particle motion equation
Numerical Methods and Modeling
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
An application of a new flow measurement technique is described which allows for the non-intrusive simultaneous measurement of flow velocity, density, and viscosity. The viscosity information can be used to derive the flow field temperature. The combination of the three measured variables and the perfect-gas law then leads to an estimate of the flow field thermodynamic pressure. Thus, the instantaneous state of a flow field can be completely described. Three-state anemometry (3SA), a derivative of particle image velocimetry (PIV), which uses a combination of three monodisperse sizes of styrene seeding particles is proposed. A marker seeding is chosen to follow the flow as closely as possible, while intermediate and large seeding populations provide two supplementary velocity fields, which are also dependent on fluid density and viscosity. A simplified particle motion equation, aimed at turbomachinery applications, is then solved over the whole field to provide both density and viscosity data. The three velocity fields can be separated in a number of ways. The simplest and that proposed in this paper is to dye the different populations and view the region of interest through interferometric filters. The two critical aspects needed to enable the implementation of such a technique are a suitable selection of the diameters of the particle populations, and the separation of the velocity fields. There has been extensive work on the seeding particle behaviour which allows an estimate of the suitable particle diameters to be made. A technique is described in this paper to allow the separation of particles in a range of micrometer sized velocity fields through fluorescence (separation through intensity also being possible). Some preliminary results by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a 3SA image are also presented. The particle sizes chosen were 1 μm and 5 μm, tested on the near-wake flow past a cylinder to investigate viscosity only, assuming uniform flow density. The accuracy of the technique, derived from simulations of swirling flows, is estimated as 0.5% RMS for velocity, 2% RMS for the density and viscosity, and 4% RMS for the temperature estimate. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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