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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 115-124 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Some types of atomic vibrations in a chain of the DNA type constructed of G-C pairs were studied. These are the atomic vibrations of the lateral groups of guanine and N(3)H(1)H(2) of cytosine connected by the hydrogen bond h-b-1 and the vibrations of the centers of masses of bases in the direction parallel to bonds h-b-i, i = 1-3. The vibrations mix partially due to the dependence of the energy of the bond h-b-1 on its length and split into two bands because of the interaction between neighboring base pairs. It was shown that the excitation of the bond h-b-1 results in the splitting off of the two local vibrations and in a small deformation of the chain in the vicinity of the pair with the localized hydrogen bond. The law of the dispersion of band vibrations, values of the split-off frequencies, and degree of poly(dG)-poly(dC) chain deformation were determined. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 97-113 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Restricted geometry optimizations at the ab initio SCF level with the 3-21G basis set were employed to investigate the conformation space of flavone acetic acid (FAA) and its related compounds. All the conformations are produced from a conformation which is, according to our previous work, probably the active conformation in terms of antitumor activity shown by these compounds. Detailed studies on FAA were carried out while only brief discussions are made on the analogs. The main results obtained are that (1) FAA is a very flexible molecule, e.g., with the energy barrier up to about 3 kcal mol-1 from the reference conformation, the important torsional angle τ1 can change from 27.0° to 117.0°, τ2 from -168.0° to 2.0°, and τ3 from -50.0° to 30.0°; (2) the hydrogen-bonding effect plays an important role in determining lower-energy conformations; (3) among all the FAA conformations considered, some are active and some are inactive; (4) it seems that the analogs will have similar behavior to FAA when the torsional angle τ3 is restricted to the values which are around the equilibrium values; and (5) the hypothesis put forward previously has been further developed in this work. Now, we postulate that efficient charge transfers will lower the energy and that proper charge transfers will activate the molecule. There are mainly two different types of charge transfer corresponding to two different types of conformation, which are specified in this article. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 13-21 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An analysis of the anisotropic Heisenberg model is carried out by solving the Bethe ansatz solution of the model numerically as a function of the anisotropy parameter for finite N. A brief introduction to the limit of the infinite chain is presented. The energy for a few special limiting cases of the anisotropy parameter in the Hamiltonian are worked out. Numerical results for finite cycles as well as for the infinite chain are given. Comparison can then be made with the case of finite increasing N. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 23-27 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio study on the reaction of the ground state (3D) and the excited state (1D) of Sc+ with methane was performed. Reaction channels on the singlet and triplet potential surface (PES) and the reaction mechanism are examined and discussed. Three regions of the potential surface was studied: the molecular complex, the C(SINGLE BOND)H insertion products, and the transition states for the reaction. Comparisons between singlet and triplet PESs show that the excited state (1D) of Sc+ has more reactivity with methane than does the ground state (3D) due to the spin quantum number conservation with the more stable insertion intermediate. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 1-11 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Roothaan-Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculations are carried out for the ground states of the atoms from helium to xenon using a minimal basis set of Slater-type functions whose principal quantum numbers are allowed to take variationally optimal noninteger values. The resulting energies are substantially superior to those obtained previously under the usual restriction that principal quantum numbers be positive integers. The energy lowering relative to the single-zeta wave functions of Clementi and co-workers ranges from 0.0066 Eh in He to 11.2 Eh in Xe. Our results are superior to those obtained by Höjer using a minimal basis set of unconventional binomially screened basis functions. Noninteger principal quantum numbers benefit d-orbitals the most; physically realistic negative d-orbital energies are obtained in all cases including those transition-metal atoms for which a conventional single-zeta STF basis leads to positive d-orbital energies. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 47-53 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The MELD program is employed to evaluate the Slater average potential v(r) felt by an electron at the point r within an atom. The characteristic radius R of the atom is then defined by the classical turning point equation v(R) = -I, where I denotes the first ionization potential of the atom. The atomic radii defined in this way have a close correlation with the van der Waals atomic radii. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 29-45 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The H2 interaction with the Pd dimer and trimer were studied using multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MC-SCF) calculations with the relativistic effective core potential (RECP); the correlation energy correction was included in the extended multireference configuration interaction (MRCI), variational and perturbative to second order. Here, we considered the Pd2 first six states: 3Σ+u, 1Σ+g, 3Πg, 3Δxy, 1Σ+u, and 3Σ+g. For them, the four geometrical approaches included were the side-on H2 toward Pd2, for the hydrogen molecule in and out the Pd dimer plane; the perpendicular end-on H2 toward Pd2; and the perpendicular end-on Pd2 to H2. The Pd2 ground state is 3Σ+u, which only captures H2 in the C2v end-on approach, softly relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. The closed-shell 1Σ+g captures the H2 molecule in all the approaches considered: The side-on approach of this state presents deep wells and relaxes the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond, and the end-on approach captures H2 with a relatively longer H(SINGLE BOND)H distance and also a deep well. The 3Πg state was the only one which did not capture H2. For the triangular Pd3 clusters, H2 was approached in the C2v symmetry in and out of the Pd3 plane. In the triangular case, H2 was absorbed in both spin states, with deep wells and relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H distance. The linear Pd3 singlet and triplet states capture outside of the Pd3 and break the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 77-88 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Highly accurate upper bounds for several 2Pe states of the Li isoelectronic series obtained by extensive Hylleraas-Cl calculations are given. The best value for the 22Pe state (1s2p2) of Li is -5.21373920 au. The evaluation of the occurring integrals is given explicitly. Additionally, we present some expectation values and isotope energies of the Li isoelectronic series. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Tab.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 67-76 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The importance of the hybridization displacement charge (HDC) in describing molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps was demonstrated by studying six molecules; pyrazine N-oxide, para-nitropyridine, 5-nitropyrimidine, 3-nitropyridazine, N2, and N2O. It is shown that continuously distributed HDC-corrected Löwdin charges reproduce the MEP features of these molecules, most of which have competing electrophilic sites, in agreement with ab initio results. Further, it is found that for homonuclear diatomic molecules MEP minima can be located properly using HDC-corrected Löwdin (or HDC-corrected Mulliken) continuously distributed charges, but these features cannot be obtained using the conventional Löwdin (or Mulliken) charges. It was shown that the order of molecular electric field (MEF) values near the different electrophilic sites becomes changed when one moves away from the molecules. Thus, pyridine-type nitrogen atoms are the preferred binding sites close to the molecules, while at large distances, effects of oxygen atoms of the NO groups become dominant. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 55-65 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We compare geometry configurations, vibrational properties, and electronic structures of (HF)2 in a free state and inside argon atom shells Arn. For the first stage, molecular dynamics calculations for the (HF)2 · Ar62 heterocluster are performed with the help of model potentials HF(SINGLE BOND)HF, Ar(SINGLE BOND)Ar, and Ar(SINGLE BOND)HF. Then, ab initio quantum chemistry analysis is carried out for the smaller systems (HF)2 · Ar15 and (HF)2 · Ar6 when keeping the argon atoms closest to the trapped dimer. We conclude that the hydrogen-bonded complex (HF)2 gains some extra stability inside the argon shells, originating primarily from a decrease of intermolecular distance RFF. Electronic structure calculations are in accord with the changes in dynamical properties, namely, a noticeable increase in the vibrational frequency assigned to the F(SINGLE BOND)F stretching mode (+25 cm-1) and decrease in rms deviations for the corresponding coordinate δFF. In addition to these changes, the argon atoms of the nearest solvent shell donate a small fraction of electron charge which is spent for an increase of population of the antibonding orbital σ*Hf(SINGLE BOND)Ff of the free monomer unit and shift orbital energies primarily of the lone-pair fluorine species. These shifts are greater than the changes due to geometry alterations and the possible inaccuracies of the calculation scheme. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 89-96 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We presented a calculation of the total and partial decay widths of vibrational predissociation (VP) of the HeI2 molecule for low initial vibrational excitations from the lowest van der Waals (vdW) state with total angular momentum J = 0. A time-dependent golden rule wave-packet method was employed in our numerical calculations for the decay widths. The computed total decay widths, lifetimes, and rates of VP are in fairly good agreement with those extrapolated from the experimental data available. Predicted total decay widths as a function of initial vibrational levels exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior. These results demonstrate that a quantum mechanical decay mode for low vibrational excitation remains as well. The total propagation time needed in the time-dependent golden rule wave-packet calculations is much shorter than is the lifetime of the predissociation of HeI2. It is shown that the final-state interaction between the fragments is important for determining the final rotational-state distribution (partial decay width). We find that the major peak position in the final rotational-state distribution shifts to lower rotational energy levels with increase of the initial vibrational quantum number, which is evidently different from that for higher vibrational levels. This fact can be clearly explained by the dependence of the amount of kinetic energy released to the product degrees of freedom on the initial vibrational state. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 239-244 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We calculate the resonant and antibound state energies for a Morse potential with a centrifugal barrier using Siegert boundary conditions. Starting with a complex wave number k (purely imaginary for bound and antibound states), we integrate numerically from the origin up to a matching point using Numerov's method. The inward integration is performed using the corresponding (first-order) Riccati equation. The complex eigenvalues are found by matching the two logarithmic derivatives. We find narrow shape resonances within the well, above the dissociation limit, and broad resonances above the centrifugal barrier. Antibound states are found even with J = 0. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 245-259 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An efficient expansion method for the evaluation of VB matrix elements is introduced. The overlaps of VB wave functions of N electrons can be treated as algebrants, i.e., generalized determinants, of N × N matrices. An algebrant can be expanded with subalgebrants of lower orders in a successive way. By choosing Rumer spin bases and appropriately arranging the expansion, it is found that the number of unique subalgebrants involved in the expansion increases in a quite moderate way with N. In contrast to the traditional symmetric group approach, which explicitly utilizes all N! representation matrices, the new strategy incorporates the group theoretical factors in a simple way in the successive expansion. As only the unique subalgebrants are further expanded, the computational effort required by the new strategy scales in a very acceptable manner with the increasing number of electrons. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 62: 245-259, 1997
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 261-264 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Characters of irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group corresponding to the two-row Young diagrams, i.e., describing transformation properties of N-electron eigenfunctions of the total spin operators, have been expressed as explicit functions of the number of electrons N and of the total spin quantum number S. The formulas are useful in various areas of theory of many-electron systems, particularly in designing algorithms for evaluation of spectral density moments. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 273-278 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical solutions to the Yukawa-like screened Coulomb nuclear attraction and electron repulsion molecular basic integrals, as well as to the basic integrals required to compute the virial coefficient, over Gaussian basis functions, are derived and cast into a practical closed form, suitable to interface with modern codes for the calculation of molecular electronic structure. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 265-272 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Numerical experiments with a nonlinear (λχ4) oscillator which has its harmonic frequency changing randomly with time reveal certain interesting features of its dynamics of quantum evolution. When λ = 0, the level populations are seen to oscillate. But, as the nonlinear coupling is switched on (λ 〉 0), a threshold is reached at λ = λc when the evolution is seen to be characterized by an abrupt transition dominantly to the highest available state of the unperturbed (initial) oscillator. It is shown that this transition probability is maximized at a particular value of λ. The time threshold for this transition decreases with increasing nonlinear coupling strength. The numerically obtained structures of the underlying quantum-phase spaces of the linear and nonlinear random oscillators are examined. Possible use of these results in a problem of chemical origin is explored. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 291-296 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The geometries and S-H, S-S, and S-C bond dissociation energies for hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen disulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were calculated with both ab initio (ROHF and MP2), hybrid (BHandH, BHandHLYP, Becke3LYP and Becke3P86), and nonlocal (BLYP and BP86) density functional theory (DFT) methods. In all studies the 6-31 + G(d) basis set is used. The computed results are compared to the experimentally obtained values, targeting the selection of a suitable ab initio or DFT method for the study of these systems. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1065-1078 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: very precise eigenvalues ; very accurate grid method ; general solution for Schrödinger equations ; rapidly convergent treatment for helium eigenvalues ; superconvergence ; optimization of grids ; treatment of continuum ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An extension to the theory of Schrödinger equations has been made which enables the derivation of eigenvalues from a consideration of a very small part of geometric space. The concomitant unwanted continuum effects have been removed. The theory enables very convergent or “superconvergent” calculations. In the case of the helium ground state, E=-2.90372437703411987 Eh was obtained from 251 terms. The result is comparable to that from the largest variation calculations so far carried out reinforced by extrapolation techniques. The theory is extensible to atoms and molecules irrespectively of the number of electrons or nuclear centers. In these cases, the advantage of “superconvergent” calculations will be more pronounced than in the case of helium.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1065-1078, 1997
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1079-1089 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: large-order perturbation theory ; lie algebra ; three-body problem ; symbolic computations ; helium atom ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The method of o(4, 2) operator replacements is generalized. As a result, the series whose limiting values when the variable goes to  +∞ should correspond to the two-electron atom energies now have rational coefficients. This generalization allows one also to compute the series for the case of singlet S symmetry, a case which could not be considered in the previous original formulation of the method. Series with rational coefficients for the helium singlet and triplet S ground-state energy are calculated up to order 41 and 45, respectively. Moreover, symbolic computations also allow one to give the first few coefficients of these series for arbitrary values of the nuclear charge Z. Finally, a new method for analytic continuation to the limit  +∞ is presented for the energies of the helium singlet and triplet ground states.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1079-1089, 1997
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1099-1106 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: metathesis reactions ; bond order ; free valence ; minimum energy path ; nonsynchronization ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A few simple atom-transfer reactions (i.e., Ȧ+X-A→A-X+Ȧ) are studied by quantum mechanical ab initio methods. Emphasis is given to the detailed analysis of density matrices rather than to the energetics. Results reveal that during these reactions a small free valence always develops on the migrating atom at the transition state. The barriers in these reactions arise from the greater extent of bond cleavage in the reactant than that of bond formation in the transition state. Analysis of bond orders estimated from bond lengths using Pauling's relation also leads to the fact that the bond-cleavage process is more advanced than is the bond-formation process in these reactions.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1099-1106, 1997
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1107-1122 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: relativistic pseudopotentials ; heavy atoms ; method of molecular calculation ; electronic structure ; Gaussian approximation ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Gaussian expansions of the generalized relativistic effective core potential (GRECP) components are reported for elements Hg through Rn. The accuracy of the analytical GRECPs is estimated by calculations of atomic transition energies with the numerical one-configurational wave functions in comparison with Dirac-Fock calculations. The results of the corresponding calculations with the RECPs of other groups are also given. An “averaged error” in the reproduction of the transition energies without the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell is an order of magnitude smaller than that for the RECPs of other groups. As is demonstrated for the transitions with the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell in mercury, the largest absolute error of the GRECP is only 1.5-2 times smaller than that of the energy-adjusted pseudopotential (PP) or the RECP of Ross et al. with the same space of explicitly treated electrons. However, the dispersion of these errors is 19⋅10-4 au for the energy-adjusted PP, 35⋅10-4 au for the RECP of Ross et al. and only 4⋅10-4 au for the GRECP. One-configurational spin-averaged calculations of the molecular properties for HgH and HgH+ are carried out and compared with the corresponding results of Häussermann et al.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1107-1122, 1997
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1123-1131 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: MD simulations ; liquid surface ; formamide ; molecular orientation ; molecular surface density ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid formamide(HCONH2) were carried out using the GROMOS software. The formamide molecule is represented by all of its atoms with all internal degrees of freedom. In contrast to other simulations dealing with bulk properties, this study focuses on the interface liquid-vacuum for the first time. We show that the molecular plane is tilted out of the surface, exposing the HCO group to the vacuum.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1123-1131, 1997
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 279-289 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one) was studied by the semiempirical AM1 and PM3 and ab initio STO-3G*, 3-21G*, and 6-31G* methods. The goals were to compare those methods and to know the electronic structure of the hormone. Full geometry optimization was performed, and two crystal conformers (T1 and T2), and experimental dipole moment in solution were used for comparison. One conformer with a dipole moment similar to the solvated conditions was generated. Total energy, entalphies, dipole moments, charges, electrostatic potentials, and highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated. Root-mean-square (RMS) index of the theoretical molecules against T1 and T2 showed best results with the 3-21G* and 6-31G* methods, while AM1 gave better energies than PM3. Dipole moments were directed toward the OH group and the botton face of the A ring. The frontier orbitals were located along the C4-C5 π bond, particularly the LUMO was split between C4 and C5, predicting the action of enzymes at C5 yielding to 5α and 5β-reduced androgens. Electrostatic potentials might be also of biological importance since they are coincidental with the dipole-moment orientation. Finally, it is interesting that the solvatedlike conformer, its properties, and the OH group laid between the same group of T1 and T2 and with a total energy between the crystals and the gas phase or in vacuo conditions. This results might also explain the biology of testosterone and use them to model the hormone-receptor interaction. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 297-302 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mechanism and kinetics for the decomposition of β-hydroxypropaldehyde, primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones, were studied by using ab initio RHF/6-31G and RHF/6-31G* methods. The activation barriers of these reactions were refined to be 39.57, 40.10, and 36.80 kcal mol-1 at the MP2/ /RHF/6-31G* level, respectively. The calculated results show that each decomposition is a concerted process with hydrogen transferring and bond breaking via a six-membered cyclic transition state. The thermal rate constants of the decomposition of primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones were obtained by calculating microcanonical probability fluxes through each transition state. It is theoretically confirmed that methyl substitution at the hydroxyl carbon of β-hydroxyketones causes a small enhancement in rates. The theoretical investigations of the mechanism and the rate constants are in agreement with the experimental results. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 25
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 303-314 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: He I photoelectron (PE) spectra of four carboxylic acids and five esters are measured. Semiempirical and ab initio quantum chemical calculations are used for the interpretation of the spectra. The complex approach which uses empirically established relationships (the dependence of valence electron ionization energies on proton affinities in the gas phase, on the core level ionization energies, and on the structure) was developed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 26
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 315-322 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two alternative dehydration reactions C(OH)4 → (HO)2CO + H2O and C(OH)4 + H2O → (HO)2CO + 2H2O are studied by ab initio Becke3LYP/6-311 + G** and MP2/6-31G** methods. Calculated energy and geometry characteristics of intermediates and transition states predict a catalytic effect of one water molecule and the exothermism of the transformations. Relevant HF/6-311 + G**, HF/6-31G**, HF/6-31G, and HF/3-21G calculations were performed for comparison. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 27
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 62 (1997), S. 323-328 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Simple molecular orbital calculations are employed in searching electronic parameters which may characterize the chemical carcinogens. Using frontier orbitals, the carcinogen-DNA bond formation is described as an electron transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of DNA to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the carcinogen. Analysis of the DNA bases units shows that the electron donation occurs preferentially at the guanine site. The calculated low LUMO energy of several carcinogens indicate correctly the electrophilic character of these compounds. The difference between the carcinogen and the ultimate carcinogen is analyzed. Epoxides, free radicals, alkylating agents, and other metabolite forms are studied. A reasonable correlation is found between the LUMO energy and the carcinogenic function. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 28
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 421-431 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The chemical bond in the hydrogen molecule is examined using the electron density and the generalized overlap amplitudes. Logarithmic derivatives of the electron density provide a clear picture of its behavior in the bonding region as well as in the outer region. The GOA expansion of the density is used to examine the dependence of the rate of decay of the density on the GOA ionization potentials. The increase in the electron density at the nuclei and in the bonding region coincides with the higher ionization potential of H2 over the H atom. The density in the bonding region along the internuclear axis does not decay exponentially, but its shape is very nearly an inverted Gaussian. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The two lower-lying electronic states (3Σ- and 5Σ-) of the BeC, MgC, and CaC molecules were investigated using restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF), generalized valence bond (GVB), and configuration interaction (CI) calculations to establish the relative ordering of those states as a function of the size of the alkaline-earth element. It is shown that as a result of the competition between bonding effects, which predominate for the 3Σ- states, and exchange effects, which stabilize the 5Σ- states, the ordering of these states can be reversed as we move from the Be to the Ca atom. For both the BeC and MgC molecules, the ground state was found to be a triplet X3Σ- state, but for the CaC molecule, the high-spin X5Σ- becomes more stable. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: On the example of several atomic and small molecular systems, the regular behavior of nodal patterns in the electronic one-particle reduced Wigner function is demonstrated. An expression found earlier relates the nodal pattern solely to the dot-product of the position and the momentum vector, if both arguments are large. An argument analogous to the “bond-oscillatory principle” for momentum densities links the nuclear framework in a molecule to an additional oscillatory term in momenta parallel to bonds. It is shown that these are visible in the Wigner function in terms of characteristic nodes. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 31
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 453-466 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An extended geminal model has been applied to determine the interatomic potential for the X1Σ+g state Be2. By adopting a [11s, 9p, 6d, 4f, 2g] contracted Gaussian-type basis, the following potential minimum parameters are obtained: Re = 4.67 a.u. (4.63 a.u.) and De = 3.70 mH (3.82 ± 0.05 mH), experimental values in parentheses. A calculation with a nuclei-centered [9s, 7p, 4d, 2f, 1g] GTO basis plus two sets of bond-type function, each set comprising diffuse (2s, 2p, 2d, 2f, 1g) GTOs, yielded -3.79 mH as the value of the potential at R = 4.63 a.u. On the basis of an error analysis the best theoretical estimate of the binding energy is determined to be 3.83 ± 0.08 mH. The calculated value for the fundamental vibrational frequency is v0→1 = 224.7 cm-1 (exp. = 224 ± 3 cm). © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 32
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 467-473 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The adiabatic energy surfaces of the lowest three electronic states [2(2A′ and 2A′)] and 2Σ+[2A′] of the C2F radical were investigated by the Hartree-Fock multiconfiguration self-consistent field (HF - MCSCF) ab initio method using a large set of atomic natural orbitals (ANO) and an extended configuration space, and the results were shown to be in agreement with the predictions of valence theory for this radical. The electronic ground state was found to have a bent equilibrium structure, hence contradicting the Walsh rule which predicts for the isoelectronic molecules a 2 linear state. The three states were found to be nearly degenerate and the potential energy surfaces of the two lowest electronic states exhibit an avoided crossing at an energy ∼2000 cm-1 above the ground-state minimum, lower than the highest vibrational fundamental. The strong adiabatic interaction which is responsible for the ordering of the electronic states and their equilibrium geometry involves not only the bending coordinate as normally found for Renner-Teller pairs of states, but also the C - C stretching coordinate, due to the near degeneracy of the 2Σ+ and the 2 lowest electronic states at linear geometries. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 33
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 475-486 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Generalized oscillator strengths for a number of singlet transitions of the NH3 molecule, evaluated according to the random-phase approximation approach, are presented and discussed so as to provide characterization of some portions of the Bethe surface of the molecule. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 34
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 487-492 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The second electric dipole hyperpolarizability of the lithium atom is calculated using a series of multiconfiguration SCF wave functions with an increasing number of active space orbitals. In agreement with other recent calculations, we find a very large correlation correction to the hyperpolarizability. We analyze the frequency dependence of the dc Kerr hyperpolarizability γK(ο) = γ (- ο ο, 0, 0) and observe very significant dispersion effects. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 35
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 493-504 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In this article, we present a study of the localization and properties of the molecular orbitals (MOs) of polyatomic systems by using a comprehensive version of the G1 model. In this version, the wave function is written as a DODS product of univocally determined spin orbitals (MOs), “projected” on the singlet ground state. A procedure for determining the MOs is given and applied to the BeH2 ground state. Equivalent split shell and localized MOs are found. The Be orbitals are seen to exhibit sp hybridization and the localized valence MOs are found to produce - 13.7 kcal/mol localization energy. Multistructural calculations are carried out and show that the present approach is able to describe localized and well-oriented bonds whenever the molecule under study presents only a single well-defined nonresonant chemical structure. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 36
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 505-512 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The S0 and S1 potential energy surfaces of pentalene were studied using MMVB - a hybrid force-field/parametrized valence bond (VB) method designed to simulate CASSCF calculations for ground and covalent excited states. The results were calibrated against full CASSCF calculations. Four distinct critical points were optimized: on S0, a C2h minimum (with alternating single and double bonds) and a D2h transition structure; and on S1, a D2h minimum and an adjacent S1/S0 conical intersection. A VB exchange density matrix (which is independent of the choice of the spin-coupled basis) was used to rationalize the S0 and S1 surface topologies. Craig defined pseudoaromatic molecules to be those with nontotally symmetric electronic ground states. For pentalene, this is true for both CASSCF and MMVB calculations: the CASSCF S0 transition structure is an open-shell B1x singlet, and the VB ground state is dominated by a spin-coupling which transforms as B1g. A C2v minimum and a D2h transition structure were located on the CASSCF S2 potential energy surface. This state cannot be represented by MMVB because of the importance of ionic configurations. The characters of the S1 S2 states of pentalene are shown to be reverse of the S1 and S2 states of benzene. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 37
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The problem of bond length alternation in linear extended φ-electron systems with conjugated double bonds is examined using the valence bond theory applied to a simple model of cyclic polyenes CNHN with N = 4v and N = 4v + 2 sites as described by the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian. Overlap enhanced atomic orbitals are employed in order to achieve the optimal treatment with only two Kekulé structures. The predicted bond length alternation and its magnitude are in good agreement with earlier molecular orbital based calculations and with experiment. Special attention is given to the discussion of the origin of bond length alternation in long polyenic chains and to the role of the resonance energy leading to stabilization of undistorted, symmetric structures for small aromatic (N = 4v + 2) cycles. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 38
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 529-534 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 13C shielding of the isotopomers CH3Cl, CH2 DCl, CHD2Cl, and CD3Cl has been calculated for a range of temperatures from an self-consistent field (SCF) shielding surface computed by Buckingham and Olegario. It is found that each successive deuterium substitution increases the shielding by about 0.19 ppm and that a very slight nonadditivity occurs. The principal factor which governs the nuclear motion correction for each isotopomer is the stretching of the bonds with both first- and second-order terms being significant. Angle bending contributions are very small at first order but quite substantial at second order. Not only should the 13C-isotope shifts in this experimentally uninvestigated series be easily measured but the temperature dependence of the shielding in any one isotopomer should be observable provided that careful measurements are made. The 13C-shielding difference between CH3 35Cl and CH3 37Cl has also been calculated and is found to agree well with experiment. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 39
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 535-543 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The exchange-correlation potential associated with excited-state density functional theory is studied numerically using accurate electron densities for ground and excited states of He, Be, Ne, Mg, and Ar. The long-range and short-range behaviors of this potential are discussed. First-excitation energies are estimated using various prescriptions. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 40
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 545-552 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The ground state of benzocyclobutadiene, a bicyclic molecule with 8π electrons containing a benzene and a cyclobutadiene ring, is studied by means of modern valence bond (VB) theory in its spin-coupled (SC) form and the complete-active-space self-consistent field (CAS SCF) approach. The CAS SCF wave function is used to optimize the geometry, and SC theory - to obtain a well-correlated and easy to visualize and understand model of the active space hosting the π electrons. It is shown that the π system of the ground state of benzocyclobutadiene can be described with sufficient accuracy as a combination of the π systems of a distorted benzene ring and an isolated double bond. Each of the eight SC orbitals is found to be well-localized about one carbon atom only, with small distortions toward its nearest neighbors. The analysis of the optimal active-space spin-coupling pattern within the SC wave function for benzocyclobutadiene shows unambiguously that this molecule inherits neither the aromatic nor the antiaromatic character of its cyclic components, and it is most appropriate to regard it as nonaromatic. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 41
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 579-592 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Position and momentum space plots are presented for localized molecular orbitals in hydrocarbons, boranes, a carborane, and two octahedral transition metal complexes. The p-space representation proves to be valuable for visualizing such orbitals since it highlights the differences in their character from one molecule to another. Factors influencing the form of the orbitals in p space, including the oscillatory behavior caused by contributions to an orbital from more than one center, are examined in detail. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 42
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1-2 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 43
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 617-634 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The group-function theory, as proposed by McWeeny for the study of weak intermolecular interactions and developed by Huzinaga in the context of valence-electron methods, is shown to be applicable to the ab initio study of tunable solid-state laser materials made of defective ionic crystals. The applicability of the theory relies on the existence of local electronic states (to which the demonstrated/potential laser activity is ascribed), which are essentially localized in a small cluster of atoms including the defect and whose electron correlation interactions with the surrounding crystal components are negligible. According to the group-function formalism, it is possible (a) to neglect electron correlation effects beyond the defect cluster and (b) to define a quantum mechanical embedding potential which embodies the rest of the so-called host effects. Computationally, the theory becomes applicable as the embedding potential is approximated through ab initio model potentials (AIMP). The results of AIMP embedded-cluster calculations demonstrate that it is possible to calculate the local structure and spectroscopy of the active defect at an ab initio level, the attainable accuracy being comparable to the usual one in molecular ab initio studies in the gas phase. Also, in this article, we present a systematic study of the local distortions produced upon doping divalent first-series transition-metal ions in rock-salt oxides, MO:Me2+ (M=Mg, Ca, Sr; Me=Sc-Zn) and Tl+ in KMgF3 and KF hosts. This study leads to the calculation of the local structures of the defects in these materials, which have not been measured. The results suggest that the use of the mismatch of the empirical ionic radii of the impurity and the substituted ion in order to predict local distortions in doped ionic crystals is not significant when it is smaller than 0.1 Å, and when it is larger, it should be weighted by a reduction factor depending on the host. For the first-series divalent transition-metal ion impurities, this factor is shown to be 0.15 for SrO, 0.25 for CaO, and around 0.50 for MgO. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 44
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 641-648 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Trigonometric basis sets are used in a Rayleigh-Ritz variational method for computing two-sided eigenvalue bounds of the Schrödinger equation in one dimension. The method is based on truncating the infinite interval and solving an eigenvalue problem which obeys the von Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Highly accurate numerical results are presented for the asymmetrical two-well oscillators. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 45
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 637-640 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A general formula has been established for the overlap integrals with the same screening parameters of Slater-type orbitals in terms of bionomial coefficients. The final results are especially useful for the calculation of these integrals for large quantum numbers, which occur in the multicenter integrals. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 46
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 649-655 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using ab initio HF/6-31G** and MP2/6-31G** calculations alternative reactions HC(OH)3 → HCO2H + H2O and HC(OH)3 + H2O → HCO2H + 2H2O are investigated and the results are compared with relevant PM3, HF/3-21G, and HF/6-31G data. Reactant and product complexes as well as transition states are located on corresponding potential energy surfaces. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 47
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 657-665 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The ground-state electronic structure of heliumlike systems can be described by several simple wave functions expressed in terms of the three distances between particles (one nucleus and two electrons). The dependence of (e, 2e) ionization cross sections on the description of radial and angular correlations between target electrons is analyzed. The cases of plane wave and Coulomb wave representations of ejected electron trajectories are examined together with the feasibility of analytic calculations. The relative sensitivity of (e, 2e) cross sections to the description of correlations between K-shell electrons is also investigated as a function of nuclear charge. Existing experimental data on helium are used to support a comparison with calculated (e, 2e) cross sections. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 48
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 681-687 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular structure of 21 chromophores of indigoid dyes were studied by an ab initio MP2/6-31 + G*/ /HF/6-31 + G* method. Bond lengths and bond angles were affected by π-electron conjugation. The difference between molecular structures of chromophores and indigoid dyes indicated that benzene rings and five-membered rings in indigoid dyes are structurally important. Absorption maxima of chromophores were successfully calculated by the CI-singles-MP2/6-31 + G* theory. Like indigoid dyes, absorption maxima of the chromophores are affected by the positions of the donor and acceptor groups on the trimethine group. Bathochromic shifts of the absorption maxima were observed with the best donor group of (SINGLE BOND)NH among (SINGLE BOND)NH, (SINGLE BOND)O, and (SINGLE BOND)S groups. Appropriate substitution of longer-chain polymethines brought about chromophoric systems having hypsochromic shifts. From these calculations, the absorption maxima of some indigoid dyes could be explained by their chromophores qualitatively. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 49
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 667-680 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the previous article we introduced a method to obtain an ensemble density describing a molecule in a crystal from diffraction experiment structure factors. Here the method is applied to the CoCl42- molecular ion in a Cs3CoCl5 crystal for which accurate magnetic structure factors are known. First, the approximations involved in the interpretation of polarized neutron experiment are reviewed with special emphasis on the collinearity approximation which has been avoided in this work. Second, the derivation of magnetic structure factors corresponding to theoretical ensemble densities is explained (the spin and the exact orbital contributions have been included). Third, the fitting procedure is presented and results at different levels of approximation are discussed. The main conclusions are: (1) A density built by using several molecular wave functions can give a very good agreement with the experimental data. (2) The ensemble representability constraint is necessary to retrieve physical information from the optimized parameters. (3) Taking into account the proper paramagnetic contribution to the magnetization improves significantly the agreement between theory and experiment. (4) Neglecting the diamagnetic contribution and the fact that the magnetization may be locally noncollinear to the applied external field is fully justified for the system under study. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 50
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996) 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 51
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 689-697 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We consider the question of long-range propagation of informational signals in biosystems. This is done for the case of a modeled biosystem of the type considered by H. Fröhlich and A. S. Davydov but under general nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions. For that purpose we resort to the so-called informational statistical thermodynamics. It is shown that Fröhlich's effect may follow in this system. It consists in the emergence of a self-organized dissipative homogeneous and stationary structure (in Prigogine's sense), resembling a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation in the low-lying-in-frequency modes of polar vibrations. It follows once a critical level of pumping of metabolic energy is achieved. Furthermore, it is shown that signals in this system propagate in the form of Davydov solitons, which are strongly thermally damped in near equilibrium at physiological conditions. However, the situation drastically changes in nonequilibrium conditions, leading to Fröhlich's condensation, when the lifetime of a Davydov-like soliton is enormously enhanced, allowing for very long range propagation of signals. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 52
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 53
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 699-708 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Electrostatic potential maps of certain biologically important molecules (guanine, adenine, cytosine, thymine, and two conformers of glycine) were studied employing a “hybridization displacement charge (HDC)” correction to Löwdin charge distributions and using the conventional Mulliken charge distributions of the molecules. In these calculations, the magnitude of each of the point charges was distributed in 3-dimension in a spherically symmetric manner. The method of computing HDC using MNDO wave functions was optimized by introducing two adjustable parameters. It has been clearly demonstrated that HDC-corrected Löwdin charge distributions of the molecules mentioned above are able to reproduce most of the important features of their ab initio MEP maps, while the conventional Mulliken charge distributions fail in many respects. Thus, HDC-corrected Löwdin charge distributions are shown to be quite reliable for the study of molecular electrostatic properties, particularly for molecules with more than one competing electrophilic site. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 54
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 55
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 743-752 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Secular polynomials (SPs) have been constructed and studied for the adjacency matrices A(GaCh) and A(GbCh) corresponding to chemical graphs of alkanes in terms of atoms (GaCh) and in terms of bonds (GbCh). The three second-class Chebyshev polynomials Up(Q), Up - 1(Q), and Up - 2(Q), with respect to the variable Q proportional to the SP of an isolated CH2-like subgraph, have been shown to appear within both SPs P[A(GaCh)] and P[A(GbCh)] and to play the role of algebraic analogues of a (CH2)p-like subgraph. Common noncanonical algebraic expressions for both SPs reflecting the regular internal structure of alkanes have been constructed on this basis. Spectral properties of both graphs GaCh and GbCh have been shown to be determined by those of Up(Q), e.g., the band limits of spectra proved to be related to the orthogonality interval Q = [-1;1] for polynomials Up(Q). Since the adjacency matrices (AMs) A(GbCh), but not A(GaCh), are proportional to definite model Hamiltonian matrices, the obtained results serve to interpret the one-electron spectra of alkanes in terms of peculiarities of usual chemical structure. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 56
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 753-766 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The application of the frozen-core approximation to the calculation of the shielding tensor of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is discussed and an implementation is presented. A complete formulation of the shielding calculation within the frozen-core approximation is given, both in general terms and for the special case of density functional theory (DFT) and “gauge including atomic orbitals” (GIAOs). The practical implementation is validated by a detailed discussion of the consequences of the approximation. The general conclusion is drawn that the frozen-core approximation is a useful tool for shielding calculations - if the valence space is increased to contain at least the ns, np, (n - 1)p, (n - 1)d (fourth period and higher) shells, where n is the number of the given period in the periodic table of elements. The new method is applied to 77Se shieldings and chemical shifts for a small number of compounds. The agreement between theory and experiment is good for relative shifts, whereas calculated absolute shieldings are generally too small by about 300-400 ppm. This difference is attributed to the relativistic contraction of the core density at the selenium atom that had been explicitly incorporated into the experimental absolute shielding scale. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 57
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996) 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 58
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 767-778 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of hydrogen-bond related quantities - geometries, interaction energies, dipole moments, dipole moment derivatives, and harmonic vibrational frequencies - were calculated at the Hartree - Fock, MP2, and different DFT levels for the HCN dimer and the periodic HCN crystal. The crystal calculations were performed with the Hartree - Fock program CRYSTAL92, which routinely allows an a posteriori electron-correlation correction of the Hartree - Fock obtained lattice energy using different correlation-only functionals. Here, we have gone beyond this procedure by also calculating the electron-correlation energy correction during the structure optimization, i.e., after each CRYSTAL92 Hartree - Fock energy evaluation, the a posteriori density functional scheme was applied. In a similar manner, we optimized the crystal structure at the MP2 level, i.e., for each Hartree - Fock CRYSTAL92 energy evaluation, an MP2 correction was performed by summing the MP2 pair contributions from all HCN molecules within a specified cutoff distance. The crystal cell parameters are best reproduced at the Hartree - Fock and the nongradient-corrected HF + LDA and HF + VWN levels. The BSSE-corrected MP2 method and the HF + P91, HF + LDA, and HF + VWN methods give lattice energies in close agreement with the ZPE-corrected experimental lattice energy. The (HCN)2 dimer properties are best reproduced at the MP2 level, at the gradient-corrected DFT levels, and with the B3LYP and BHHLYP methods. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 59
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 791-791 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 60
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 793-801 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: It is shown that the conventional concepts based on the use of the HOMO and LUMO are founded on very questionable assumptions. In particular, it is shown both theoretically and computationally that the LUMO of almost all neutral atoms and molecules is a continuum function with energy zero. The LUMO of any SCF calculation is an artifact of the basis-expansion method. A proposal is made for the identification of the pair donor and pair acceptor orbitals which play the true role of the HOMO and LUMO. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 61
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 803-808 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We show how to estimate the dissociation energy of CuH using the variational Monte Carlo method. The techniques involved are (i) an all-electron approach, (ii) a diffusion-only Metroplis algorithm which is well-suited for sampling the nodal regions properly, and (iii) a core-valence partitioning scheme such that the dissociation energy is estimated from the valence energies of CuH and Cu only. This approach avoids several of the approximations inherent in pseudopotential methods. Using relatively crude wave functions, we obtain an estimate of the dissociation energy and dipole moment with an accuracy on par with much more elaborate calculations in the literature. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 62
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 809-820 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Silica sodalite is an ideal model system to establish base-line computer requirements of ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock (PHF) calculations of zeolites. In this article, we investigate the effect of various basis sets on the structural and electronic properties of bulk silica sodalite. We also study the interaction of He, Ne, and Ar with the sodalite cage. Our work shows that basis-set superposition errors (BSSE) in calculations using STO-3G and 6-21G(*) basis sets are as large as the interaction energies, leading to poor confidence in the results. To cure this problem, we present high-quality basis sets for Si, O. He, Ne, and Ar, optimized for use with PHF methods, and demonstrate that the new basis set greatly reduces BSSE. The theoretical barriers for transfer of the rare gases between sodalite cages are 5.6, 13.2, and 62.1 kcal/mol for He, Ne, and Ar. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 63
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 821-824 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We present a technique to generate Cartesian Gaussian bases for electronic configuration and cross-section calculations on molecules. The technique is specially useful for pseudopotential work, when the bases cannot be tabulated because they depend on the specific choice of the pseudopotential. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 64
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 825-832 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The G and F matrices in the molecular vibration problem, the secular matrix in Hückel calculation including some nonneighbor interactions, and the Fock matrices at any stage of iteration in the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) calculations on cis- and trans-butadiene, benzene, and s-triaminobenzene systems have been shown to be factorizable by representing them graphically and then applying the generalized technique of splitting of graphs with n-fold symmetry. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 65
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 833-841 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Local coordinate systems are chosen for each quadruple of atoms relative to a four-center integral, in order to avoid linear combinations of orbitals when symmetry operations perform on an orbital. This choice can utilize the complete molecular symmetry to attain the optimal number of symmetry-unique integrals and to construct two-particle matrix elements by multiplying symmetry-unique integrals, called the “standard four-center integrals,” by the corresponding coefficients, called the “C coefficients.” A simple algorithm to use the complete molecular symmetry to reduce calculations of molecular matrix elements is outlined for general highly symmetric molecules. A tetrahedral molecule is analyzed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 66
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 843-852 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Some features of the multipole expansion of the Coulomb potential V for a system of point charges are studied. It is shown that multipole expansion is convergent both locally in L2(R3) and weakly on some classes of functions. One-particle Hamiltonians Hn = H0 + Vn, where H0 is the kinetic energy operator and Vn is the n-th partial sum of the multipole expansion of V, are discussed, and the convergence of their eigenvalues to those of H = H0 + V with increasing n is proved. It is also shown that the discrete spectrum eigenfunctions of Hn converge to those of H both in L2(R3) (together with their first and second derivatives) and uniformly on R3. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 67
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1661-1671 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: For formaldehyde, the C — O stretch potential of 1(π, π*) crosses all 1A1 Rydberg potentials, such as n, 3py, n, 3dyz, etc., thereby transferring the intensity of the unassigned 1(π, π*) ← X??? system to these Rydberg states. For thioformaldehyde, the situation is similar but a shift in the potentials allows for direct observation of 1(π, π*). In its 1(π, π*) state, H2CO is planar, having a low barrier of about 0.2 eV toward the nonplanar 1(σ, π*) state. For H2CS, the planar conformation of 1(π, π*) is a saddle point, with 1(π, π*) being the global minimum on the 21A′ surface. The triplet π, π* states of H2CO and H2CS are nonplanar, having inversion barriers of 0.1 and 0.05 eV, respectively. For both H2CO and H2CS, the π, π* configuration also crosses the ground-state configuration, which explains predissociation and radiationless transitions of some Rydberg states. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1651-1660 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Density functional calculations for ethylene glycol (CH2OHCH2OH) in the gas and in a dielectric medium are reported. The condensed-phase calculations are based on the self-consistent reaction field approach and the environment has the dielectric constant of liquid methanol. NPT Monte Carlo simulations of ethylene glycol (ETG) in liquid methanol are also reported. The simulations were carried out for three conformers of ETG (tGg′, gGg′, and tTt). Comparison between SCRF results for the conformational equilibrium in the gas and in the dielectric suggests that the tGg′ conformer is slightly stabilized relative to the gGg′ conformer in the solvent. However, the energy difference between them is less the 1.0 kJ/mol, which indicates that frequent interconversions between the tGg′ and gGg′ conformers are expected in the condensed phase. The all-trans conformer (tTt) is higher than the most stable conformer in the gas by 14 kJ/mol. Monte Carlo simulations predict that the tGg′ and gGg′ conformers have very similar energies in the solvent. However, the simulations also show, in agreement with experimental data, that the tTt conformer is stabilized in liquid methanol, relative to the gas phase. The microscopic mechanism leading to the stabilization of the tTt conformer in the liquid is related to the differential hydrogen-bonding formation between the ETG conformers and the methanol molecules. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 69
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1673-1677 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The SCMEH-MO method with average relativistic and spin-orbit effects has recently been applied to study the electronic structure and bonding in samarium pentamethylcyclopentadienyls. In this report the same approach has been utilized in studying the electronic structures of Nd and Sm hexacarbonyls. In contrast to the stable transition metal d-block carbonyls, these lanthanide carbonyls are found to be quite unstable. These findings are based on calculated electronic structures and bond energies. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 70
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1679-1684 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Despite their importance in the characterization of molecular magnetism, electronic g-tensors have received rather little theoretical attention. In this work, however, the ground-state g-tensor of MgF is computed at both the ROHF and multireference CI levels. The calculations are expanded complete to second order in appropriate Breit-Pauli terms and the contributions of all important magnetically coupled excited states are accounted for. Both the CI- and ROHF-level Δg∥-values (-59 and -55 ppm, respectively) are in agreement with experiment (-319 ± 500 ppm) within the range of experimental uncertainty. For Δg⊥, however, the ROHF treatment yields a value (-659 ppm) in substantial disagreement with experiment (-1319 ± 500 ppm). Fortunately, this discrepancy is alleviated by CI level treatment (Δg⊥ = -1447 ppm). © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 71
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1685-1689 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In intense laser fields, atoms and molecules can absorb many more photons than required for ionization. This phenomenon is called above-threshold ionization (ATI) and it shows up in kinetic energy spectra of ionized electrons. The presence of very high energy photoelectrons necessitates the use of extremely large grids in numerical simulations based on the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that by using a wave function splitting scheme one can circumvent the problem of large grids and thus obtain accurate multiphoton photoelectron spectra. This scheme will be very useful in studies of ATI spectra generated by molecules in intense laser fields. We illustrate this method for a one-dimensional model of the H atom in intense laser fields. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 60 (1996), S. 1691-1700 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: