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  • 1985-1989  (6,695)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (6,695)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 71-77 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; colchicine ; cold-treatment ; kinesin localization ; EBTr cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The localization of kinesin in EBTr (bovine embryonic trachea fibroblast) cells was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using an affinity-purified antibody against bovine adrenal kinesin.It has already been shown that in interphase cells a part of kinesin is located on microtubules and the rest diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm [Murofushi et al., 1988]. When microtubules were depolymerized with cold or colchicine treatment, antikinesin antibody-stained fibrous components distinct from microtubules. These fibrous structures were considered to be stress fibers because they were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin and because the fibrous staining with antikinesin antibody was completely lost by treating the cells with cytochalasin D along with colchicine. When cold-treated cells in which a major part of kinesin had been localized on stress fibers were incubated at 37°C, kinesin reappeared on reconstituted microtubules. These observations strongly suggest that kinesin has affinity not only to microtubules but also to stress fibers in culture cells.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 78-89 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; actin and myosin ; agar-overlay method ; immunofluorescence ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Synchronized cultures of Dictyostelium discoideum were used to study organizational changes of the cytoskeleton during mitotic cell division. The agar-overlay technique (Yumura et al.: J. Cell Biol. 99:894-899, 1984) was employed for immunofluorescence localization and video microscopic observation of living mitotic cells. The mitotic phase was defined by changes in chromosome configuration by using a double stain with the fluorescent dye DAPI.This study showed that the actin- and myosin-containing cytoskeleton was reversibly redistributed between the cortical ectoplasm and the endoplasm during prophase and telophase. Both actin and myosin filaments were dissociated from the cell cortex in prophase. Most of the actin and myosin was filamentous and remained in the endoplasm until telophase. Saltatory movements of organelles stopped suddenly, coincident with the breakdown of the cytoplasmic microtubule network. This change in the microtubule system was temporally coupled with the disappearance of actomyosin from the cortex. At the same time, the local vibrating movement of particles almost stopped, suggesting that the viscoelastic nature of the endoplasm was altered. In the late anaphase, actin and myosin relocalized to the cortical ectoplasm. Early in this phase, myosin filaments were localized specifically at the anticipated cleavage furrow region of the cleavage furrow, whereas actin filaments were redistributed more uniformly in the cell cortex, with an extremely large accumulation in the polar pseudopods. Subsequently the actin formed an orderly parallel array of cables along with myosin filaments in the contractile ring.The spatial segregation of actin and myosin in late anaphase was clearly demonstrated by multipolar cell division of artificially induced giant cells. Actin was relocalized in both the polar and the proximal constricting regions whereas myosin was only localized in the center of each pair of daughter microtubule networks where the cleavage furrow was formed. This study demonstrates that actin and myosin are reorganized by a temporally coordinated but spatially different mechanism during cytokinesis of Dictyostelium.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 92-102 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 104-117 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ABP-120 ; myosin ; actin polymerization ; amoeboid chemotaxis ; cAMP ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Triton-insoluble cytoskeletons were isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum AX3 cells prior to and following stimulation with 2′deoxy cyclic adenosine monophos-phate (cAMP). Temporal changes in the content of actin and a 120,000 dalton actin-binding protein (ABP-120) in cytoskeletons following stimulation were monitored. Both actin and ABP-120 were incorporated into the cytoskeleton at 30-40 seconds following stimulation, which is cotemporal with the onset of pseudopod extension during stimulation of amoebae with chemoattraciants. Changes in the content of total cytoskeletal protein and cytoskeletal myosin were determined under the same experimental conditions as controls. These proteins exhibited different kinetics from those of cytoskeletal ABP-120 and actin following the addition of 2′deoxy cAMP. The authors concluded that the association of ABP-120 with the cytoskeleton is regulated during cAMP signalling. Furthermore, these results indicate that ABP-120 is involved in cross-linking newly assembled actin filaments into the cytoskeleton during chemoattractant-stimulated pseudopod extension.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 67-82 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeletal arrays ; heat shock ; synchronous CHO cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The vimentin intermediate filament (VIMF) network is more sensitive to heat-induced disruption than either the microtubule (MT) or microfilament (MF) cytoskeletal (CSK) arrays in G1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (Coss and Wachsberger: Radiation Research, 1987). We therefore investigated the effect of the VIMF disruptive agent, acrylamide (Eckert: European Journal of Cell Biology 37:169-174, 1985), on the heat response of synchronous CHO cells. Cells, either in the process of spreading (G1 or S phase) or in the well-spread state (S phase), were exposed to a nontoxic concentration of 5 mM acrylamide, heated, and processed for immunofluorescence microscopy 30 min or 20 hr following the heat shock. Recovery from CSK disruption was related to cell survival.CHO cells, either in the process of spreading or in the well-spread state, were sensitized to heat-induced CSK disruption and cytotoxicity by acrylamide. Recovery from CSK disruption correlated with surviving fractions of cells treated in the G1 phase but not with surviving fractions of cells treated in the S phase and was independent of the degree of cell spreading. This correlation suggests that damage to CSK structures may contribute to the death of cells treated in G1 but not necessarily to the death of cells treated in S phase.The degree of acrylamide sensitization of heat-induced CSK disruption was greater for cells exposed to acrylamide prior to spreading than for well-spread cells. Furthermore, normal spreading of cells was prevented when they were plated into medium containing acrylamide, suggesting that acrylamide interferes with the initial stages of attachment and spreading of these cells. These observations are interpreted in relation to the possible role that VIMFs, together with cortical MFs, may play in mediating cell surface focal contacts in the initial stages of cell attachment and spreading.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 83-93 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: retinal pigment epithelium ; cytoskeleton ; focal contacts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells maintained in organ culture on Bruch's membrane and the associated choroid spread and migrate into a linear wound along the exposed basal lamina. Changes in cell shape, in the organization of microfilaments, and in cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions during this time were examined by epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to cuboidal stationary cells distant from the wound edge, which display well-developed apical circumferential microfilament bundles (CMBs) associated with zonulae adhaerentes junctions, the migrating RPE cells near the wound edge instead are flat, and, in addition to microfilament bundles near junctions between adjacent cells, display prominent stress fibers. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies to vinculin labeled regions at the terminal ends of these stress fibers indicating that the RPE cells form focal contacts with the basal lamina at these sites. Electron microscopy of these regions of cell-substratum interaction confirmed the presence of microfilament bundles that terminate on the cell membrane. Folds present in the basal lamina near these sites suggest that tension is being generated by the microfilaments in the stress fibers as the migrating cells pull on the underlying basal lamina through these adhesion points.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 94-103 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell adhesion ; cell motility ; near infrared light ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Interference-reflection microscopy (IRM) is the only method presently available with which to visualize cell-substratum adhesions in living tissue culture cells continuously for long periods of time without the use of fluorescent markers (Curtis: J. Cell Biol. 20:199-215, 1964; Izzard and Lochner: J. Cell Sci. 21:129-159, 1976). This method utilizes approximately 1% of the incident illumination to produce the IRM image (Verschueren: J. Cell Sci. 75:279-301, 1985) and so far has required the use of high-intensity light sources in the visible spectral range (400-800 nm). Unfortunately, visible light of this intensity and spectral range induces marked changes in the behavior and morphology of motile fibroblasts, including cessation of locomotion. In contrast, the present paper reports that continuous observations of live cells in IRM for periods of up to 8 hours are possible if the illuminating light is in the red to near-infrared range (650-950 nm) and without any observable change in normal cell morphology or behavior. In addition, we describe how the technique of Y-contrast image processing can be applied to IRM images to create a three-dimensional image of the ventral cell surface topography.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 104-111 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: embryo ; hamster ; detergent extraction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mammalian eggs and embryos contain an extensive detergent-resistant cytoskeletal network, including many elements which have been referred to as sheets in hamster eggs. In this study we examined the structure of the sheet-like components by using embedment-free sections and freeze-fracture electron microscopy and found that the sheets are composed of both filamentous and particulate components. In addition, exposure to a high salt extraction medium resulted in the disappearance of the sheets at the ultrastructural level. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the cell fractions revealed four stainable proteins solubilized by the high salt extraction with one of the proteins being greatly enriched. Because these cytoskeletal sheets undergo an extensive reorganization coincident with key events during early development they serve as internal markers for the establishment of polarity and subsequent differentiation of the first embryonic epithelium, the trophectoderm.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 112-122 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; cell adhesion ; light chain phosphorylation ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; fluorescent indicators ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Following our study in Balb/c 3T3 cells and other cultured fibroblasts of the changes in myosin light chain phosphorylation associated with alterations in cell shape, attachment, and receptor patching, we have now determined the corresponding changes in cytoskeletal myosin distribution, and in the cellular calcium concentration, since this might, in part, mediate such responses.Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that myosin assembly into ordered forms such as actomyosin bundles and myosin sheath almost always correlated with previously shown high phosphorylation levels of myosin regulatory light chain, whereas diffuse distributions usually correlated with low or undetectable levels. An exception was observed in treatment to alter cellular cAMP levels when, in a biphasic response, assembly was correlated inversely with the phosphorylation states shown previously.Fluorescent indicators for intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca++]i, showed that myosin disassembly by trypsin or EGTA acting externally on the cells was preceded by a transient increase in [Ca++]i. For EGTA this was associated with transient recruitment of myosin into dorsal sheath structure as well as the transient enhancement of phosphorylation shown earlier. Blockage of EGTA-induced disassembly could be achieved by azide, which also caused an immediate increase in [Ca++]i and inhibited its subsequent decline. Trypsin-induced dephosphorylation did not appear to involve an eventual reduction of [Ca++]i. Therefore, in many but not all of the systems studied, correlated changes were observed in myosin assembly, [Ca++]i, and the myosin phosphorylation levels shown earlier.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 201-219 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytokinesis ; microinjection ; cleavage furrow ; mitosis ; midbody ; stress fibers ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Actin and the light chains of myosin were labeled with fluorescent dyes and injected into interphase PtK2 cells in order to study the changes in distribution of actin and myosin that occurred when the injected cells subsequently entered mitosis and divided. The first changes occurred when stress fibers in prophase cells began to disassemble. During this process, which began in the center of the cell, individual fibers shortened, and in a few fibers, adjacent bands of fluorescent myosin could be seen to move closer together. In most cells, stress fiber disassembly was complete by metaphase, resulting in a diffuse distribution of the fluorescent proteins throughout the cytoplasm with the greatest concentration present in the mitotic spindle. The first evidence of actin and myosin concentration in a cleavage ring occurred at late anaphase, just before furrowing could be detected. Initially, the intensity of fluorescence and the width of the fluorescent ring increased as the ring constricted. In cells with asymmetrically positioned mitotic spindles, both protein concentration and furrowing were first evident in the cortical regions closest to the equator of the mitotic spindle. As cytokinesis progressed in such asymmetrically dividing cells, fluorescent actin and myosin appeared at the opposite side of the cell just before furrowing activity could be seen there. At the end of cytokinesis, myosin and actin were concentrated beneath the membrane of the midbody and subsequently became organized in two rings at either end of the midbody.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 220-229 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; mitosis ; kinetochore ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Quinacrine, an acridine derivative which competitively binds to ATP binding sites, has previously been shown to cause the reorganization of metaphase spindle microtubules (MTs) due to changes in interactions of non-kinetochore microtubules (nkMTs) of opposite polarity (Armstrong and Snyder: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 7:10-19, 1987). In the study presented here, mitotic PtK1 cells were treated in early anaphase with concentrations of quinacrine ranging from 2 to 12 μM to determine energy requirements for chromosome motion. The rate and extent of chromosome-to-pole movements (anaphase A) were not affected by these quinacrine treatments. The extent of anaphase B (kinetochore-kinetochore separation) was reduced with increasing concentrations of quinacrine. Five micromolar quinacrine reduced the extent of kinetochore-kinetochore separation by 20%, and addition of 12 μM quinacrine reduced the kinetochore-kinetochore separation by 40%. To determine the role of nkMTs in anaphase spindle elongationquinacrine-treated metaphase cells were treated with hyperosmotic sucrose concentrations, and spindle elongation was measured (Snyder et al.: Eur J. Cell Biol. 39:373-379, 1985). Metaphase cells treated with 2-10 μM concentrations of quinacrine for 2-5 min reduced spindle lengths by 10-50% prior to 0.5 M sucrose treatment for 5 min. This treatment showed a significant reduction in the ability of sucrose to induce spindle elongation in cells pretreated with quinacrine. As spindle length and birefringence was reduced by quinacrine treatment, sucrose-induced elongation was concomitantly diminished. These data suggest that quinacrine-sensitive linkages are necessary for anaphase B motions. Reduction in these linkages and/or MT length in the nkMT continuum may reduce the ability of the nkMTs to hold compression at metaphase. This form of energy is thought to drive a significant proportion of normal anaphase B in PtK1 cells and sucrose-induced metaphase spindle elongation.
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  • 14
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 1-11 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ciliary motility ; cAMP ; Ca2+ ; phosphoproteins ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study seeks to identity phosphoproteins in axonemes from Paramecium letraurelia whose phosphorylation responses to adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca2+ parallel responses induced by these agents in ciliary behavior in this cell. In purified rxonemes, over 15 bands ranging from Mr 〉300 kDa to 19 kDa on SDS-PAGE incorporate 32P from adenosine 5′-γ-[32P]tri-phosphate (γ-32P-ATP) at pCa 7 in the absence of cAMP. A major band whose label turns over rapidly was identified at Mr 43 kDa. In the presence of 5 μM cAMP, more than eight bands, but not the Mr 43 kDa band, were labeled additionally or enhanced their labeling. These phosphoproteins and their kinases are structural components of the axoneme. Overall, some of the same major bands are labeled in the presence of cAMP in Triton X-100-permeabilized paramecia that retain their behavioral responses and in axonemes mechanically isolated from these cells. In particular, two major bands have been identified whose phosphorylation is greatly enhanced by cAMP at low concentrations: (1) a 29 kDa polypeptide whose cAMP-dependent phosphorylation is diminished at pCa 4 compared with pCa 7 and (2) a 65 kDa polypeptide whose phosphorylation is pCa insensitive. These polypeptides meet minimal criteria for signal-sensitive regulators of motility parameters in the Paramecium axoneme.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 263-270 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: compartmentalization ; muscle cells ; actins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The functional significance of multiple isoactins in the same cell is still not understood. To address this question, we examined the response of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle α-isoactins to a serial extraction procedure applied to both muscle and nonmuscle cell types. We compared these extraction results with results obtained with the β- and γ-nonmuscle actin isoforms from the same cells. In differentiated BC3H1 nonfusing muscle cells (smooth muscle α-isoactin), in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (cardiac α-isoactin), and in chick skeletal muscle cells (cardiac α-isoactin), different fractions were found selectively enriched in either the nonmuscle or the muscle-specific actin isoforms compared with their relative abundance in whole cell extracts. Conversely, when these same isoactins were examined either in undifferentiated BC3H1 cells or in mouse nonmuscle cells stably transfected with a cardiac α-isoactin gene, no enrichment of these isoforms above their relative abundance in whole cell extracts was observed. These results indicate that within the muscle or muscle-like cells examined, the different actin isoforms were either selectively utilized or localized. These results further show that isoactin-specific responses observed were apparently related to the cell type in which they were found and not to differences in inherent physical properties such as solubility of the different isoactins examined.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 12-22 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; CDPK ; cytoskeleton ; cytochalasin D (CD) ; rhodamine-phalloidin (RP) ; pollen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We recently purified a calcium-dependent but calmodulin- and phospholipid-independent protein kinase (CDPK) from cultured plant cells (Harmon et al.: Plant Physiology 83:830-837, 1987). A monoclonal antibody (mAb 3B9) directed against CDPK was used to localize this protein in Allium root cells and Tradescantia pollen tubes using immunofluorescence techniques. The mAb 3B9 staining pattern showed that CDPK is localized within a fibrous network in the cytoplasm resembling the normal interphase network of F-actin. Treatment of tissue with 10 μM cytochalasin D (CD) prior to fixation abolished the staining pattern. Double-localization experiments in which pollen tubes were first stained with mAb 3B9 and then with rhodamine-phalloidin (RP) demonstrated that CDPK and F-actin were colocalized. Monoclonal antibody 3B9 did not react with purified actin from rabbit muscle or Dictyostelium and did not bind to proteins corresponding to the Mr of actin in crude extracts of Allium root tips and Tradescantia pollen tubes.CDPK did not phosphorylate purified rabbit muscle or Dictyostelium actin in vitro. Binding studies showed that CDPK (1) does not cosediment with actin filaments and (2) does not form a complex with G-actin. The data indicate that although CDPK does not interact directly with actin, it may be associated with an actin-binding protein and therefore could play a role in the regulation of the plant cytoskeleton.
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  • 18
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 195-211 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell shape ; cortical actin ; stress fibers ; microfilament bundles ; cell adhesion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The outline of cells in sparse cultures consists prediminantly of concave and convex segments; straight segments are rare and ephemeral. The convex segments are areas of active cell expansion. The concave segments are stationary and web-shaped, similar in profile to the cables of a suspension bridge. In 3T3 fibroblasts, we have found a single microfilament bundle following the outline of every webbed edge and have called it the actin edge-bundle (AEB). While the AEB is composed predominantly of actin, α-actinin and myosin are also present. In contrast to normal stress fibers, AEBs are more resistant to several treatments that depolymerize F-actin. Once an AEB disassembles, however, the webbed edge collapses and retracts, suggesting that the actin edge-bundle is a specialized cytoskeletal structure that supports the webbed edges of interphase 3T3 fibroblasts. The stability of AEBs is independent of microtubules. We suggest that the microfilament bundles that frequently line the lateral contacts between epithelial cells in vivo may be related to the actin edge-bundle.
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  • 19
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 239-244 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm ; nucleotide analog ; kinetics ; Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus ; reactivation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The 2-substituted ATP analog 2-Chloro ATP was tested for its capacity to support axonemal movement. The movement of sea urchin axonemes reactivated with 2-CI ATP appeared very similar to that with ATP. Detailed waveform analysis indicated that bend angle and shear amplitude were not significantly different for ATP and 2-CI ATP. Although wavelength differs at particular nucleotide concentrations, if normalized to the beat frequency, it is similar for ATP and 2-CI ATP. The main difference in the movement with the two analogs was seen in beat frequency and sliding velocity. The Vmax for beat frequency and mean sliding velocity was lower for 2-CI ATP. The apparent Km for beat frequency and sliding velocity was much lower for 2-CI ATP. The ratio of these two effects, that is, (Vmax/Km) is higher for 2-CI ATP. Thus 2-CI ATP is a good substrate for axonemal movement. The significantly lower Km of 2-CI ATP was also demonstrated by its ability to support oscillatory motion at concentrations below that for ATP. The observations identify the structures and conformation of substrate necessary to support axonemal movement.
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  • 21
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 332-339 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 340-344 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 23
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 345-358 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell motility ; microtubules ; mussel gill ; ATPase ; electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the presence of specific inhibitors of beat, 20 μM VO43- or pCa 4, mussel gill lateral (L) cilia can be arrested in two positions - “hands down” or “hands up” - at opposite ends of the stroke cycle. Cilia move to these positions by doublet microtubule sliding. Axonemes of arrested cilia, still tethered to the cell, are intact after demembranation and protease treatment. When reactivated by 4 mM ATP with inhibitors present, about 40% split apart. Splits are not random but occur preferentially between different specific doublets in the two opposite arrest positions. Several different related patterns of splitting are observed; for every pattern in “hands down” axonemes, there is a corresponding complementary split pattern in “hands up” axonemes. In some split patterns two doublets remain firmly attached to the central pair; these also differ depending on axonemal position. Although some of the patterns seen may be artifactual or difficult to explain, the complementary splitting patterns are predictable with simple assumptions by a “switch point” hypothesis of ciliary activity where, during each recovery stroke, doublets 6-8 have active dynein arms, while during each effective stroke, arms on doublets 1-4 become active, and arms 6-8 are turned off. Because of a difference between the patterns seen and the predictions, the status of the arms on doublet 9 is unresolved. The patterns also suggest that a spokecentral sheath attachment cycle may correlate with switching of arm activity during the generation of an asymmetric beat.
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  • 24
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 527-543 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: immunofluorescence ; video-enhanced contrast microscopy ; protrusions ; lamellipodia ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The formation of lamellipodia in migrating cells involves dynamic processes that occur in a cyclic manner as the leading edge of a cell slowly advances. We used video-enhanced contrast microscopy (VEC) to monitor the motile behavior of cells to classify protrusions into the temporal stages of initial and established protrusions (Fisher et al.: Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 11:235-247, 1988), and to monitor the fixation of cells. Multiple parameter fluorescence imaging methods (DeBiasio et al.: Journal of Cell Biology 105:1613-1622, 1987; Waggoner et al.: Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 30, Part B, pp. 449-478, 1989) were then used to determine and to map accurately the distributions of actin, myosin and microtubules in specific types of protrusions. Initial protrustions exhibited no substructure as evidenced by VEC and actin was diffusely arranged, while myosin and microtubules were absent. Newly established protrusions contained diffuse actin as well as actin in microspikes. There was a delay in the appearance of myosin into established protrusions relative to the presence of actin. Microtubules were found in established protrusions after myosin was detected, and they were oriented parallel to the direction of migration. Actin and myosin were also localized in fibers transverse to the direction of migration at the base of initial and established protrusions. Image analysis was used to quantify the orientation of actin fibers relative to the leading edge of motile cells. The combined use of VEC, multiple parameter immunofluorescence, and image analysis should have a major impact on defining complex relationships within cells.
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  • 25
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 544-551 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ingestion ; cell; encapsulation ; cell; size of granulocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Micromanipulation of yeast particles and blood granulocytes has been used to study the kinetics of single phagocytosis events. The ingestion process was quantitated by observation of sequential adhesion and encapsulation times. Both adherence and encapsulation times were found to increase greatly as the temperature was reduced below 37°C calcium in solution facilitated adhesion of the particle to the phagocyte but not encapsulation; both adhesion and encapsulation processes required a minimum level of plasma components (presumably complement). The general nature of these observations were confirmatiory of previous studies, but this study is unique in that the specific time course of single particle ingestion was quantitated. It was immediately apparent that the phagocytosis process was 100% efficient above the threshold concentrations required for plasma and temperature, but variations in times from cell to cell indicated heterogeneity in the population. The total time for ingestion varied from as low as 2 sec/particle at 37°C to above several min/particle below 15°C. Encapsulation times for particles were normalized by estimates of particle surface areas to establish a specific time/unit area of particle surface: from 0.5 sec/10-8 cm2 at 37°C to greater than 8 sec/10-8 cm2 at 15°C. The temperature dependence of the encapsulation time correlated well with the temperature dependence of the “apparent” viscosity for granulocytes measured by micropipet aspiration. As such, the kinetic properties observed in these phagocytosis tests are consistent with a model that both assembly of the contractile system and the displacement of the surface by active contraction in phagocytosis are limited by viscous dissipation in the cell. Based on temperature dependence of the adhesion time, the activation energy associated with “turning on” the contractile system is quite large, with a value of about 31 kcal/mole. Finally, it was found that serial “feeding” of yeast to a single granulocyte satiated the phagocyte only after six to eleven particles had been encapsulated. The number limit to ingestion was directly proportional to inital size of the granulocyte.
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  • 26
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 225-238 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosome ; DAPI ; immunofluorescence ; immunoperoxidase ; microtubules ; mitosis ; scleroderma serum ; tubulin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Double-label immunofluorescence of tubulin and preicentriolar material (PCM) was carried out with mitotic nuclei in the coenocytic green alga Ernodesmis. Spindle poles are heavily labeled with serum 5051 (anti-PCM) from midprophase through mid- to late anaphase, and bright fluorescence is also evident at the tips of the elongated interzonal spindle in telophase nuclei. Very faint labeling with anti-PCM is also detected throughout the spindle (and/or its matrix) at all mitotic stages. Control treatments demonstrated that nonspecific surface labeling of chloroplasts with anti-PCM may be due to some naturally occurring component of human sera rather than to specific labeling by the anti-PCM serum. Ultrastructural work indicates that the centrosome is always associated with spindle poles through anaphase, but not with the tips of the interzonal telophase Immunoper-oxidase electron microscopy verifies that anti-PCM labels the centrosomes of mitotic nuclei in these cells. However, labeling is also present inside the presistent nuclear envelope at the spindle poles, during metaphase, anaphase, and at the tips of the interzonal spindles. Regions of heaviest labeling correspond with amorphous material near the centrioles and at the spindle poles, as evident in conventional electron microscope preparations. The origin of intranuclear amorphous material that labels with anti-PCM is unclear, but the ends of many spindle microtubules are embedded in it, especially at anaphase, and the tips of microtubules near the amorphous material are often labeled with the antiserum. These results indicate for the first time that serum 5051 does indeed label PCM at the poles of centric spindles in plant cells. Although the location of the labeled material suggests it is associated with the nucleation of spindle microtubules, this conclusion requires more information about microtubule dynamics in these cells. Caution is also warranted in interpreting variant anti-PCM labeling patterns in other plant cells because of spurious labeling of the spindle itself and other cytoplasmic organelles.
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  • 27
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 274-287 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: complex I ; mitochondria ; bovine cardiac muscle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A 70 kD protein, which we have named mitoskelin, is highly enriched in cytoskeletal preparations from bovine cardiac muscle. Mitoskelin has three main variants with isoelectric points between 5.6 and 5.8. Immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies directed against mitoskelin shows that, like intermediate filament proteins, the majority of mitoskelin resists solubilization from a myocardial homogenate by a series of extraction solutions ranging from very low salt to 0.6 M KI buffers and by 0.1-1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. By double-label immunofluorescence on cells and tissues, mitoskelin is colocalized with the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase. Mitoskelin is associated with the inner membranes of mitochondria as shown by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting Immunological cross-reactivity and similarities of molecular weight, pI, distribution, and chromatographic properties indicate that mitoskelin is the 70 kD component of complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase), a portion of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. No function or activity has yet been demonstrated for the 70 kD component of the 25-polypeptide complex I. Dialysis against physiological buffers allows purified, urea-solubilized mitoskelin to form 10 nm wide filamentous structures that do not closely resemble intermediate filaments. These results suggest the exciting possibility that mitochondria may contain a membrane-associated filamentous skeleton.
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  • 28
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 288-300 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: lamellipodia ; motility ; neurite regeneration ; f-actin, filopodia ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To determine the relationship between growth cone structure and motility, we compared the neurite extension rate, the form of individual growth cones, and the organization of f-actin in embryonic (E21) and postnatal (P30) sympathetic neurons in culture. Neurites extended faster on laminin than on collagen, but the P30 neurites were less than half as long as E21 neurites on both substrata. Growth cone shape was classified into one of five categories, ranging from fully lamellipodial to blunt endings. The leading margins of lamellipodia advanced smoothly across the substratum ahead of any filopodial activity and contained meshworks of actin filaments with no linear f-actin bundles, indicating that filopodia need not undirlie lamellipodia. Rapid translocation (averaging 0.9-1.4 μm/min) was correlated with the presence of lamellipodia; translocation associated with filopodia averaged only 0.3-0.5 μm/min. This relationship extended to growth cones on a branched neurite where the translocation of each growth cone was dependent on its shape. Growth cones with both filopodial and lamellipodial components moved at intermediate rates. The prevalence of lamellipodial growth cones depended on age of the neurites; early in culture, 70% of E21 growth cones were primarily lamellipodial compared to 38% of P30 growth cones. A high percentage of E21 lamellipodial growth cones were associated with rapid neurite elongation (1.2 mm/day), whereas a week later, only 16% were lamellipodial, and neurites extended at 0.5 mm/day. Age-related differences in neurite extension thus reflected the proportion of lamellipodial growth cones present rather than disparties in basic structure or in the rates at which growth cones of a given type moved at different ages. Filopodia and lamellipodia are each sufficient to advance the neurite margin; however, rapid extension of superior cervical ganglion neurites was supported by lamellipodia independent of filopodial activity.
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  • 29
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 301-319 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sarcoplasmic reticulum ; mitochondira ; mitotic spindle ; cytoskeleton ; cytokinesis ; fluorescent membrane dyes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dynamic changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in interphase and mitotic cells was detected by the vital fluorescent dye 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Two types of arrays characterize the continuous ER system in the non-muscle PtK2 cell: (1) a lacy network of irregular polygons and (2) long strands of ER that are found aligned along stress fibers. In cross-striated myotubes there was a periodic localization of fluorescence over each I-band corresponding to the positions of the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In contrast to the arrangement in muscle cells, the aligment of the long strands of ER along stress fibers showed no strict periodicity that could be correlated with the sarcomeric units of the stress fibers. The ER and SR arrays seen in living cells were also detected in fixed cells stained with antibodies directed against proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and sarcoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Observations of vitally stained PtK2 cells at 1 to 2 minute intervals using low light level video cameras and image processing techniques enabled us to see the polygonal ER units form and undergo changes in their shapes. During cell division, the ER, rhodamine 123-stained mitochondria, and phagocytosed fluorescent beads were excluded from the mitotic spindle while soluble proteins were not. No obvious concentration or alignment of membranes could be found associated with the contractile proteins in the cleavage furrow. After completion of cell division there was a redeployment of the ER network in each daughter cell.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 33-41 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: phosphorylation ; MPM-2 ; mitotic spindle ; microtubule-associated protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mitotic spindles isolated from the diatom Stephanopyxis turris become thiophosphorylated in the presence of ATPγS at specific locations within the mitotic apparatus, resulting in a stimulation of ATP-dependent spindle elongation in vitro. Here, using indirect immunofluorescence, we compare the staining pattern of an antibody against thiophosphorylated proteins to that of MPM-2, an antibody against mitosis-specific phosphoproteins, in isolated spindles. Both antibodies label spindle poles, kinetochores, and the midzone. Neither antibody exhibits reduced labeling in salt-extracted spindles, although prior salt extraction inhibits thiophosphorylation in ATPγS. Furthermore, both antibodies recognize a 205 kd band on immunoblots of spindle extracts. Microtubule-organizing centers and mitotic spindles label brightly with the MPM-2 antibody in intact cells. These results show that functional mitotic spindles isolated from S. turris are phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro. We discuss the possible role of phosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins in the control of mitotic spindle function.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 185-194 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myofibril assembly ; focal contacts ; vinculin ; α-actinin ; connectin ; immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relationship of nascent myofibrils with the accumulation of adhesion plaque proteins and the formation of focal cell contacts was studied in embryonic chick cardiac myocytes in vitro. The cultures were double-stained with various combinations of the specific antiactin drug phalloidin and antibodies against vinculin, α-actinin, connectin (titin), myosin heavy chain, fibronectin, and desmin and examined under fluorescence and interference reflection microscopy.In the areas of myofibril assembly, vinculin and α-actinin plaques were formed at the ventral sarcolemmae. These areas overlapped with the sites of cell-to-substrate focal contacts and extracellular fibronectin. Because the myofibrils always ran in a straight line between these sites, polarized lines appeared to be generated within the cells in response to their physical (e.g., stress) and/or biochemical environment (e.g., adhesion plaque proteins). The possible presence of other factors cannot be ruled out for the proper alignment of myofibrils. As soon as myofibrils came to span between these adhesion sites, they exhibited typically mature cross-striated characteristics. Thus, the formation of these inferred lines has some relation to or is in fact necessary for the maturation of myofibrils, in addition to the directional arrangement of sarcomeric proteins.Additionally, synthesis and distribution of myosin and connectin were tightly linked during early developmental (premyofibril and myofibril) stages. The spatial deployment of desmin was not coupled with vinculin. Thus, connectin and desmin do not appear to form the initial scaffold of sarcomeres.
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  • 32
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 113-122 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; spindle ; kinetochore ; centrosome ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To investigate the association of calmodulin (CaM) with microtubules (MTs) in the mitotic apparatus (MA), the distributions of CaM and tubulin were examined in cells in which the normal spindle organization had been altered. A fluorescent CaM conjugate with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (CaM-TRITC) and a dichlorotriazinyl aminofluorescein conjugate with tubulin (tubulin-DTAF) were injected into cells that had been treated with the MT inhibitor nocodazole. With moderate nocodazole concentration (0.3 μg/ml, 37°C, 4 h) in live cells, CaM-TRITC and tubulin-DTAF concentrated identically on or near the centrosomes and kinetochores. In serial sections of these cells, small MT segments were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the regions where fluorescent protein had concentrated. When a higher drug concentration was used (3.0 μg/ml, 37°C, 4 h), no regions of CaM-TRITC or tubulin-DTAF localization were observed, and no MTs were observed when serial sections were examined by TEM. However, following release from the high-concentration nocodazole block, CaM-TRITC colocalized with newly formed MTs at the kinetochores and centrosomes. Later in the recovery period, when chromosome-to-pole fibers had formed, CaM association with kinetochores diminished, ultimately attaining its normal pole-proximal association with kinetochore MTs in cells that progressed through mitosis. We interpret these observations as supporting the hypothesis that in the MA, CaM attains a physical association with kinetochore MTs and suggest that CaM-associated MTs may be inherently more stable.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 34
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 123-123 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 35
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 225-247 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spectrin ; ankyrin ; protein 4.1 ; membrane skeleton ; spectrin-filament interaction ; fodrin ; adducin ; calpactin I ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this review on spectrin is to examine the functional properties of this ubiquitous family of membrane skeletal proteins. Major topics include spectrin-membrane linkages, spectrin-filament linkages, the subcellular localization of spectrins in various cell types and a discussion of major functional differences between erythroid and nonerythroid spectrins. This includes a summary of studies from our own laboratories on the functional and structural comparison of avian spectrin isoforms which are comprised of a common alpha subunit and a tissue-specific beta subunit. Consequently, the observed differences among these spectrins can be assigned to differences in the properties of the beta subunits.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 216-224 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin microfilaments ; cytochalasin ; immunofluorescence ; phalloidin ; cytoplasmic streaming ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A comparison of actin localization in pollen tubes of Nicotiana has been made using a monoclonal actin antibody and rhodamine-phalloidin (RP). The monoclonal antiactin, based on Western blotting of pollen tube extract, labels a polypeptide at 45 kD that comigrates with muscle actin. A 51-kD unknown protein and three bands less than 45 kD, presumed to be proteolytic fragments of actin, are also observed. Structural observaations using this antibody reveal a network of axially oriented strands of microfilaments (MFs). The MFs are distributed throughout the length of the pollen tube except at the very tip, where diffuse staining is usually observed. A similar pattern of MFs is evident after RP staining. When pollen tubes are treated with cytochalasins (CB or CD) cytoplasmic streaming is inhibited, as is tube elongation. Microscopic analysis reveals that the microfilament (MF) pattern is markedly altered; however, the antibody and RP produce different staining patterns. The antibody reveals many MF strands that distribute throughout the tube length and extend into the very tip. In contrast, RP shows mostly a diffuse staining pattern with only a few short clumps of filamentous material. Immunogold labelling of sections of pollen tubes prepared by rapid-freeze fixation and freeze substitution reveals that actin MF bundles are indeed present after cytochalasin treatment. Our results thus question reports in the literature, based on phalloidin staining, asserting that cytochalasin fragments or destroys actin MFs.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 283-283 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 38
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12 (1989), S. 157-168 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axolotl ; cell differentiation ; cell shape ; cytoskeleton ; nucleated erythrocyte ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spleen of Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) larvae develops as a closed sac containing differentiating nucleated erythrocytes, and is typically isolated from the general circulation for about 10 days post-hatching. Beginning 3-4 days posthatching, it can be removed intact for examination of the morphology and cytoskeletal structure of the erythropoietic cells. In the smallest (earliest) spleens, spheroidal cells predominate, while older ones contain a preponderance of cells exhibiting the flattened elliptical morphology typical of all non-mammalian vertebrate erythrocytes. Most striking in the splenic erythroid population are cells with singly or doubly pointed morphology. Though common in the developing spleen and circulation of young larvae, pointed cells are less frequently encountered in the circulation of older larvae, indicating that they are intermediate stages in the differentiation of spheroids to flattened ellipsoids. This is supported by structural observations on cytoskeletons prepared from the splenic cells. Incomplete singly and doubly pointed marginal bands of microtubules are observed, many of which contain a pair of centrioles within or close to a pointed end, suggestive of organizing center function. The observations are consistent with a sequence of changes in cell morphology from spherical to doubly pointed to singly pointed to flattened ellipse, causally linked to stages of marginal band biogenesis.
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  • 39
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 9-20 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: carotenoid droplet ; intermediate filament ; microfilament ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cytoskeleton of goldfish xanthophores contains an abundance of unique dense structures (400 nm in diameter) that are absent in goldfish nonpigment cells and are probably remnants of pterinosomes. No major difference in protein composition between xanthophores and nonpigment cells (without these structures) was found that could account for these structures. In xanthophores, these structures are foci of radiating filaments. The addition or withdrawal of ACTH causes a radical rearrangement of the xanthophore Cytoskeleton accompanying redistribution of carotenoid droplets, namely, the virtual exclusion of these dense bodies with associated filaments from the space occupied by the carotenoid droplet aggregate vs. a relatively even cytoplasmic distribution of these structures when the carotenoid droplets are dispersed. These changes in cytoskeletal morphology are not accompanied by any major changes in the protein or phosphoprotein composition of the cytoskeleton.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 1-8 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: flagella ; membrane ; glycoproteins ; concanavalin A ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: As an alternative to swimming through liquid medium by the coordinated bending activity of its two flagella, Chlamydomonas can exhibit whole cell gliding motility through the interaction of its flagellar surfaces with a solid substrate. The force transduction occurring at the flagellar surface can be visualized as the saltatory movements of polystyrene microspheres. Collectively, gliding motility and polystyrene microsphere movements are referred to as flagellar surface motility. The principal concanavalin A binding, surface-exposed glycoproteins of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar surface are a pair of glycoproteins migrating with apparent molecular weight of 350 kDa. It has been hypothesized that these glycoproteins move within the plane of the flagellar membrane during the expression of flagellar surface motility. A novel mutant cell line of Chlamydomonas (designated L-23) that exhibits increased binding of concanavalin A to the flagellar surface has been utilized in order to restrict the mobility of the concanavalin A-binding flagellar glycoproteins. Under all conditions where the lateral mobility of the flagellar concanavalin A binding glycoproteins is restricted, the cells are unable to express whole cell gliding motility or polystyrene microsphere movements. Conversely, whenever cells can redistribute their concanavalin A binding glycoproteins in the plane of the flagellar membrane, they express flagellar surface motility. Since the 350 kDa glycoproteins are the major surface-exposed flagellar proteins, it is likely that most of the signal being followed using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-concanavalin A is attributable to these high molecular weight glycoproteins. Therefore, it is likely that the 350 kDa glycoproteins are the ones that must move laterally in the plane of the flagellar membrane in order for the cell to express whole cell gliding motility and microsphere movements along the flagellar surface. This study represents one of the first demonstrations, in any cell type, that whole cell locomotion requires glycoprotein movement within the plane of the plasma membrane.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 128-135 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 146-146 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 30-40 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; chromosome movement ; Paramecium ; nuclear lamina ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The micronuclear spindle apparatus in Paramecium bursaria was studied by electron microscopy during prophase, metaphase, and anaphase of the first meiotic division. During prophase, the spindle apparatus consists mostly of intermediate-like filaments, relatively few spindle microtubules, and unique cone-shaped structures termed microlamellae. Microlamellae join the ends of chromosomes to the fibrous elements of the spindle. The capacity to preserve the intermediate-like filaments is largely dependent upon the use of collidine buffer during fixation. In contrast, during metaphase and anaphase, microtubules are the dominant fibrous element of the spindle. The microtubules interact with chromosomes during these phases by joining to true kinetochores. Neither treatment with cytochalasin B or fixation with a low concentration of osmium tetroxide affects the development of intermediate filaments during prophase. Because intermediate-like filaments are abundant during prophase and microtubules are more common during metaphase and anaphase, the structural differences may reflect differences in the mechanisms for chromosome movement.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 183-186 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 45
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 187-193 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosphere ; locomotion ; MTOC ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that BHK syncytia have the ability to locomote provided the centrospheres are clustered and located adjacent to the cluster of nuclei. This article reports that experimental reorganizations of the centrospheres or the nuclei change the motile behavior of BHK syncytia in a way that is consistent with our previous observations: When fusion of the multiple nuclei occurred in stationary syncytia whose multiple nuclei encircled the centrosphere cluster, the centrospheres were expelled from the ring of nuclei. Consequently, locomotion was initiated in these syncytia even if they had been previously stationary for up to 5 days. Conversely, when a 2-hour incubation in 5 μg/ml cytocholasin B caused the cluster of nuclei to surround the centrosphere cluster, the locomotion of the syncytia was inhibited. Similarly, the dispersal of the centrosphere cluster induced by a 4-hour incubation in 1 μg/ml of colcemid resulted in the long-term cessation of locomotion in motile syncytia.
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  • 46
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 194-200 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spermatozoon ; Ca2+ ; asymmetry ; inactivation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Spermatozoa of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were demembranated with Triton X-100. The demembranated spermatozoa showed vigorous motility in the reactivation solution containing Ca2+ at the concentrations below 10-8.5M in the presence of cAMP. The motility was lost at 10-8M Ca2+ or more. The shape of the immotile flagella in the presence of high concentration of Ca2+ was not uniform: Some showed the cane shape and some were almost straight. The change in Ca2+ concentration of the extraction solution did not alter the motility of the reactivated spermatozoa. These results were different from those obtained from the sea urchin spermatozoa. When the concentration of cAMP was changed from 0.5 to 100 μM, the concentration of Ca2+ for converting the motile to immotile state was not altered. Thus, it is likely that the Ca2+-dependent regulatory system of flagellar movement is independent of the cAMP-induced initiation mechanism, which is assumed to require the transient influx of Ca2+ in rainbow trout spermatozoa.
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  • 47
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 145-157 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; membrane ; sytoskeleton ; Trypanosomatidae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cytoskeleton of Crithidia fasciculata consists of a corset of paralle microtubules enclosing the cell body and closely underlying the plasma membrane. Distinct sets of crosslinks appear to connect tubules to each other and to membrane. Our objective is to determine the composition of these crosslinks and to elucidate the basis of this spectacular example of membrane-microtubule interaction. We purified three proteins (designated COP-33, -41, and -61 by their subunit Mr), which were consistently abundant in highly purified cytoskeletons. All three bound strongly to microtubules in vitro, and the first two induced bundles through periodic crosslinking. Polyclonal antibodies against each have been used to try to localize these proteins in thin sections of cells or whole mounts of cytoskeletons. Antibodies to COP-41 bound sepcifically to glycosomes, organelles that encapsulate many glycolytic enzymes in these protozoa, and COP-41 has been identified as glyceraldehyde 3-P dehydrogenase.
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  • 48
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 158-169 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: chemotaxis ; cAMP ; cytoskeleton ; ameba ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The distribution of myosin was studied in amebae of the Ax-3 and NC-4 strains of Dictyostelium migrating at room temperature, using indirect immunofluorescence of aggregation-competent amebae and the agar-overlay technique. Amebae were fixed in methanol-formaldehyde or absolute acetone at -15°C before or after stimulation with micromolar cyclic AMP at room temperature (20-25°C). Myosin was detected by monoclonal antibodies to Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain followed by a fluorescent secondary antibody that had been preabsorbed to remove nonspecific staining. In both strains there was a striking increase in intensity of anti-myosin immunofluorescence in the cortex where it appeared as a continuous ring 30 seconds after addition of cyclic AMP. This correlated with a rounding up of the cell body. Sixty seconds after stimulation there was a clear reduction of cytoplasmic myosin rods in conjunction with the increased cortical localization. At this time extensions of largely hyaline cytoplasm were observed that extended beyond the cortical shell of myosin. Two minutes after the stimulus the immunofluorescence remained as a distinct line at the cortex, but the cells began to resume in elongated shape. By 3 minutes (NC-4 strain) or 5 minutes (Ax-3 strain) the amebae had largely returned to the control shape, and myosin had returned to its control distribution. Counts of the treated cells at different time points substantiated the observations of individual cells. The time course of translocation of myosin in the Ax-3 strain parallels the time course of myosin phosphorylation reported in previous studies. The results are interpreted in terms of a working hypothesis for the mechanism of translocation.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: latrunculin A ; latrunculin B ; cell shape ; actin organization ; cell growth and division ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The latrunculins are architecturally novel marine compounds isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. In vivo, they alter cell shape, disrupt microfilament organization, and inhibit the microfilament-mediated processes of fertilization and early development. In vitro, latrunculin A was recently found to affect the polymerization of pure actin in a manner consistent with the formation of a 1:1 molar complex with G-actin. These in vitro effects as well as previous indications that the latrunculins are more potent than the cytochalasins suggest differences in the in vivo mode of action of the two clases of drugs. To elucidate these differences we have compared the short- and long-term effects of latrunculins on cell shape and actin organization to those of cytochalasin D. Exposure of hamster fibroblast NIL8 cells for 1-3 hr to latrunculin A, latrunculin B, and cytochalasin D causes concentration-dependent changes in cell shape and actin organization. However, the latrunculin-induced changes were strikingly different from those induced by cytochalasin D. Furthermore, while initial effects were manifest with both latrunculin A and cytochalasin D already at concentrations of about 0.03 μg/ml, latrunculin A caused complete rounding up of all cells at 0.2 μg/ml, whereas with cytochalasin D maximum contraction was reached at concentrations 10-20 times higher. The short-term effects of latrunculin B were similar to those of latrunculin A although latrunculin B was slightly less potent. All three drugs inhibited cytokinesis in synchronized cells, but their long-term effects were markedly different. NIL8 cells treated with latrunculin A maintained their altered state for extended periods. In contrast, the effects of cytochalasin D progressed with time in culture, and the latrunculin B-induced changes were transient in the continued presence of the drug. These transient effects were found to be due to a gradual inactivation of latrunculin B by serum and were used to compare recovery patterns of cell shape and actin organization in two different cell lines. This comparison showed that the transient effects of latrunculin B were fully reversible for the NIL8 cells and not for the mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells.
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  • 50
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 170-180 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Avena ; cytoskeleton ; Gramineae ; guard cell ; microtubule ; stomatal complex ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Changes in microtubule organization were monitored in the stomatal complexes of Avena sativa using tubulin immunocytochemistry. Radial arrays of cortical microtubules, previously thought to be characteristic of guard cells, also appear in adjacent subsidiary cells early in development. The subsidiary cell arrays are evident even before guard cells form via division of precursor guard mother cells. Thus, before the stomatal pore opens between sister guard cells, each complex contains four similar microtubule arrays. As the pore opens, however, the subsidiary cell system is reorganized into a network of microtubules distributed along the length of the cell. A similar change is effected in the guard cells after the pore opens. Subsidiary cells and guard cells elongate during later stages of differentiation, and a thickened wall is deposited int he narrow midzone of the latter. At the same time, microtubules in both cells assume a more axial orientation. The results are discussed in terms of developmental symmetry and the control of microtubule organization and cell wall deposition.
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  • 51
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 13 (1989), S. 181-194 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: desmosomes ; keratinocytes ; tumor cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In cultured human keratinocytes (NHEK) maintained in medium containing low levels of Ca2+ (0.04 mM) desmoplakin is a component of certain electron-dense bodies in the cytoplasm. These bodies are associated with bundles of intermediate filaments. Upon elevation of the level of Ca2+ in the culture medium to 1.2 mM, desmoplakin first appears at sites of cell - cell contact in association with bundles of intermediate filaments. Subsequently, desmoplakin becomes incorporated into desmosomes in a manner comparable to that seen in mouse keratinocytes (Jones and Goldman: Journal of Cell Biology 101:506-517, 1985). NHEK cells maintained for 24 hr at Ca2+ concentrations between 0.04 mM and 0.18 mM were processed for immunofluorescence, immunoelectron, and conventional electron microscopical analysis. In NHEK cells grown at Ca2+ concentrations of 0.11 mM, desmoplakin appears to be localized in electron-dense bodies associated with intermediate filaments at sites of cell - cell contact in the absence of formed desmosomes. At a Ca2+ concentration of 0.13 mM desmoplakin is arrayed like beads on a “string” of intermediate filaments at areas of cell - cell association. At 0.15 mM, desmosome formation occurs, and desmoplakin is associated with the desmosomal plaque. In basal cell carcinoma cells desmoplakin is not restricted to desmosomes but also occurs in certain electron-dense bodies morphologically similar to those seen in NHEK maintained in low levels of Ca2+ and during early stages of desmosome assembly. We discuss the possibility of “cycling” of desmoplakin through these bodies in proliferative cells.
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  • 52
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 469-484 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: “fixed cortex” model ; neural crest ; mesenchyme ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present a model of cell motility based on emigration of neural crest cells into the neural tube lumen under in vitro conditions (10% fetal calf serum or YIGSR) that inhibit their normal emigration from the base of the neuroepithelium into surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Ultrastructural observations reveal that cells lining the lumen are joined by zonulae adherentes (ZA), which are points of strong intercellular attachment, and thereby serve as markers for fixed regions of plasmalemma and cortical actin. Three major observations of the relationship of cells to the ZA support the “fixed cortex” model of mesenchymal cell migration. First, cells extend apical cel processes past the ZA into the lumen. To do this, they must make new apical plasmalemma and actin corrtex that the endoplasm slides into. Second, elongated cells are observed in the lumen that are still attached via ZA to the neuroepithelium. This indicates that all of the endoplasm finally slides past the ZA. Third, numerous cytoplasmic pieces, often attached to each other and to the neuroepithelium via ZA, are found at the site where cells appear to have detached from the epithelium after entering the lumen. Since the ZA is fixed in location, the endoplasm must have slid past it into newly manufactured anterior cortex and plasmalemma, with the trailing end of the cell finally snapping off. The “fixed cortex” theory of cell migration agrees with existing data in that it predicts the polarized insertion of new plasmalemma and actin at the leading end of the cell, but it differs significantly from existing theories of mesenchymal cell migration in that it states that the cell surface remains firmly attached to the substratum while the myosin-rich endoplasm slides past it.
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  • 53
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 485-490 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: pigment organelle dispersion ; secretion ; liver ; yeast ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We reported previously that the dispersion of carotenoid droplets in permeabilized xanthophores requires cAMP, ATP, and a cytosolic factor present in several secretory tissues as well as in xanthophores. We have now purified this factor from beef liver to apparent/near homogeneity. It appears to be a heterodimer with Mr ∼125,000. The purified factor has little or no ATPase activity, with or without the presence of actin. Nor does it stimulate the ATPase activity of carotenoid droplets. Its exact function in carotenoid droplet dispersion is thus unclear. Since dispersion of carotenoid droplets is an anterograde translocation, we propose the name anterogin for this protein. We also report that yeast cytosol has anterogin activity.
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  • 54
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 491-500 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intracellular motility ; endocytosis ; cytoskeleton ; ATPase ; retrograde transport ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A microtubule associated protein from brain tissue (MAP 1C), has been found to possess many properties in common with ciliary and flagellar dyneins (Paschal et al.: J. Cell Biol. 105:1273-1282, 1987). However, this protein, now designated as cytoplasmic dynein, exhibited several properties which distinguish it from axonemal forms of the enzyme. We have investigated these characteristics further in a study of cytoplasmic dyneins from non-neuronal tissues. Rat liver and testis in particular were found to contain high levels of cytoplasmic dynein. The yield of dynein from testis was over 70 μg/g of tissue, making this the best source of cytoplasmic dynein of all tissues so far examined. The characterization of dynein from these sources has confirmed and extended our previous observations concerning the unique properties of cytoplasmic dynein. Activation of liver and testis dynein occured at low (〈1 mg/ml) tubulin concentration. Polypeptides identified as subunits of brain cytoplasmic dynein (74, 59, 57, 55, and 53 kDa) were present in liver and testis preparations. In addition, polypeptides at 150 and 45 kDa were found to copurify with the non-neuronal dyneins. The liver and testis enzyme hydrolyzed pyrimidine nucleotides at rates up to 12.5 times faster than ATP, though the relative affinity of cytoplasmic dynein for CTP was much lower (Km = 1.0 mM) than that for ATP. The properties of the testis enzyme were consistent with its identification as a cytoplasmic dynein rather than a sperm axonemal precursor. These data indicate that cytoplasmic dyneins may be widespread in distribution and that they share certain biochemical properties unique from those of axonemal dyneins. These characteristics are consistent with the proposal that cytoplasmic dynein plays a universal role in retrograde organelle motility.
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  • 55
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 562-571 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell motility ; video-enhanced microscopy ; ATPase ; sodium fluoride ; motor proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Kinesin from porcine brain was prepared by a procedure based on the strong binding of the protein to microtubules in the presence of sodium fluoride and ATP. The protocol reduces the requirement for taxol and AMP-PNP. The kinesin is active in terms of its ability to move microtubules on glass slides and its ATPase. The ATPase of this kinesin is about 8 nmol/min/mg; it is activated to 19 nmol/min/mg in the presence of microtubules. The relationship between gliding velocity and ATP concentration follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using the motility assay, the maximal velocity is 0.78 μm/sec, and the Km values is 150 μM for ATP. For GTP the corresponding values are 0.38 μm/sec and 1.7 mM. ADP is a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.29 mM).Crude preparations of kinesin do not support motility on glass slides, whereas gel-filtered kinesin does. A search for potential inhibitory factors showed that one of them is MAP2; however, its inhibitory effect becomes visible only in certain conditions. MAP2 bound to microtubules does not inhibit kinesin-induced motility. However, when MAP2 and kinesin are preadsorbed to the glass surface independently of microtubules, MAP2 prevents the interaction of kinesin with microtubules, as if it formed a “lawn” that acted as a spacer and thus repelled the MAP-free microtubules or crosslinked the MAP-containing ones. The repelling effect of MAP2 domains (projection or assembly fragments obtained by chymotryptic cleavage) added separately is less pronounced and be overcome by kinesin. These results reinforce the view of MAP2 as a spacer molecule.
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  • 56
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 57
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 58
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 14 (1989), S. 50-57 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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