The methodology presented in which mass transfer processes are quantified under sterile conditions followed by a biodegradation experiment can also be adapted to more complex and realistic systems, such as particulate, suspended PAH solids or soils with intrapartically sorbed contaminants when the appropriate mass-transfer equations are incorporated. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 145-154, 1998.
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  • 11
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 136-144 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: down-flow fluidization ; bed expansion ; biofilm ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article describes the bed expansion characteristics of a down-flow anaerobic fluidized bed reactor treating a synthetic wastewater. Experiments were carried out in a 0.08 m diameter and 1 m length PVC column. The carrier used was ground perlite (an expanded volcanic rock). Particles characteristics were 0.968 mm in diameter, specific density of 213 kg · m-3 and Umf (minimal fluidization velocity): 2.3 m · h-1. Experimental data of terminal velocities and bed expansion parameters at several biofilm thicknesses were compared to different models predicting the bed expansion of up-flow and down-flow fluidized beds.Measured bed porosities at different liquid superficial velocities for the different biofilm thicknesses were in agreement with the Richardson-Zaki model, when Ut (particle terminal velocity) and n (expansion coefficient) were calculated by linear regression of the experimental data. Terminal velocities of particles at different biofilm thicknesses calculated from experimental bed expansion data, were found to be much smaller than those obtained when Cd (drag coefficient) is determined from the standard drag curve (Lapple and Sheperd, 1940) or with others' correlations (Karamanev and Nikolov, 1992a,b). This difference could be explained by the fact that free-rising particles do not obey Newton's law for free-settling, as proposed by Karamanev and Nikolov (1992a,b) and Karamanev et al. (1996). In the present study, the same free-rising behavior was observed for all particles (densities between 213 and 490 kg · m-3). © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 136-144, 1998.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: hybridoma ; futile cycling ; hollow fiber bioreactor ; glutamine ; NMR ; C-13 ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of changes in extracellular glutamine level on metabolism of a murine hybridoma was examined with in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cells were cultured in a hollow-fiber bioreactor at high cell density to allow intracellular metabolite levels to be determined on a metabolically relevant time scale. Steady infusions of [1-13C] glucose were used to label glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, which permitted continuous monitoring with NMR spectroscopy during changes in environmental glutamine level. Samples of the extracellular medium were also analyzed to determine the effect of glutamine on other metabolites associated with primary and secondary metabolism. The changes in glutamine concentration had several effects on primary and secondary metabolism, depending on the rate the changes were made. For a brief reduction in feed glutamine concentration from 4 to 0 mM (which produced a rapid change from 0.67 to ∼0 mM in residual glutamine), large changes were observed in the rate of consumption of metabolites normally associated with energy production. Antibody synthesis was strongly stimulated and nitrogen metabolism was significantly altered. For a more prolonged reduction from 2.4 to 1.2 mM (which produced a slower reduction from 0.30 to 0.08 mM in residual glutamine), much smaller changes were observed even though the concentration of glutamine at the reduced feed level was very low. Energy metabolism did not appear to be limited by glutamine at 0.08 mM, which suggests that significant futile cycling may occur in energy producing pathways when excess glucose and glutamine are available. However, this concentration of extracellular glutamine appeared to affect some anabolic pathways, which require amino groups from glutamine. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 172-186, 1998.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 198-210 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Xanthan fermentation ; agitator speed ; caverns ; dissolved oxygen ; specific oxygen uptake rate ; specific Xanthan production rate ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Agitation speed affects both the extent of motion in Xanthan fermentation broths because of their rheological complexity and the rate of oxygen transfer. The combination of these two effects causes the dissolved oxygen concentration and its spatial uniformity also to change with agitator speed. Separating these complex interactions has been achieved in this study in the following way. First, the influence of agitation speeds of 500 and 1000 rpm has been investigated at a constant nonlimiting dissolved oxygen concentration of 20% of air saturation using gas blending. Under these controlled dissolved oxygen conditions, the results demonstrate that the biological performance of the culture was independent of agitation speed as long as broth homogeneity could be ensured. With the development of increasing rheological complexity lending to stagnant regions at Xanthan concentrations 〉20 g/L, it is shown that the superior bulk mixing achieved at 1000 rpm, compared with 500 rpm, leading to an increased proportion of the cells in the fermentor to be metabolically active and hence higher microbial oxygen uptake rates, was responsible for the enhanced performance. Second, the effects of varying dissolved oxygen are compared with a control in each case with an agitator speed of 1000 rpm to ensure full motion, but with a fixed, nonlimiting dissolved oxygen of 20% air saturation. The specific oxygen uptake rate of the culture in the exponential phase, determined using steady-state gas analysis data, was found to be independent of dissolved oxygen above 6% air saturation, whereas the specific growth rate of the culture was not influenced by dissolved oxygen, even at levels as low as 3%, although a decrease in Xanthan production rate could be measured. In the production phase, the critical oxygen level was determined to be 6% to 10%, so that, below this value, both specific Xanthan production rate as well as specific oxygen uptake rate decreased significantly. In addition, it is shown that the dynamic method of oxygen uptake determination is unsuitable even for moderately viscous Xanthan broths. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 57: 198-210, 1998.
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  • 14
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 216-219 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: liposomes ; vesicles ; microreactor ; permeability ; chymotrypsin ; enzyme ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Liposomes were prepared from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), which contained the water soluble proteinase α-chymotrypsin. This liposome entrapped enzyme showed selectivity for externally added substrates in that only small substrates (benzoyl-l-Tyr-p-nitroanilide or acetyl-l-Phe-p-nitro-anilide) - for which the liposome bilayer was permeable - were transformed into products. Large substrates (succinyl-l-Ala-l-Ala-l-Pro-l-Phe-p-nitroanilide or casein) could not penetrate from the external aqueous phase into the liposomes, and were not hydrolyzed. This substrate selectivity is entirely based on the compartimentation and permeability properties of the liposome microreactor. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Biotechnol. Bioeng. 57: 216-219, 1998.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: depolymerization ; kinetics ; endo -enzymes ; theoretical equation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Monitoring the time evolution of the concentration of a selected range of molecular weights of substrate, referred to as “detectable” substrate, has been used to determine endo-enzymic activities in polysaccharide depolymerizing processes. In the methodologies based on the use of dye-labeled substrates, the “detectable” substrate extends from a given molecular weight threshold downward. On the contrary, in the fluorescent probe-flow injection analysis methodology, initially developed to determine (1 → 3)-(1 → 4)-β-d-glucanase activities, the “detectable” substrate extends from a given molecular weight threshold upward. Assuming that the time evolution of the molecular weight distribution of the substrate follows the most probable distribution (the enzymic attack is random and its mechanism is single attack), a theoretical equation describing the time evolution of the concentration of “detectable” substrate (from a given molecular weight threshold upward or downward) has been deduced. This equation, Wd = Wo · (1 + αt) · e-αt, where Wd is the concentration of “detectable” substrate, Wo is the initial concentration of the substrate, t is the depolymerization time, and α is a parameter correlated through a hyperbola with the initial concentrations of enzyme and substrate and the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, has been tested against different (1 → 3)-(1 → 4)-β-d-glucan/(1 → 3)-(1 → 4)-β-d-glucanase systems using the fluorescent probe-flow injection analysis methodology and Calcofluor as the fluorescent probe. The most important predictions of the theoretical equation, which allow accurate determination of both endo-enzymic activities and kinetic constants, have been experimentally confirmed. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 387-393, 1998.
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  • 16
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 394-408 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: pH gradient ; pH control ; urease ; immobilized enzyme system ; sequential reactions ; acid-generating reaction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An optimal pH control technique has been developed for multistep enzymatic synthesis reactions where the optimal pH differs by several units for each step. This technique separates an acidic environment from a basic environment by the hydrolysis of urea within a thin layer of immobilized urease. With this technique, a two-step enzymatic reaction can take place simultaneously, in proximity to each other, and at their respective optimal pH. Because a reaction system involving an acid generation represents a more challenging test of this pH control technique, a number of factors that affect the generation of such a pH gradient are considered in this study. The mathematical model proposed is based on several simplifying assumptions and represents a first attempt to provide an analysis of this complex problem. The results show that, by choosing appropriate parameters, the pH control technique still can generate the desired pH gradient even if there is an acid-generating reaction in the system. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 394-408, 1998.
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  • 17
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 345-355 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: cyclodextrin ; polychlorobiphenyl ; chlorobenzoic acid ; soil ; bioremediation ; biodegradation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The possibility of enhancing the intrinsic ex-situ bioremediation of a chronically polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using cyclodextrins was studied in this work. The soil, contaminated with a large array of polychlorinated biphenyls and deriving from a dump site where it has been stored for about 10 years, was found to contain indigenous cultivable aerobic bacteria capable of utilising biphenyl and chlorobenzoic acids. The soil was amended with inorganic nutrients and biphenyl, saturated with water, and treated in aerobic batch slurry- and fixed-phase reactors. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin, added to both reactor systems at the concentration of 10 g/L at the 39th and 100th days of treatment, were found to generally enhance the depletion rate and extent of the soil polychlorobiphenyls. Despite some abiotic losses could have affected the depletion data, experimental evidence, such as the production of metabolites tentatively characterized as chlorobenzoic acids and chloride ion accumulation in the reactors, indicated that cyclodextrins significantly enhanced the biological degradation of the soil polychlorobiphenyls. This result has been ascribed to the capability of cyclodextrins of enhancing the availability of polychlorobiphenyls in the hydrophilic soil environment populated by immobilised and suspended indigenous soil microorganisms. Both cyclodextrins were metabolised by the indigenous soil microorganisms at the concentration at which they were used. Therefore, cyclodextrins, both for their capability of enhancing the biodegradation of soil polychlorobiphenyls and for their biodegradability, can have the potential of being successfully used in the bioremediation of chronically polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:345-355, 1998.
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  • 18
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 356-365 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Escherichia coli HB101[pGEc47] ; defined medium ; batch and continuous cultivation ; transient experiments ; bioconversion ; octanoic acid ; linear inhibition kinetics ; model simulation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: E. coli HB101[pGEc47], which is able to convert octane to octanoate, but cannot oxidize octanoate further, was grown on defined medium with glucose as carbon source in batch and continuous culture. The biomass yield on glucose decreased from 0.32 ± 0.02 g g-1 in aqueous cultivations to 0.25 ± 0.02 g g-1 in the presence of octane. Maximal octanoate productivities of 0.6 g L-1 h-1 were the same as found in cultivations on complex medium. The glucose-based carbon recovery in these experiments was 99 ± 4% (in extreme, between 90% and 105%). An increase of the octane feed from 1% to 2% (v/v) or more led to washout of cells. This effect was reversible when the octane feed was decreased to its initial value of 1%. Analysis of experimental data by model simulation strongly suggested that washout was due to inhibition by octanoate only. Pulses of octanoate to a continuous culture grown on aqueous media were applied to analyze the inhibition further. Inhibition by acetate was not significant, but its presence in the medium reflected a physiological state that made the cells more sensitive to octanoate inhibition. Model simulation with linear inhibition kinetics could perfectly predict glucose consumption and the resulting glucose concentration. The linear type of inhibition was confirmed by a variety of batch experiments in the presence of different concentrations of octanoate. The glucose-based specific growth rate, μ, decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of octanoate and became zero at a threshold concentration pmax of 5.25 ± 0.25 g L-1. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:356-365, 1998.
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  • 19
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 366-373 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: trypsin ; stabilization ; peptide synthesis ; organic solvents ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bovine pancreatic trypsin was treated with ethylene glycol bis(succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester). Approximately 8 of 14 lysines per trypsin molecule were modified. This derivative (EG trypsin) was more stable than native between 30° and 70°C: T50 values were 59°C and 46°C, respective. EG trypsin's half-life of 25 min at 55°C was fivefold greater than native's. EG trypsin had a decreased rate of autolysis and retained more activity in aqueous mixtures of 1,4-dioxan, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, and acetonitrile. EG trypsin had lower Km values for both amide and ester substrates; its kcat values for two amides (benzoyl-l-arginine p-nitroanilide and benzyloxycarbonyl glycyl-glycyl-arginyl-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin) increased, whereas its kcat value for an ester (thiobenzoyl benzoyloxycarbonyl-l-lysinate) decreased slightly. The specific activity (kcat/Km) of EG trypsin was increased for both amide and ester substrates. EG trypsin gave higher yields and reaction rates than native in kinetically controlled synthesis of benzoyl argininyl-leucinamide in acetonitrile and in t-butanol. Highest peptide yields occurred with EG trypsin in 95% acetonitrile, where 90% of the substrate was converted to product. No peptide synthesis occurred in 95% DMF with either form of trypsin. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:366-373, 1998.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 20
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 374-379 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: reversed micelles ; ribonuclease A ; activity ; recovery ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have investigated the effect of two simple sugars, glucose and sucrose, on the extraction of ribonuclease A by AOT-isooctane reversed micelles. Including the sugars at concentrations up to 0.75 M in the feed solution resulted in moderate improvements in the forward transfer efficiency. The greatest effects were seen observed in the backward transfer step where both the protein recovery yield and the activity of the protein were greatly increased. Protein transfer and activity yields were also dependent on the AOT concentration. We suggest that the presence of sucrose, which was solubilized into the reversed micelles, results in preferential hydration of ribonuclease A, reducing the protein-surfactant interactions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:374-379, 1998.
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  • 21
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 387-399 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: population balance ; cell cycle ; hybridoma ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A cell cycle population model based on the transition probability model of Smith and Martin (1973) has been extended to include product synthesis and export. The model handles two probable mechanisms. In the direct production model, the product is the protein. In the transcription model, the product is the specific mRNA. The protein is synthesized by translation of the specific mRNA and subsequently exported. In either case, the cell density is jointly distributed in the primary product and maturity age in the cell cycle. This extended model also is capable of describing a large range of conditions, including substrate dependent batch and continuous cultures. With the use of unity maturity-velocity (but the transition rate a function of limiting substrate), the model is shown to exhibit a negative growth association between the specific productivity of monoclonal antibodies from hybridomas and the dilution rates of a chemostat. Possibilities of maturity age dependent transcription and translation are considered, and the results show that these features can amplify the specific productivity negative association with specific growth rate. While this model may provide a partial elucidation of monoclonal antibody productivity in a chemostat, the present work provides a proper framework with which probable cell cycle dependent product formation can be analyzed rigorously with a comprehensive computational model. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:387-399, 1998.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: c-jun ; cell cycle ; apoptosis ; antisense ; growth deprivation ; F-MEL ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: F-MEL cells were transfected with the c-jun antisense gene located downstream of a glucocorticoid-inducible MMTV promoter, and the obtained cells were named c-jun AS cells. When the c-jun AS cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) in DMEM supplemented with 10% serum, the growth of the cells was completely suppressed for a duration of 16 days with a high cell viability exceeding 86%. The c-jun expression in the c-jun AS cells was suppressed moderately in the absence of DEX and strongly in the presence of DEX. The c-jun AS cells grew well and reached a density of 106 cells/mL without supplementation of any serum components. Viability was greater than 80% after the cells had been cultured for 8 days in the absence of DEX. The c-jun AS cells stayed at a constant cell density and high viability above 80% for 8 days when they were cultured in the presence of DEX under serum deprivation. In contrast, the wild type F-MEL cells were unable to grow and died by apoptosis in 3 days under serum deprivation. Internucleosomal cleavage of DNA, a landmark of apoptosis, was clearly detectable. Thus the c-jun AS cell line that is resistant to apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and can reversibly and viably be growth-arrested was established. A dual-signal model was proposed to explain the experimental result, the interlinked regulation of apoptosis, and growth by c-jun.© 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:65-72, 1998.
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  • 23
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 92-100 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: E. coli HB101[pGEc47] ; defined medium ; medium development ; yield coefficients ; critical dilution rate ; batch and continuous cultivation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper shows that differences in growth behavior of Escherichia coli strain HB101 and strain HB101[pGEc47] can be related to yeast extract-enriched medium rather than plasmid properties. An optimal medium for growth of E. coli HB101[pGEc47] was designed based on the individual yield coefficients for specific medium components (NH4+ 6 g g-1, PO43- 14 g g-1, SO42- 50 g g-1). The yield coefficient for l-leucine depends on the glucose content of the medium (20 g g-1 for 3% glucose, 40 g g-1 for 1% glucose) and the yield coefficient for l-proline depends on the cultivation mode (20 g g-1 for batch cultivation, 44 g g-1 for continuous cultivation). Growth on defined medium after medium optimization is as rapid as on complex medium (0.42-0.45 h-1). The critical dilution rate (DR) in the defined medium above which undesired production of acetic acid occurs is in the range of 0.23-0.26 h-1. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:92-100, 1998.
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  • 24
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 649-653 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: bioaffinity separation ; pancreatin ; trypsin ; reverse micelles ; nonionic surfactant ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Selective separation of trypsin from a mixture involving many kinds of contaminating proteins, i.e., pancreatin, was achieved using trypsin inhibitor immobilized in the reverse micelles, which were composed of a nonionic surfactant, tetra-oxyethylene monodecylether. To determine the efficient operations throughout the whole separation process we examined the operating conditions, which affect the immobilization efficiency of trypsin inhibitor and also the forward and backward extractions of trypsin. Fifty percent of the recovery of trypsin from pancreatin was realized with no loss of activity of the recovered trypsin. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 649-653, 1998.
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  • 25
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 658-662 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: T4 lysozyme ; silica nanoparticles ; synthetic enzyme variants ; surface-induced conformational change ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Maintaining a specific molecular conformation is essential for the proper functioning of an enzyme. A substantial loss of catalytic activity can occur from the displacement caused by even a single amino acid substitution. Activity may also be lost as an enzyme undergoes a conformational change during adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effect of thermostability on the activities of three T4 lysozyme variants after adsorption to 9 nm colloidal silica particles. Less-stable T4 lysozyme variants lost more activity after adsorption than did more stable variants, apparently because they experienced more extensive structural alteration. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 658-662, 1998.
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  • 26
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 654-657 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: enzyme activation ; nonaqueous media ; lyophilization with salt ; substrate diffusion ; subtilisin Carlsberg ; thermolysin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The dramatic activation of serine proteases in nonaqueous media resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl is shown to be unrelated to relaxation of potential substrate diffusional limitations. Specifically, lyophilizing subtilisin Carlsberg in the presence of KCl and phosphate buffer in different proportions, ranging from 99% (w/w) enzyme to 1% (w/w) enzyme in the final lyophilized solids, resulted in biocatalyst preparations that were not influenced by substrate diffusion. This result was made evident through use of a classical analysis whereby initial catalytic rates, normalized per weight of total enzyme in the catalyst material, were measured as a function of active enzyme for biocatalyst preparations containing different ratios of active to inactive enzyme. The active enzyme content of a given biocatalyst preparation was controlled by mixing native subtilisin with subtilisin preinactivated with PMSF, a serine protease inhibitor, and lyophilizing the enzyme mixture in the presence of different fractions of KCl and phosphate buffer. Plots of initial reaction rates as a function of percent active subtilisin in the biocatalyst were linear for all biocatalyst preparations. Thus, enzyme activation (reported elsewhere to be as high as 3750-fold in hexane for the transesterification of N-Ac-L-Phe-OEt with n-PrOH) is a manifestation of intrinsic enzyme activation and not relaxation of diffusional limitations resulting from diluted enzyme preparations. Similar activation is reported herein for thermolysin, a nonserine protease, thereby demonstrating that enzyme activation due to lyophilization in the presence of KCl may be a general phenomenon for proteolytic enzymes. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 654-657, 1998.
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  • 27
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 663-667 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Acidianus brierleyi ; pyrite ; bioleaching ; acidophilic thermophile ; yeast extract ; organic supplement ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The bioleaching rate of pyrite (FeS2) by the acidophilic thermophile Acidianus brierleyi was studied at 65°C and pH 1.5 with leach solutions supplemented with yeast extract. In the absence of yeast extract supplementation, A. brierleyi could grow autotrophically on pyrite, and the leaching percentage of pyrite particles (25-44 μm) reached 25% for 7 d. The bacterial growth and consequent pyrite oxidation were enhanced by the addition of yeast extract between 0.005 and 0.25% w/v: the pyrite particles were completely solubilized within 6 d. The bioleaching rate was enhanced by a factor of 1.5 when the yeast extract concentration was changed from 0.005 to 0.05% w/v. However, there was only a slight effect on the leaching rate at the yeast extract concentrations of 0.05 to 0.25% w/v, suggesting that the organic supplement level was in large excess in the pyrite bioleaching. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 663-667, 1998.
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  • 28
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 119-120 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 29
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 121-124 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: metabolic control analysis ; metabolic engineering ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The problems of engineering increased flux in metabolic pathways are analyzed in terms of the understanding provided by metabolic control analysis. Over-expression of a single enzyme is unlikely to be effective unless it is known to have a high flux control coefficient, which can be used as an approximate predictive tool. This is likely to rule out enzymes subject to feedback inhibition, because it transfers control downstream from the inhibited enzyme to the enzymes utilizing the feedback metabolite. Although abolishing feedback inhibition can restore flux control to an enzyme, it is also likely to cause large increases in the concentrations of metabolic intermediates. Simultaneous and coordinated over-expression of most of the enzymes in a pathway can, in principle, produce substantial flux increases without changes in metabolite levels, though technically it may be difficult to achieve. It is, however, closer to the method used by cells to change flux levels, where coordinated changes in the level of activity of pathway enzymes are the norm. Another option is to increase the demand for the pathway product, perhaps by increasing its rate of excretion or removal. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:121-124, 1998.
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  • 30
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 133-138 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: metabolic modeling ; model selection ; parameter estimation ; identification ; yeast ; stoichiometry ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A metabolic network model is one of the cornerstones of the emerging Metabolic Engineering methodology. In this article, special attention is therefore, given to the phase of model building. A five-stage structured approach to metabolic network modeling is introduced. The basic steps are: (1) to collect a priori knowledge on the reaction network and to build candidate network models, (2) to perform an a priori check of the model, (3) to estimate the unknown parameters in the model, (4) to check the identified model for acceptability from a biological and thermodynamic point of view, and (5) to validate the model with new data. The approach is illustrated with a growth system involving baker's yeast growing on mixtures of substrates. Special attention is given to the central uncertainties in metabolic network modeling, i.e., estimation of energetic parameters in the network and the choice of the source of anabolic reducing equivalents NADPH. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:133-138, 1998.
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  • 31
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 125-132 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: metabolic engineering ; metabolic flux analysis ; metabolic control analysis ; thermokinetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Penicillium chrysogenum ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves input from chemical engineers, molecular biologists, biochemists, physiologists, and analytical chemists. Obviously, molecular biology is central in the production of novel products, as well as in the improvement of existing processes. However, in the latter case, input from other disciplines is pivotal in order to target the genetic modifications; with the rapid developments in molecular biology, progress in the field is likely to be limited by procedures to identify the optimal genetic changes. Identification of the optimal genetic changes often requires a meticulous mapping of the cellular metabolism at different operating conditions, and the application of metabolic engineering to process optimization is, therefore, expected mainly to have an impact on the improvement of processes where yield, productivity, and titer are important design factors, i.e., in the production of metabolites and industrial enzymes. Despite the prospect of obtaining major improvement through metabolic engineering, this approach is, however, not expected to completely replace the classical approach to strain improvement - random mutagenesis followed by screening. Identification of the optimal genetic changes for improvement of a given process requires analysis of the underlying mechanisms, at best, at the molecular level. To reveal these mechanisms a number of different techniques may be applied: (1) detailed physiological studies, (2) metabolic flux analysis (MFA), (3) metabolic control analysis (MCA), (4) thermodynamic analysis of pathways, and (5) kinetic modeling. In this article, these different techniques are discussed and their applications to the analysis of different processes are illustrated. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:125-132, 1998.
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  • 32
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 139-148 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: metabolic engineering ; pathway analysis ; metabolic and energetic model ; physiological state ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this work, an integrated modeling approach based on a metabolic signal flow diagram and cellular energetics was used to model the metabolic pathway analysis for the cultivation of yeast on glucose. This approach enables us to make a clear analysis of the flow direction of the carbon fluxes in the metabolic pathways as well as of the degree of activation of a particular pathway for the synthesis of biomaterials for cell growth. The analyses demonstrate that the main metabolic pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae change significantly during batch culture. Carbon flow direction is toward glycolysis to satisfy the increase of requirement for precursors and energy. The enzymatic activation of TCA cycle seems to always be at normal level, which may result in the overflow of ethanol due to its limited capacity. The advantage of this approach is that it adopts both virtues of the metabolic signal flow diagram and the simple network analysis method, focusing on the investigation of the flow directions of carbon fluxes and the degree of activation of a particular pathway or reaction loop. All of the variables used in the model equations were determined on-line; the information obtained from the calculated metabolic coefficients may result in a better understanding of cell physiology and help to evaluate the state of the cell culture process. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:139-148, 1998.
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  • 33
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 149-153 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Metabolic Control Analysis ; flux control coefficients ; top down MCA ; metabolic engineering ; Corynebacterium glutamicum ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group (flux, as well as concentration) control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, we demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:149-153, 1998.
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  • 34
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 154-161 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: central carbon pathways ; metabolic optimization ; ethanol production ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Many attempts to engineer cellular metabolism have failed due to the complexity of cellular functions. Mathematical and computational methods are needed that can organize the available experimental information, and provide insight and guidance for successful metabolic engineering. Two such methods are reviewed here. Both methods employ a (log)linear kinetic model of metabolism that is constructed based on enzyme kinetics characteristics. The first method allows the description of the dynamic responses of metabolic systems subject to spatiotemporal variations in their parameters. The second method considers the product-oriented, constrained optimization of metabolic reaction networks using mixed-integer linear programming methods. The optimization framework is used in order to identify the combinations of the metabolic characteristics of the glycolytic enzymes from yeast and bacteria that will maximize ethanol production. The methods are also applied to the design of microbial ethanol production metabolism. The results of the calculations are in qualitative agreement with experimental data presented here. Experiments and calculations suggest that, in resting Escherichia coli cells, ethanol production and glucose uptake rates can be increased by 30% and 20%, respectively, by overexpression of a deregulated pyruvate kinase, while increase in phosphofructokinase expression levels has no effect on ethanol production and glucose uptake rates. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:154-161, 1998.
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  • 35
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 170-174 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: catabolite repression ; phosphotransferase system ; inducer exclusion ; inducer expulsion ; protein kinase ; transcriptional regulation ; transport regulation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Catabolite repression is a universal phenomenon, found in virtually all living organisms. These organisms range from the simplest bacteria to higher fungi, plants, and animals. A mechanism involving cyclic AMP and its receptor protein (CRP) in Escherichia coli was established years ago, and this mechanism has been assumed by many to serve as the prototype for catabolite repression in all organisms. However, recent studies have shown that this mechanism is restricted to enteric bacteria and their close relatives. Cyclic AMP-independent mechanisms of catabolite repression occur in other bacteria, yeast, plants, and even E. coli. In fact, single-celled organisms such as E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit multiple mechanisms of catabolite repression, and most of these are cyclic AMP-independent. The mechanistic features of the best of such characterized processes are briefly reviewed, and references are provided that will allow the reader to delve more deeply into these subjects. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:170-174, 1998.
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  • 36
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 162-169 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: bioinformatics ; metabolic engineering ; genetic engineering ; mathematical analysis ; stoichiometry ; enzyme kinetics ; modal analysis ; genetic circuits ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ten microbial genomes have been fully sequenced to date, and the sequencing of many more genomes is expected to be completed before the end of the century. The assignment of function to open reading frames (ORFs) is progressing, and for some genomes over 70% of functional assignments have been made. The majority of the assigned ORFs relate to metabolic functions. Thus, the complete genetic and biochemical functions of a number of microbial cells may be soon available. From a metabolic engineering standpoint, these developments open a new realm of possibilities. Metabolic analysis and engineering strategies can now be built on a sound genomic basis. An important question that now arises; how should these tasks be approached? Flux-balance analysis (FBA) has the potential to play an important role. It is based on the fundamental principle of mass conservation. It requires only the stoichiometric matrix, the metabolic demands, and some strain specific parameters. Importantly, no enzymatic kinetic data is required. In this article, we show how the genomically defined microbial metabolic genotypes can be analyzed by FBA. Fundamental concepts of metabolic genotype, metabolic phenotype, metabolic redundancy and robustness are defined and examples of their use given. We discuss the advantage of this approach, and how FBA is expected to find uses in the near future. FBA is likely to become an important analysis tool for genomically based approaches to metabolic engineering, strain design, and development. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:162-169, 1998.
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  • 37
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 191-195 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: control analysis ; Lactococcus lactis ; gene expression ; flux ; oligonucleotide ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms were constructed using synthetic degenerated oligonucleotides. From this work, a promoter library was obtained for Lactococcus lactis, containing numerous individual promoters and covering a wide range of promoter activities. Importantly, the range of promoter activities was covered in small steps of activity change. Promoter libraries generated by this approach allow for optimization of gene expression and for experimental control analysis in a wide range of biological systems by choosing from the promoter library promoters giving, e.g., 25%, 50%, 200%, and 400% of the normal expression level of the gene in question. If the relevant variable (e.g., the flux or yield) is then measured with each of these constructs, then one can calculate the control coefficient and determine the optimal expression level. One advantage of the method is that the construct which is found to have the optimal expression level is then, in principle, ready for use in the industrial fermentation process; another advantage is that the system can be used to optimize the expression of different enzymes within the same cell. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:191-195, 1998.
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  • 38
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 571-582 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: TGFα ; autocrine ; modeling ; cell density ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have developed an experimental system for testing mathematical model predictions concerning escape of autocrine ligands into the extracellular bulk medium. This system employs anti-receptor blocking antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) receptor/ligand pair. TGFα was expressed under the control of a tetracycline-repressed promoter, together with a constitutively expressed human EGFR in B82 mouse fibroblast cells. This expression system allowed us to vary TGFα synthesis rates over a roughly 300-fold range by adjusting tetracycline concentration. TGFα accumulation in the extracellular bulk medium was then measured as a function of cell density, TGFα synthesis rate, and anti-EGFR blocking antibody concentration. Consistent with model predictions, amounts of ligand in the medium on a per cell basis were found to diminish as cell density was increased but with reduced dependence on cell density at higher ligand synthesis rates. Similarly consistent with model predictions, higher ligand synthesis rates also decreased the effect of anti-receptor blocking antibodies. Our investigation has established that we can successfully analyze and understand autocrine ligand secretion behavior from the basis of our theoretical model. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 571-582, 1998.
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  • 39
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 583-589 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: animal cell ; cell adhesion ; fluorocarbon ; liquid/liquid interface ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In general, anchorage-dependent animal cells cultivated on a solid culture substrate, such as polystyrene, are collected by trypsin treatment. This treatment may have detrimental effects such as the proteolysis of the cell membrane proteins. To avoid these effects, cell cultivation using a liquid/liquid interface system has been investigated. In this cultivation method, the cells grow at the interface between a culture medium and a hydrophobic liquid. In this study, various fluorocarbons (FC-40, FC-70, KPF-91, KPF-102, and KPF-142) were used as substrates for the interface, and the cultivation of fibroblast cells (L-929; the mouse-derived cell line) at the interfaces was investigated. Early in the cultivation period, the growth of L-929 cells depended on the substrate type. Although cell cultivation at the interfaces was possible, it was slower than that at the polystyrene surface. Cell spreading at the interfaces was relatively small, which indicates that cell adhesion at the interfaces may be weak. In particular, the cells at the MEM/FC-70 interface anchored with one another and formed multicellular hemispherical aggregations shaped like spheroids. The difference in the adhesions to the interfaces appears to be dependent on the contaminants contained in the fluorocarbons because the physical properties of the fluorocarbon did not affect the cell growth and adhesion. Moreover, subcultivation from the interfaces to the same interface was possible without trypsin treatment. In this case, the delay of the growth at the interfaces did not occur because the cells were not affected by trypsin treatment. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 583-589, 1998.
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  • 40
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 590-599 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: protein refolding ; hollow-fibre membrane ; dialysis ; carbonic anhydrase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have used a cellulose acetate, hollow-fibre (HF) ultrafiltration membrane to refold bovine carbonic anhydrase, loaded into the lumen space, by removing the denaturant through controlled dialysis via the shell side space. When challenged with GdnHCl-denatured carbonic anhydrase, 70% of the loaded protein reptated through the membrane into the circulating dialysis buffer. Reptation occurred because the protein, in its fully unfolded configuration, was able to pass through the pores. The loss of carbonic anhydrase through the membrane was controlled by the dialysis conditions. Dialysis against 0.05 M Tris-HCl for 30 min reduced the denaturant around the protein to a concentration that allowed the return of secondary structure, increasing the hydrodynamic radius, thus preventing protein transmission. Under these conditions a maximum of 42% of carbonic anhydrase was recovered (from a starting concentration of 5 mg/mL) with 94% activity. This is an improvement over refolding carbonic anhydrase by simple batch dilution, which gave a maximum reactivation of 85% with 35% soluble protein yield. The batch refolding of carbonic anhydrase is very sensitive to temperature; however, during HF refolding between 0 and 25°C the temperature sensitivity was considerably reduced. In order to reduce the convection forces that give rise to aggregation and promote refolding the dialyzate was slowly heated from 4 to 25°C. This slow, temperature-controlled refolding gave an improved soluble protein recovery of 55% with a reactivation yield of 90%. The effect of a number of additives on the refolding system performance were tested: the presence of PEG improved both the protein recovery and the recovered activity from the membrane, while the detergents Tween 20 and IGEPAL CA-630 increased only the refolding yield. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 590-599, 1998.
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  • 41
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 620-623 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: protein refolding ; reversed micelles ; solid-liquid extraction ; RNase A ; DNA ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article reports that a reversed micellar solution is useful for refolding proteins directly from a solid source. The solubilization of denatured RNase A, which had been prepared by reprecipitation from the denaturant protein solution, into reversed micelles formulated with sodium di-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated by a solid-liquid extraction system. This method is an alternative to the ordinary protein extraction in reversed micelles based on the liquid-liquid extraction. The solid-liquid extraction method was found to facilitate the solubilization of denatured proteins more efficiently in the reversed micellar media than the ordinary phase transfer method of liquid extraction. The refolding of denatured RNase A entrapped in reversed micelles was attained by adding a redox reagent (reduced and oxidized glutathion). Enzymatic activity of RNase A was gradually recovered with time in the reversed micelles. The denatured RNase A was completely refolded within 30 h. In addition, the efficiency of protein refolding was enhanced when reversed micelles were applied to denatured RNase A containing a higher protein concentration that, in the case of aqueous media, would lead to protein aggregation. The solid-liquid extraction technique using reversed micelles affords better scale-up advantages in the direct refolding process of insoluble protein aggregates. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 620-623, 1998.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: rhG-CSF ; fusion protein ; secretion efficiency ; glycosylation ; multimer ; conformation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The synthesis and secretion of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) are investigated in fed-batch cultures at high cell concentration of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and some important characteristics of the secreted rhG-CSF are demonstrated. Transcription of the recombinant gene is regulated by a GAL1-10 upstream activating sequence (UASG), and the rhG-CSF is expressed in a hybrid fusion protein consisting of signal sequence of Kluyveromyces lactis killer toxin and N-terminal 24 amino acids of human interleukin 1β. The intracellular KEX2 cleavage leads to excretion of mature rhG-CSF into extracellular culture broth, and the cleavage process seems to be highly efficient. In spite of relatively low copy number the plasmid propagation is stably maintained even at nonselective culture conditions. The rhG-CSF synthesis does not depend on galactose level, whereas the production of extracellular rhG-CSF was significantly enhanced by increasing the inducer concentration above a certain level and also by supplementing the nonionic surfactant to the culture medium, which is notably due to the enhanced secretion efficiency. Various immunoblotting analyses demonstrate that none of the rhG-CSF is accumulated in the cell wall fraction and that a significant amount of intracellular rhG-CSF antibody-specific immunoreactive proteins is located in the ER. A core N-glycosylation at fused IL-1β fragment is likely to play a critical role in directing the high-level secretion of rhG-CSF, and the O-glycosylation of secreted rhG-CSF seems nearly negligible. Also the extracellular rhG-CSF is observed to exist as various multimers, and the nature of molecular interaction is evidently not the covalent disulfide bridges. The CD spectra of purified rhG-CSF and Escherichia coli-derived standard show that the conformations of both are similar and are almost identical to that reported for natural hG-CSF. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 600-609, 1998.
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  • 43
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 610-619 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: dynamic model ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; oxidative capacity ; feedback control ; calorimetry ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic adaptation of the oxidative capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to an increase in the glucose supply rate and its implications for the control of a continuous culture designed to produce biomass without allowing glucose to be diverted into the reductive metabolism. Continuous cultures subjected to a sudden shift-up in the dilution rate showed that the glucose uptake rate increased immediately to the new feeding rate but that the oxygen consumption could not follow fast enough to ensure a completely oxidative metabolism. Thus, part of the glucose assimilated was degraded by the reductive metabolism, resulting in a temporary decrease of biomass concentration, even if the final dilution rate was below Dcrit. The dynamic increase of the specific oxygen consumption rate, qO2, was characterized by an initial immediate jump followed by a first-order increase to the maximum value. It could be modeled using three parameters denoted qjumpO2, qmaxO2, and a time constant τ. The values for the first two of the parameters varied considerably from one shift to another, even when they were performed under identical conditions. On the basis of this model, a time-dependent feed flow rate function was derived that should permit an increase in the dilution rate from one value to another without provoking the appearance of reductive metabolism. The idea was to increase the glucose supply in parallel with the dynamic increase of the oxidative capacity of the culture, so that all of the assimilated glucose could always be oxidized. Nevertheless, corresponding feed-profile experiments showed that deviations in the reductive metabolism could not be completely suppressed due to variability in the model parameters. Therefore, a proportional feedback controller using heat evolution rate measurements was implemented. Calorimetry provides an excellent and rapid estimate of the metabolic activity. Satisfactory control was achieved and led to constant biomass yields. Ethanol accumulated only up to 0.49 g L-1 as compared to an accumulation of 1.82 g L-1 without on-line control in the shift-up experiment to the same final dilution rate. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 610-619, 1998.
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  • 44
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 624-629 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: thermostable esterase ; hyperthermophilic archaeon ; Pyrococcus furiosus ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A genomic library of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was constructed in Escherichia coli using pBluescript II SK(+) as a cloning vector. One positive clone exhibiting thermophilic ester-hydrolyzing activity was directly detected by an in situ plate assay using the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-acetate. The plasmid isolated from the clone contained a 3.8 kb HindIII fragment from P. furiosus. Expression of active thermostable esterase in E. coli was independent of isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside, suggesting that the archaeal esterase gene was heterologously controlled by its own promoter sequence, not by the vector-located lac promoter. Assays of esterase activity in heat-treated extract of the recombinant E. coli showed the highest temperature optimum (100°C) and thermostability (a half-life of 50 min at 126°C) among esterases reported to date. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 624-629, 1998.
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  • 45
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 642-654 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: animal cell culture ; growth ; cell death ; kinetics ; autoinhibitor ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental data from six hybridoma cell lines grown under diverse experimental conditions in both normal continuous and perfusion cultures are analyzed with respect to the significance of nutrients and products in determining the growth and death rates of cells and with respect to their mathematical modeling. It is shown that neither nutrients (glucose and glutamine) nor the common products lactic acid, ammonia, and monoclonal antibody can be generally assumed to be the clear-limiting or inhibiting factors for most of the cultures. Correspondingly, none of the unstructured models existing in the literature can be generally applied to describe the experimental data obtained over a relatively wide range of cultivation conditions as considered in this work. Surprisingly, for all cultures the specific growth rate (μ) almost linearly correlates with the ratio of the viable cell concentration (NV) to the dilution (perfusion) rate (D). Similarly, the specific death rate (kd) is a function of the ratio of the total cell concentration (Nt) to the dilution (perfusion) rate. These results strongly suggest the formation of not yet identified critical factors or autoinhibitors that determine both the growth and death rates of hybridoma cells. Based on these observations, simple kinetic models are developed for μ and kd which describe the experimental data satisfactorily. Analysis of the experimental data with the kinetic models reveals that under the current cultivation conditions the formation rate of the autoinhibitor(s) or the sensitivity of cell growth and death to the autoinhibitor(s) is mainly affected by the medium composition. Irrespective of the cell lines, cells grown on serum-containing media have almost the same model parameters, which are distinctively different from those of cells grown on serum-free media. Furthermore, in contrast to the prevailing view, kd is shown to positively correlate with μ if the effects of cell concentration and dilution (perfusion) rate are considered. Several important implications of these findings are discussed for the optimization and control of animal cell culture. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 642-654, 1998
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  • 46
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 666-675 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: protein ; recovery ; purification ; crystallization ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bulk crystallization is emerging as a new industrial operation for protein recovery. Characterization of bulk protein crystallization is more complex than protein crystallization for structural study where single crystals are grown in flow cells. This is because both nucleation and crystal growth processes are taking place while the supersaturation falls. An algorithm is presented to characterize crystallization using the rates of the two kinetic processes, nucleation and growth. The values of these rates allow ready comparison of the crystallization process under different operating conditions. The crystallization, via adjustment to the isoelectric pH of a fungal lipase from clarified fermentation broth, is described for a batch stirred reactor. A maximum nucleation rate of five to six crystals formed per microliter of suspension per second and a high power dependency (≈11) on the degree of supersaturation were found. The suspended protein crystals were found to grow at a rate of up to 15-20 nm/s and also to exhibit a high power dependency (≈6) of growth rate on the degree of supersaturation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 666-675, 1998
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  • 47
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 196-203 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: baculovirus ; chaperone ; hsp70 ; insect cell ; immunoglobulin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The secretion of heterologous IgG proteins in the baculovirus-insect cell expression system is accompanied by substantial insoluble immunoglobulin in the infected cells. The accumulation of these insoluble forms suggests a limitation in the processing and secretory pathway of the infected cells. As a result, cytosolic hsp70 chaperones, which are known to associate and prevent aggregation of polypeptides in vitro, have been coexpressed in the infected cells. The hsp70 protein coprecipitated with the immunoglobulin to indicate the formation of a specific hsp70-immunoglobulin complex in vivo. Immunoblot and pulse chase studies indicated that coexpression of hsp70 increased intracellular immunoglobulin solubility. Metabolic labeling experiments revealed that hsp70 increased secreted immunoglobulin levels after several days infection as compared to infection with control baculoviruses. Pulse chase studies indicated that hsp70 increases the solubility of immunoglobulin precursors that are then processed and assembled into the complete antibody oligomer. A comparison of the action of cytosolic hsp70 chaperone to the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP suggests sequential action in which hsp70 increases the solubility of preprocessed immunoglobulin, while BiP enhances the solubility of processed immunoglobulin chains. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 196-203, 1998.
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  • 48
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58 (1998), S. 175-190 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: protein-based polymers ; inverse temperature transitions ; hydrophobic-induced pKa shifts ; waters of hydrophobic hydration ; five axioms for protein engineering; microwave dielectric relaxation ; a universal mechanism for biological energy conversion ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Metabolism is the conversion of available energy sources to those energy forms required for sustaining and propagating living organisms; this is simply biological energy conversion. Proteins are the machines of metabolism; they are the engines of motility and the other machines that interconvert energy forms not involving motion. Accordingly, metabolic engineering becomes the use of natural protein-based machines for the good of society. In addition, metabolic engineering can utilize the principles, whereby proteins function, to design new protein-based machines to fulfill roles for society that proteins have never been called upon throughout evolution to fulfill.This article presents arguments for a universal mechanism whereby proteins perform their diverse energy conversions; it begins with background information, and then asserts a set of five axioms for protein folding, assembly, and function and for protein engineering. The key process is the hydrophobic folding and assembly transition exhibited by properly balanced amphiphilic protein sequences. The fundamental molecular process is the competition for hydration between hydrophobic and polar, e.g., charged, residues. This competition determines Tt, the onset temperature for the hydrophobic folding and assembly transition, Nhh, the numbers of waters of hydrophobic hydration, and the pKa of ionizable functions.Reported acid-base titrations and pH dependence of microwave dielectric relaxation data simultaneously demonstrate the interdependence of Tt, Nhh and the pKa using a series of microbially prepared protein-based poly(30mers) with one glutamic acid residue per 30mer and with an increasing number of more hydrophobic phenylalanine residues replacing valine residues. Also, reduction of nicotinamides and flavins is shown to lower Tt, i.e., to increase hydrophobicity.Furthermore, the argument is presented, and related to an extended Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, wherein reduction of nicotinamides represents an increase in hydrophobicity and resulting hydrophobic-induced pKa shifts become the basis for understanding a primary energy conversion (proton transport) process of mitochondria. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:175-190, 1998.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: RGD ; FMDV ; internalization ; integrins ; cell binding ; β-galactosidase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The G-H loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus is a disordered protrusion of the VP1 protein exposed on the virion surface. This short stretch includes an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide, a recognized integrin-binding motif, which is responsible for cell attachment and infection. Eight copies of a peptide reproducing the amino acid sequence of this FMDV ligand have been displayed in solvent-exposed regions on an enzymatically active recombinant β-galactosidase. This viral peptide segment enables the chimeric enzyme to bind mammalian cell lines with different efficiencies, probably depending on the number of suitable cell receptors present on each of them. Moreover, it also promotes the internalization of the attached enzyme, which is transiently active inside the cells. These results suggest further exploration of the potential use of short adhesion peptides of viral origin as cell attachment tags to direct the targeted delivery of both genes and enzymes, instead of whole, infectious viruses. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:294-301, 1998.
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  • 50
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 131-143 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: chemometrics ; light scattering ; microbial productivity ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article describes the use of chemometric methods for prediction of biological parameters of cell suspensions on the basis of their light scattering profiles. Laser light is directed into a vial or flow cell containing media from the suspension. The intensity of the scattered light is recorded at 18 angles. Supervised learning methods are then used to calibrate a model relating the parameter of interest to the intensity values. Using such models opens up the possibility of estimating the biological properties of fermentor broths extremely rapidly (typically every 4 sec), and, using the flow cell, without user interaction. Our work has demonstrated the usefulness of this approach for estimation of yeast cell counts over a wide range of values (105-109 cells mL-1), although it was less successful in predicting cell viability in such suspensions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:131-143, 1998.
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  • 51
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 144-155 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: lysozyme ; protein precipitation ; thiocyanate ; hydrogen exchange ; nuclear magnetic resonance ; protein unfolding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of hydrogen exchange to identify residue-level conformational changes in hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as induced by salt precipitation. Deuterated HEWL was dissolved into a phosphate (H2O) buffer and precipitated at pH 2.1 upon addition of solid KSCN or (ND4)2SO4, allowing isotope labeling of unfolded regions. After 1 h, each precipitate was then dissolved at pH 3.8 to initiate refolding and preserve labeling and subsequently purified for NMR analysis. HEWL precipitated by 1.0 M KSCN exhibited increased hydrogen exchange at 14 residues out of 42 normally well-protected in the native state. Of the affected residues, 9 were situated in the β-sheet/loop domain. A similar, though less extensive, effect was observed at 0.2 M KSCN. Precipitation by 1.2 M (ND4)2SO4 resulted in none of the changes detected with KSCN. The popularity of ammonium sulfate as a precipitant is thus supported by this observed preservation of structural integrity. KSCN, in comparison, produced partial unfolding of specific regions in HEWL due most likely to known preferential interactions between -SCN and proteins. The severity of unfolding increased with KSCN concentration such that, at 1.0 M KSCN, almost the entire β-sheet/loop domain of HEWL was disrupted. Even so, a portion of the HEWL core encompassed by three α-helices remained intact, possibly facilitating precipitate dissolution. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59: 144-155, 1998.
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  • 52
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 156-162 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; Pseudomonas fluorescens ; Klebsiella pneumoniae ; 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole ; catalase ; hydrogen peroxide ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Consortia of catalase positive bacteria consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in both the planktonic form and as biofilms, disproportionate hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. The biofilm, however, continued to disproportionate the hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, while the planktonic organisms did not. While the bacterial catalase-peroxidase-dismutase system was probably responsible for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide in both cases, biofilms resisted inhibition of this enzyme system. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59: 156-162, 1998.
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  • 53
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 163-170 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: enzymes ; organic solvents ; alcohol inhibition ; activity coefficients ; substrate specificity ; rate-limiting step ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Alcohol inhibition of the lipase B from Candida antarctica has been studied through two different approaches: using the same inhibitor (1-butanol) in different organic solvents and using different inhibitors (differing in chain length) in the same solvent. The competitive inhibition constant values obtained in each case correlate with the calculated activity coefficients of the substrate, suggesting that desolvation of the alcohol is the major force changed. Data dispersion observed using the second approach has been interpreted to come from contributions of enzyme-inhibitor interactions to the binding energy. On the other hand, deacylation has been found to be much less influenced by the solvent variation than the acylation step, despite of the fact that solvation of the substrate involved in this step (the alcohol) is expected to change more than for the ester. Concerning the specificity behavior of the enzyme, a bimodal pattern was observed for the deacylation rate dependence on the alcohol chain length, with the highest values for hexanol (C6) and decanol (C10). With regard to the ester specificity, ethyl caproate (C6) is the preferred one. These results have been confronted with those reported for the lipase from Candida rugosa. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59: 163-170, 1998.
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  • 54
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 171-177 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: 4-alkylphenols ; vanillyl alcohol oxidase ; covalent flavoprotein ; enantioselectivity ; 4-vinylphenol ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) from Penicillium simplicissimum catalyzes the enantioselective hydroxylation of 4-ethylphenol, 4-propylphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol into 1-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, 1-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)propanol, and 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)propanol, respectively, with an ee of 94% for the R enantiomer. The stereochemical outcome of the reactions was established by comparing the chiral GC retention times of the products to those of chiral alcohols obtained by the action of the lipases from Candida antarctica and Pseudomonas cepacia. Isotope labeling experiments revealed that the oxygen atom incorporated into the alcoholic products is derived from water. During the VAO-mediated conversion of 4-ethylphenol/4-propylphenol, 4-vinylphenol/4-propenylphenol are formed as side products. With 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol as a substrate, this competing side reaction is nearly abolished, resulting in less than 1% of the vinylic product, isoeugenol. The VAO-mediated conversion of 4-alkylphenols also results in small amounts of phenolic ketones indicative for a consecutive oxidation step. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:171-177, 1998.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 189-202 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN) ; microfiltration ; cell harvesting ; membrane fouling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Microfiltration is an important unit operation in downstream processing. However, due to the influence of membrane fouling, prediction of the filtration performance for biological suspensions is difficult. This paper describes a modeling approach that allows a comprehensive description of filtration performance. On the basis of experimental data and linguistic information, a specific artificial neural network was developed that predicts the process behavior within a certain range of parameters. This approach allows us to analyze influences of fermentation on filtration. By using extensive simulations, the interactions of 17 parameters were examined and the fouling causes determined. The model was developed for cell harvesting of Escherichia coli through a shear-enhanced module. The method can be applied to any cross-flow filtration process. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:189-202, 1998.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 59 (1998), S. 178-188 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: fed-batch culture ; response surface model ; optimisation ; β-galactosidase ; Sf9 cells ; baculovirus expression vector system ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fed-batch culture can offer significant improvement in recombinant protein production compared to batch culture in the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), as shown by Nguyen et al. (1993) and Bedard et al. (1994) among others. However, a thorough analysis of fed-batch culture to determine its limits in improving recombinant protein production over batch culture has yet to be performed. In this work, this issue is addressed by the optimisation of single-addition fed-batch culture. This type of fed-batch culture involves the manual addition of a multi-component nutrient feed to batch culture before infection with the baculovirus. The nutrient feed consists of yeastolate ultrafiltrate, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, trace elements, and glucose, which were added to batch cultures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells before infection with a recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) expressing β-galactosidase (β-Gal). The fed-batch production of β-Gal was optimised using response surface methods (RSM). The optimisation was performed in two stages, starting with a screening procedure to determine the most important variables and ending with a central-composite experiment to obtain a response surface model of volumetric β-Gal production. The predicted optimum volumetric yield of β-Gal in fed-batch culture was 2.4-fold that of the best yields in batch culture. This result was confirmed by a statistical analysis of the best fed-batch and batch data (with average β-Gal yields of 1.2 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) obtained from this laboratory. The response surface model generated can be used to design a more economical fed-batch operation, in which nutrient feed volumes are minimised while maintaining acceptable improvements in β-Gal yield. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59: 178-188, 1998.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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