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  • 1995-1999  (6,851)
  • General Chemistry  (6,850)
  • Nuclear reactions
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2147-2156 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Tetrapodal pentadentate ligand ; Ligand periphery ; Polydentate amine complex ; Nickel ; Podand ; Schiff base ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The tetrapodal pentaamine ligand 2,6-bis(1′,3′-diamino-2′-methylprop-2′-yl)pyridine (1), which contains four equivalent primary amino groups, can be derivatised partly or completely by Schiff base condensation with suitable carbonyl compounds. The new ligands thus obtained are mononucleating, as shown by the X-ray crystal structures of their respective nickel(II) complexes. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv. of salicylaldehyde and subsequent reduction allows the selective modification of one of the four sidearms. The resulting ligand 2 is hexadentate and uninegative in its nickel(II) complex {[(2)Ni]PF6} (3) with both the secondary amine and the phenoxide functionalities coordinated to the metal centre. The unreduced Schiff base form of the ligand, 4, does not form a complex with nickel(II) as readily, and only a small quantity of the mixed salt {[(4)Ni][(1)Ni(H2O)](Br)2(PF6)} (5)has been obtained. While the overall coordination of 4 resembles that of 2, there is considerably more strain in the appended chelate ring, due to the presence of the C=N double bond. Modification of one arm in 1 can also be achieved by condensation with 1 equiv. of acetylacetone, to give the new ligand 6 which, likewise, is hexadentate in its NiII complex {[(6)Ni](PF6)2} (7). In this case, however, the N/O-functional sidearm is not deprotonated. Rather, it is coordinated as the keto-imine tautomer, making 7 a rare example of a metal complex containing this structural fragment. Two-fold functionalisation of 1 is observed upon reaction with acetone, regardless of whether the ketone is present in stoichiometric amounts or in excess, to give the pentadentate ligand 8with two diagonally juxtaposed isopropylidene-imine units. The complex isolated with this ligand {[(8)Ni](PF6)2} (9) contains pentacoordinate NiII, the sixth coordination site being blocked by the rigidly positioned isopropylidene groups. When reacted with 4 equiv. of trans-cinnamaldehyde, all the primary amino groups in 1 condense to give the four-fold Schiff base 10, which acts as a pentadentate podand towards nickel(II). In this complex, {[(10)Ni(OH2)]Br2} (11), an aqua ligand completes the coordination octahedron. All ligands are stable towards hydrolysis when coordinated to the metal, despite the presence of alkyl-imine groups in some cases.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2157-2166 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Septadentate N5S2-ligand ; Dinuclear complexes ; Nickel ; Reactivity ; Redox chemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The coordination chemistry of a series of dinickel complexes of the new septadentate amine-thiolate ligand N,N′-bis[2-thio-3-aminomethyl-5-tert-butylbenzyl]diethylenetriamine, H29, has been investigated in the context of ligand binding and oxidation state changes. The complexes [Ni2(9)(L)][ClO4]2 (10), [Ni2(9)(Cl)][Cl] (11), [Ni2(9)(L)][BPh4]2 (12), and [Ni2(9)(NCS)][OH·OH2] (13) have central N2Ni(μ-SR)2NiN′3L cores [L = labile solvent molecule (10, 12), Cl- (11), and NCS- (13)] composed of dithiolate bridged planar NiN2S2 and six-coordinate NiN′3S2L units. This is demonstrated for 11 and 13 by crystal structure determinations and for 10 and 12 by UV/Vis spectroscopy and room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Complexes 10, 11, or 12 readily add other co-ligands at the NiN′3S2L fragment by substitution of the solvent molecule L (10, 12) or the chloride substituent (11). The overall structure of the parent complexes is not affected by the substitution reactions. An electrochemical study has shown that complex 10 undergoes two successive one-electron oxidations at +0.88 and +0.41 V vs SCE. The oxidized species are not thermally stable, but electronic absorption spectra and EPR spectra are indicative of the presence of NiIII species.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2167-2172 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Macrocyclic compounds ; Amine-Thiolate Donors ; Polynuclear Complexes ; Nickel ; Condensation reactions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A novel route to macrocyclic amine-thiophenolate ligands is described. The new, air-stable thiophenolate precursor 1,2-bis(4-tert-butyl-2,6-diformyl-phenylsulfanyl)ethane (4) is readily condensed with two equivalents of 1,2-ethanediamine or 1,3-propanediamine under medium to high dilution conditions to give 2 × 4 condensation products. The smaller 1 × 2 macrocyclic compounds are not produced under these conditions. Subsequent reduction with NaBH4 (reduction of imine groups) and Na/NH3 (reductive cleavage of aryl-alkylsulfides) provides the 36- and 40-membered amine-thiophenolate ligands H46a and H46b. The macrocyclic compounds are versatile ligands for the preparation of polynuclear transition metal complexes. With divalent nickel H46a forms the di- and tetranuclear complexes [Ni2(6a)] (7) and [Ni4(6a)][ClO4]4 (8). Reaction of 8 with four equivalents of NH4SCN yields the novel isothiocyanate complex [Ni4II(6a)(NCS)4]·10MeCN (9). The structure consists of well-separated molecules of the tetranuclear complex [NiII4(6a)(NCS)4] (Ci symmetry). Two symmetry-related binuclear [N2Ni(μ2-SR)2NiN4] fragments composed of thiolate-bridged distorted planar {N2S2Ni}- and distorted cis-octahedral {(SCN)2N2S2Ni} units reside within the cavity of the macrocycle. The intramolecular distance between the two binuclear units is 6.144(1) Å.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2173-2185 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: EPR spectroscopy ; Metallocenylboranes ; Organovanadium radicals ; Redox chemistry (CV) ; X-ray diffraction ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The paramagnetic complexes di(mesityl)([5]trovacenyl)borane (5·), (mesityl)di([5]trovacenyl)borane (6··), and tri([5]trovacenyl)borane (7···) were prepared from [5]trovacenyllithium, (η5-C7H7)V(η5-C5H4Li), and (Mes)2BF, (Mes)BF2, and BF3, respectively. The propeller-shaped species 5·, 6··, and 7··· were subjected to X-ray diffraction with the aim of possibly correlating the twist angles with intramolecular intermetallic communication. Cyclic voltammetry points to successive vanadium-centered oxidation processes and boron-centered reduction, a small redox splitting δE1/2[(2+/+), (+/0)] being observed for 6··. According to EPR spectroscopy, performed in fluid solution, the exchange interaction J in the diradical 6·· approaches the fast-exchange region and is attenuated significantly by quaternization at boron in [6··-nBu]-. Although EPR spectroscopy of the triradical 7··· also indicates an extensive exchange interaction, the exchange parameters, derived from spectral simulation, follow the gradation J(7···) ≈ 1/3 J(6··). The magnetic susceptibility of 6·· and 7··· follows the same trend. As expected, compound 7··· exhibits spin frustration because it contains three antiferromagnetically coupled S = 1/2 systems that are arranged in an equilateral triangle.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2187-2199 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Ansa compounds ; Cp-derived chelate ligands ; Neopentane chemistry ; Spiro compounds ; Tripodal ligands ; Cyclopentadienyl compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The neopentane-derived functionalized oxetane O(CH2)2C(CH3)(CH2OMs), 1, reacts with indenyllithium (LiInd) or fluorenyllithium (LiFlu) to produce the derivatives O(CH2)2C(CH3)(CH2R) (R = indenyl, fluorenyl), 2. The oxetane ring of 2 undergoes nucleophilic ring-opening by reaction with LiPR′2 to give the chiral chelate ligands (HOCH2)(CH3)C(CH2R)(CH2PR′2) (R = indenyl, fluorenyl), 5. Nucleophilic ring-opening by LiInd or LiFlu is possible too, resulting in the functionalized ansa-Cp ligands (HOCH2)(CH3)C(CH2R)(CH2R′) (R, R′ = indenyl, fluorenyl), 12. Electrophilic ring-opening of 2 with HBr to give (HOCH2)(CH3)C(CH2R)(CH2Br) (R = indenyl, fluorenyl), 3, is also possible. The alcohol function of 3 may be activated directly, whereas activation of this group in 5 is only possible after BH3 protection of the phosphane function. The mesylates (MsOCH2)(CH3)C(CH2R)(CH2Br) (R = indenyl, fluorenyl), 4, undergo, under basic conditions, spiro cyclization to produce spirocyclobutane derivatives 9 with the α-carbons of the five-membered cycles acting as the spiro centres. Substitution of the mesylate group of 4 by PR2 nucleophiles is therefore not possible. Ansa-Cp derivative (MsOCH2)(CH3)C(CH2Ind)(CH2Flu), 12c also reacts with LiPPh2 with spiro cyclization to produce 9d, instead of giving the substitution product. Tripodal ligands (CH3)C(CH2R)(CHPPh2)2 (R = indenyl, fluorenyl), 11, are accessible by the reaction of (MsOCH2)(CH3)C(CH2PPh2)2 with LiInd or LiFlu. All compounds are fully characterized by the usual spectroscopic and analytical techniques including single-crystal X-ray analyses in several cases.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2201-2207 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Carboxylate syn-anti ; N-centered tripodal ligand ; Manganese ; Imidazole ; Helicoïdal inorganic chiral chain ; Magnetism ; π-π interaction ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The crystal structure of an infinite inorganic chain consisting of MnII and an N-centered tripodal ligand N,N-(2-pyridylmethyl)[(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)-methyl]glycinate is presented. It exhibits a chiral helical structure with a pitch of two monomeric units (each monomeric unit containing one Mn atom). Each manganese is connected to its neighbor through a carboxylate bridge in a syn-anti geometry. Around each manganese center, two carboxylates bind in a cis geometry. This peculiar bridging geometry (syn-anticis) provides a broken-line chain, running in a zig-zag manner along the b axis of the P21 space group. The magnetic properties have been investigated. They show a pseudo-2D magnetic structure, with one major pathway along the chain and an inter-chain minor one. The intrachain coupling is a weak antiferromagnetic interaction (J/k = -0.25). This low value is entirely consistent with the geometry of the bridge. The interchain coupling is a weaker antiferromagnetic coupling (J′/k = -0.11) and could be mediated through π-π interactions between pyridine and imidazole from two adjacent helixes.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2221-2231 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Calixarenes ; Inclusion compounds ; Imido Complexes ; Molybdenum ; Tungsten ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Syntheses, spectroscopic properties, molecular structures, and bonding of novel calix[4]arene imido compounds are described. Treatment of M(NtBu)2(NHtBu)2Ia (M = Mo), Ib (M = W) or M(NMes)2Cl2(dme) IIa (M = Mo), IIb (M = W) (Mes = 2,4,6-Me3-C6H2) with p-tBu-calix[4]arene LH4 affords calix[4]arene metal complexes LM(NR) 1a, b (M = Mo, W; R = tBu) and 2a, b (M = Mo, W; R = Mes). Analytical and spectroscopic data are consistent with monomeric structures for 1 and 2, retaining a local C4v symmetry for the calix[4]arene metal fragment. These complexes are well-suited to bind small molecules like acetonitrile, tBu-isonitrile, or water within their macrocyclic pockets. The spectroscopic data of some inclusion compounds and the crystal structures of LMo(NtBu)(NCMe) 1a(NCMe), LW(NtBu)(OH2) 1b(OH2), LW(NtBu)(CNtBu) 1b(CNt Bu), LMo(NMes)(NCMe) 2a(NCMe), and LW(NMes)(NCMe) 2b(NCMe) are reported. All complexes contain a group VI metal imido [M=NR] moiety mounted on the phenoxide rim of the calix[4]arene ligand as well as an incorporated guest molecule within the cavity. Some insights into the structures of complexes of the type L′W(NR′) (L′ = p-H-calix[4]arene; R′ = H, Me) and into bonding in these compounds are provided by density functional theory, applying the B-P86 density functional and an all SVP basis set within the RI-J-DFT approximation. At least one π bond is of importance for calix[4]arene-metal bonding in these compounds. The metal-imido bond can be described as a triple bond. A geometrically optimized minimum structure of L′W(NMe) 4 shows a calix[4]arene ligand only slightly distorted from a local C4v symmetry and an almost linear tungsten-imido moiety.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Arsonium salts ; Superacidic systems ; Structure elicidation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of trimethylarsane in the superacidic systems hydrogen/fluoride antimony pentafluoride and hydrogen fluoride/arsenic pentafluoride leads to trimethylarsonium fluorometallates. These salts are stable up to 60 °C and 5 °C, respectively. Structures were successfully elucidated in the cases of trimethylarsonium undecafluorodiarsenate and trimethylarsonium hexafluoroantimonate. (CH3)3AsH+As2F11- crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with four formula units per unit cell with the dimensions a = 7.362(1), b = 12.589(1), c = 13.598(1) Å and β = 95.37(1)°. (CH3)3AsH+SbF6- crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/m with four formula units per unit cell with the dimensions a = 8.313(1), b = 8.855(1), c = 13.285(1) Å and β = 94.358(1)°.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Molybdenum ; μ-Oxo ; Conformational equilibrium ; X-ray diffraction ; NMR spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new thiocyanatomolybdenum(VI) dioxo-μ-oxo complex dimer bearing a 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligand (2) is shown to exist in the crystal cell unit as a meso (Mo-O-Mo angle of 180°) and d,l, pair (Mo-O-Mo angle of 155.7°). These conformers are in equilibrium in solution and have been observed clearly by 1H NMR spectroscopy.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Macrocycles ; Lithium ; Fluorescence ; Cryptands ; Coordination ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three aza-cages with the anthracene-containing photoactive groups L1, L2, and L3 have been synthesized. All compounds are able to selectively encapsulate a lithium ion and solid complexes have been isolated. The formation equilibria have been investigated by UV/Vis and 1H, 13C and 7Li NMR spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence emission of both free ligands and lithium complexes have been investigated. Results indicate that the CHEF (chelation enhancement of the fluorescence) effect obtained by lithium coordination exits although lower than that occurring upon full protonation.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Copper ; Trinuclear complexes ; Formamidines ; Magnetism ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new copper(II) linear trinuclear compounds are reported, all of which were synthesized in-situ, with the general formula [Cu3(L)4](CF3SO3)2(Y)x, where L is the dehydronated ligand: N,N′-bis(pyridine-2-yl)formamidine (abbreviated as Hpdf), N,N′-bis(pyrimidine-2-yl)formamidine (abbreviated as Hpmf) and N,N′-bis(5-methylpyridine-2-yl)formamidine (abbreviated as Hmpdf), Y = EtOH or H2O and x = 0.5-1.5. The compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR, LF, and EPR spectroscopy and by magnetic susceptibility down to 4 K. The structure of the compound [Cu3(pmf)4](CF3SO3)2(H2O)1/2 was determined by X-ray crystallography; it was found to crystallise in the triclinic space group P-1 with a = 8.529(5), b = 15.760(5), c = 19.639(5) Å, α = 101.793(5), β = 101.263(5), γ = 102.389(5)°, Z = 2. The structure [Cu-Cu-Cu angle 174.96(11)°] consists of four nearly flat molecules of the ligand, which contribute to the propeller-type structure around the Cu-Cu-Cu axis. A strong antiferromagnetic interaction between the CuII ions is observed with calculated J values, based on the Hamiltonian H = -2J(S1·S2 + S2·S3) - 2J′·S1·S3, of -174(1) cm-1, -120(1) cm-1, and -167(1) cm-1 for the compounds studied with L = pdf, pmf, and mpdf, respectively. These values are in agreement with an S = 1/2 ground state below temperatures of 120-160 K.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2277-2281 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Boron ; Iron ; Nickel ; Carbyne complexes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The μ3-boryloxycarbyne complexes [{Fe(CO)3}3{μ3-COBCl{NtBu(SiMe3)}}2] (1) and [{(η5-C5H5)Ni}3{μ3-COBX(NR2)}μ3-CO] (2a: NR2 = NtBu(SiMe3), × = Cl; 2b: NR2 = N(SiMe3)2, × = Cl; 2c: NR2 = NMe2, × = BNMe2Cl) were obtained by reaction of the anionic complexes K2[{Fe(CO)3}3{μ3-CO}2] and K[{(η5-C5H5)Ni(CO)] with the corresponding chloroboranes Cl2BNR2 {NR2 = NtBu(SiMe3), N(SiMe3)2}, or 1,2-dichlorodiboranes(4) B2(NMe2)2Cl2, respectively. The products are formed by a nucleophilic attack of the CO oxygen atom at the boron centres with subsequent salt elimination. All compounds were characterized by IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and the structures of 1 and 2c in the solid state were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1271-1279 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Chirality ; Dinuclear complexes ; Rhodium ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Dinuclear and polynuclear metal complexes with octahedral centers coordinated to di- or polydentate ligands are often obtained as complicated mixtures of various stereoisomers. Stereospecific synthesis of such species is therefore of high current interest. Chiral derivatives of pyridine can be used for this purpose. Dinuclear μ-chloro-bridged RhIII complexes with two didentate, cyclometalated thienylpyridine-type ligands at each metal center are formed stereoselectively when pinene groups are fused to the pyridine rings. The two octahedral RhIII centers have homochiral configurations, ΔΔ and ΛΛ. The heterochiral diastereomer ΔΛ is not observed. With (8R,10R)-2-(2′-thienyl)-4,5-pinenopyridine [Hth4,5-(R,R)ppy] the ΔΔ to ΛΛ ratio is 9:1 when the separation eluent contains NaCl. Modeling the ΛΛ and the ΔΛ isomers of the dinuclear species shows crowding of the pinene groups in both cases; however, the strain can be released by relatively small distortions only in the case of the ΛΛ isomer. NO3- cleaves the dichloro bridge, yielding the mononuclear species Δ[Rh(L2)2(NO3)] (2) in a completely stereoselective manner when NaCl is replaced by KNO3 in the eluent mixture. The molecular structure has been determined by X-ray structure analysis for both the ΔΔ and the mononuclear complex Δ[Rh(L2)2(NO3)] (2) in order to confirm the configuration at the metal center. 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CD spectra were measured and the latter shows that the CD activity is solely due to the chirality at the metal center.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1281-1289 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphaalkynes ; Dimerization mechanism ; Diphosphacyclobutenes ; Density functional theory ; Ab initio calculations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dimerization of phosphaalkynes (R-C≡P, R = H, Me, tBu) without and with the presence of transition metal fragments, including CpCo (Cp = cyclopentadienyl) and COT-Ti (COT = cyclooctatetraene), has been probed using density functional theory calculations (B3LYP with different basis sets). MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations were also performed for the [H2C2P2] systems. In an attempt to address the exciting controversy and uncertainty about phosphaalkyne dimerization, a number of dimer formation mechanisms proposed in the literature have been examined. Some new and plausible intermediates have also been identified.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1315-1324 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Ab initio calculations ; EHMO ; Vinylidene complexes ; Cobalt ; Rhodium ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The transformation of acetylene into vinylidene, as promoted by the metal fragment [(pp3)Co]+ [pp3 = P(CH2CH2PPh2)3], is unimolecular and features the hydride-acetylide species as an intermediate. The paper describes a detailed ab initio study of the reaction, in particular with regard to the step involving 1,3-H shift. The best computational results are obtained by mimicking the pp3 ligand with actual ethylenic chains rather than with single PH3 molecules. The keypoints along the two-step reaction path (π-acetylene, hydride-acetylide, and vinylidene complexes, as well as intermediate transition states) have been optimized for CoI and RhI derivatives at the MP2 level. For the fragment [(pp3)Co]+, the barrier associated with transformation of the hydride-acetylide intermediate to vinylidene (20.6 kcal/mol) is easier to surmount compared to that for reversion to the reactants (28.6 kcal/mol). The situation is reversed for the analogous RhI system, with the initial π-acetylene adduct being slightly more stable. Although higher in energy, the hydride-acetylide species is the experimentally detected product of the reaction of acetylene with the fragment [(pp3)Rh]+. The salient chemical aspects of the 1,3-H shift are discussed in terms of perturbation theory arguments. Parallel EHMO calculations, which have provided a relatively good consistency with the ab initio results, allow the proposal of an orbital rationale for the mode of migration of the hydride ligand along the substantially linear Co-Cα-Cβ grouping.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1335-1342 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Photolysis ; Alkynes ; Matrix isolation ; DFT ; Oxygenations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photolytically-induced reactions of chromyl chloride with acetylene and but-2-yne (dimethylacetylene) in low-temperature argon matrices yield end-on ketene and dimethylketene complexes of O=CrCl2, respectively. The product formation probably results from an electrophilic attack of a Cr=O linkage on the C≡C triple bonds, leading to radical-like transition states or intermediates, which subsequently rearrange through 1,2-H or 1,2-methyl shifts. Consequently, allene is attacked at its central carbon and the allyl radical thus generated undergoes subsequent ring-closure to give a cyclopropanone complex of O=CrCl2.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Copper chelates ; EPR spectroscopy ; Electronic structure ; Schiff base ligands ; Structure elucidation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of tetrahedrally distorted copper(II) complexes with thiolate and imine coordination were synthesized. Schiff bases derived from 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-thione and various diamines were used as tetradentate ligands to obtain tetrahedrally distorted metal chelates with [CuN2S2] complex units. Crystal structures of the complexes 1, 2, 5 and 6 and of ligand H25 have been determined by means of single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The structure data show a strong influence of the diamine building blocks on the tetrahedral distortion of the copper(II) complexes. Results of Extended Hückel LCAO calculations correlate strongly with structural, electrochemical, UV/Vis- and EPR-spectroscopic features obtained experimentally. The calculations confirm for the whole complex series a strong delocalization of the frontier orbitals. The highest fully occupied molecular orbital shows a weak contribution, resulting from thiolate donor atoms, whereas the antibonding singly occupied molecular orbitals (SOMOs) are distributed between the copper(II) centre (ca. 35-40%) and the N2S2 donor set. The SOMO energy significantly lowers with increasing tetrahedral distortion of the coordination sphere. The influence of the tetrahedral distortion of copper(II) complexes on redox potentials, UV/Vis and EPR spectra is discussed.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Half-sandwich complexes ; Molybdenum ; Optically active complexes ; Rhenium ; Tungsten ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of (η5-PinCp*)Re(CO)3 [PinCp* = tetramethyl(pinanyl)cyclopentadienyl] is described. Successive substitution of two CO ligands by NO+ and PPh3 generates a 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of chiral-at-metal [(SRe)/(RRe)-(PinCp*)Re(CO)(NO)(PPh3)]BF4. The diastereomers are converted with sodium methoxide into the derivative “esters” (SRe)/(RRe)-(PinCp*)Re(COOCH3)(NO)(PPh3), and then with (+)-(R)-(1-naphthylethyl)amine to the “amides” (SRe)/(RRe)-(PinCp*)Re(NO)(PPh3)[CONHCH(CH3)C10H7] [(SRe)/(RRe) = 1:1]. Fractional crystallisation separates the (SRe) isomer with an optical purity of 〉 98%. The latter compound has been characterized by X-ray structure analysis. By treating the (SRe)-amide with CF3CO2H and NaBF4, (SRe)-(PinCp*)Re(CH3)(NO)(PPh3) can be generated. Protolysis of this compound with HBF4/Et2O in CD2Cl2 at -78 °C leads to the solvent-stabilized complex (SRe)-[(PinCp*)Re(NO)(PPh3)(ClCD2Cl)]+BF4-. The thermal and configurational stability of this chiral Lewis acid is investigated at various temperatures. The syntheses of [PinCp*RhCl2]2, PinCp*TiCl3 and PinCp*M(CO)2(NO) (M = Mo, W) are also described. Starting with PinCp*M(CO)2(NO), the relatively stable 16-VE complexes PinCp*MCl2(NO) and PinCp*W(CH2SiMe3)2(NO) are synthesized.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: 2,2′-Bipyridines ; Chelate complexes ; Hydrogen bonding ; π-π stacking ; Crystal structure ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new synthetic route for the synthesis of 5,5′-diamino-2,2-bipyridine (5) based on the coupling of 2-chloro-5-aminopyridine in the presence of NiCl2 × 6 H2O/PPh3/Zn in dimethylformamide is described. The reactions of the potentially ambidentate ligand 5 with salts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and Cd gave a variety of 13 metal-ligand complexes depending on the anion, the crystallization conditions and the metal-to-ligand ratio. The complexes obtained were characterized by thermal analyses, NMR including 113Cd-NMR, IR, and for the iron complex 57Fe-Mößbauer spectroscopy. The structure of eight of the compounds was elucidated by X-ray crystallography. All of these metal complexes show a bipyridine-metal coordination. The amino functionality was never involved in metal coordination. The intermolecular arrangement is dictated by hydrogen bonding from the amino functionality and by π-π stacking of the bipyridine rings.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2005/1999/99078_s.pdf or from the author.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Iron(III) ; Peroxo Complexes ; Kinetics ; Hydrogen Peroxide ; Catalase ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The new diiron complex [Fe2(tbpo){O2As(CH3)2}(CH3O)(CH3OH)](ClO4)3 · 5 CH3OH · 2 H2O (1) containing a (μ-alkoxo)(μ-dimethylarsinato)diiron(III) core was synthesized using the heptadentate ligand N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)-1,3-diamino-2-propanol (Htbpo). The complex was characterized structurally by X-ray crystallography. 1reproduces the coordination mode and the stoichiometry of the proposed purple acid phosphatase-arsenate inhibitor complex. More importantly, 1 is a good functional model for the activation of small molecules, since the solvent molecule in the coordination sphere of each iron ion can be substituted very easily by a small substrate molecule. This is confirmed by the comparatively high pH-dependent catalase-like activity of 1. In order to study the influence of the cacodylate bridge on the formation of the metastable adduct with hydrogen peroxide, the analogous hydroxo-bridged complex [Fe2(tbpo)(OH)(NO3)2](NO3)2 · CH3OH · 2 H2O (2) was employed. The reactions of 1and 2 with H2O2 were studied as a function of [H2O2], pH, temperature, and pressure, and the kinetic results including the activation parameters are reported. In the case of compound 2 the reaction proceeds in one step, and the observed first order rate constant, kobs, shows a linear dependence on the hydrogen peroxide concentration with a zero intercept. For complex 1 the kinetic traces could be fitted to two exponential functions. One of the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants, kobs1, exhibits a linear dependence on the hydrogen peroxide concentration with a zero intercept, whereas the other rate constant, kobs2, was independent of the hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanistic interpretation is presented.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2005/1999/99068_s.pdf or from the author.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Ruthenium ; Coordination chemistry ; Paramagnetic complexes ; Magnetic properties ; Ion exchange ; Antitumor agents ; Colon tumors ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Indazolium trans-tetrachlorobis(indazole)ruthenate(III) exhibits excellent results against different tumor models in vitro and in vivo. To improve the water solubility necessary for the introduction of this tumor-inhibiting compound into clinical trials, we synthesized the corresponding sodium salt in a two-step ion exchange via the tetramethylammonium salt. The sodium salt shows a 35-fold higher solubility in water relative to the indazolium salt. We also synthesized the n-butylammonium, n-octylammonium, and tetraphenylphosphonium salts, all of which showed improved solubility in organic solvents. The X-ray crystal structure of the latter could be solved, proving the trans configuration of the complex anion. In spite of the paramagnetic RuIII center an assignement of the coordinated indazole protons could be made with the help of a COSY experiment.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2355-2368 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphane complexes ; Lithium ; Aminophosphanes ; Hydrazides ; (N-lithioamino)diorganophosphanes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Butyllithium (nBuLi) deprotonates Ph2P-NHtBu in ether to give (Ph2P-NLitBu)2·OEt2. There is no Li···P interaction in this molecule. Three compounds of the type R′P(NLiR)2 have been obtained by lithiation of R′P(NHR)2, isolated as [BuP(NLitBu)2·OEt2]2, [PhP(NLiPh)2·OEt2]2 and [PhP(NLiPh)2]2. Reaction of nBuLi with MeP(NHiPr)2 in hexane/THF leads to [MeP{N(Li)iPr]2·THF}4 with an asymmetric cluster structure comprising one LiP3, three LiPN2, three LiP2N and one LiN3 cluster units. The molecular structures of these compounds as determined by X-ray structure analysis show that they are best depicted as N-lithioaminophosphanes and not as the isomeric P-lithioiminophosphoranes.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Alkylation ; Carbonyl complexes ; Lewis acids ; Phosphaalkenes ; Protonation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of the carbonyl-functionalized phosphaalkenes RC(O)P=C(NMe2)2 [R = tBu (2a), Ph (2b)] with protic acids and alkylating reagents occurred at the two-coordinate phosphorus atom to give the phosphanyl-substituted carbocations 3a,b and 4a,b. In contrast, treatment with Me3SiOSO2CF3 resulted in attack at the oxygen atom by the silyl group, and the formation of [RC(OSiMe3)=PC(NMe2)2]SO3CF3 (5a,b). Similarly, the Lewis acids B(C6F5)3, Al(tBu)2Cl and AlMe3 were ligated to the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group. Two equivalents of GaMe3 were added to the oxygen and phosphorus atom of the phosphaalkene to yield the thermolabile complexes [RC(OGaMe3)=P(GaMe3)C(NMe2)2] (10a,b). In contrast, one molecule of InMe3 was bound to the phosphorus center of the phosphorus compound. Reaction of the phosphaalkenes with [Ni(CO)4], [Fe2(CO)9] or [{(Z)-cyclooctene}Cr(CO)5] also took place at the pnictogen atom, resulting in complexes of the type [RC(O)P{M(CO)n}C(NMe2)2] (R = tBu, Ph; M = Ni, n = 3; Fe, n = 4; Cr, n = 5). The chemical transformations reported here underline the versatile chemistry of phosphaalkenes and emphasize a relationship between carbonyl-functionalized phosphaalkenes and the well-investigated class of phosphorus ylides. X-ray structures of compounds 6b, 7b*, 10a, 11a and 12a are reported.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2127-2134 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Gallium ; Azides ; Chemical vapour deposition ; Gallium nitride ; Single source precursors ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis, properties and X-ray single crystal structure analysis of the intramolecularly adduct-stabilised organogallium bisazide (N3)2Ga[(CH2)3NMe2] (1), the mono azide (N3)Ga[(CH2)3NMe2]2 (2) and the trialkylamine adducts of triazidogallium of the type (N3)3Ga(NR3) (3a-d; R = alkyl) are reported. An unusual isomer 1b of compound 1 is described, which was obtained by slow cooling of the analytically pure neat liquid compound 1 to 0 °C. The new and unusual structure 1b can be regarded as a weak associate of dimers linked together by head-to-tail azide bridges. In contrast, compounds 2 and 3a-b (R = CH3, C2H5) are monomeric in the solid state. The suitability of the volatile compounds 1 and 2 as single source precursors to grow GaN thin films by chemical vapour deposition is compared, showing that preferentially oriented crystalline films can be obtained from compound 2 on sapphire substrates at 600-700 °C in vacuo (0.1 Pa). However the films have a grey rather than a transparent appearance, which is presumably due to N-deficiency owing to the lower N-content of the single molecule precursor 2 relative to 1.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2135-2145 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Density functional calculations ; Epoxidation ; Peroxo complexes ; Titanium ; Transition states ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Epoxidation of olefins by TiIV peroxo and hydroperoxo (alkylperoxo) complexes was investigated using a hybrid DFT method (B3LYP). Reaction energies and activation barriers for direct oxygen transfer to ethylene as a model olefin were computed for various model complexes to compare the epoxidation activity of Ti(η2-O2) and TiOOR (R = H, CH3) moieties. The activity of complexes with a Ti(O2) peroxo group is shown to be essentially quenched when the coordination sphere of the complex is saturated by strongly basic (σ-donor) ligands. In contrast, the activity of a TiOOH functional group depends only weakly on the saturation of the coordination sphere of the Ti center. Substitution of methyl for hydrogen in a TiOOH group is found to slightly increase the activation barrier of epoxidation. The computational results give preference to reaction paths that involve TiOOR species. The factors governing the activity of Ti(O2) and TiOOR groups, in particular the effects of donor ligands, are discussed on the basis of a molecular orbital analysis.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2289-2294 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Intercalations ; Vanadyl phosphate ; Ethanol ; Hydration ; Kinetics ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The course of the replacement of ethanol by water molecules in the VOPO4·2C2H5OH intercalate, and of water by ethanol in VOPO4·2H2O has been studied by X-ray diffraction and infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of mixed phase VOPO4·C2H5OH·H2O was not observed. The shape of the kinetics curves indicates a transition of at least one reaction zone through the crystal. A delay in formation of the product in comparison with the decrease in the amount of starting material can be explained by the existence of non-diffracting advancing phase boundary. In a VOPO4/ethanol/water system, VOPO4·2C2H5OH is formed as the only product when the system contained more than 96 vol% of ethanol, whereas in the system with less than 94 vol% of ethanol only VOPO4·2H2O is present.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2295-2299 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Lewis acids ; Bismuth ; Aluminum ; Phosphorus ; Tin ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dilithium salts of N-methyl-N′,N′′-bis(diisopropyl)- and -(trimethylsilyl)-diethylenetriamine 1a,b react with SnCl2 affording the corresponding stannylenes 2a,b in 60 and 80% yield, respectively. Compound 1b also reacts with BiCl3 to give the bismuth chloride 5 (90% yield). Derivatives 2b and 5 have a symmetrical bicyclic structure and are monomeric both in solution and in the solid state. When 2b is treated with BiCl3 or PCl3, an oxidation reaction leads to the hypercoordinated tin(IV) dichloride 3 (58% yield), or a transmetallation gives rise to the oniophosphane 4 (95% yield), respectively. Transmetalation reactions also occurred when 5 was treated with AlCl3, GaCl3 or SnCl2 affording the corresponding aluminum chloride 6 (81% yield), gallium chloride 7 (38% yield) or tin dichloride 3 (38% yield). The observed reactivity for 2 and 5 is compared to that reported for Veith's stannylene or bismuth chloride.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Ruthenium ; Triazole ; Titanium ; Electron Transfer ; Sensitizers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The complexes [Ru(dcb)2(L)] {L = 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (2-ppt), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (4-ppt), 3,5-bis(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (bpzt), 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (2-ppzt) and dcb = 4,4′-(CO2H)2-2,2′-bipyridine} have been synthesized, spectroscopically characterized and anchored to nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes for the conversion of light into electricity in regenerative solar cells. The different efficiencies observed have been rationalized on the basis of an analytical expression relating the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) to the kinetic parameters of the relevant electron transfer processes involved in the solar cell.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1295-1299 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Solid-state chemistry ; Structure elucidation ; Reactive flux syntheses ; Oxysulfides ; Niobium chalcogenides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The new compounds K4Nb2S10O and Rb4Nb2S10O have been synthesized by the reaction of potassium or rubidium alkaline polychalcogenides with NbO2, Nb2O5, or mixtures of Nb and NbO. Their structures consist of discrete [Nb2Q11]4- anions (Q = O, S) built up of two face-sharing pentagonal bipyramids, which are connected via the alkali metal cations.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Pyrazolato ligands ; Rhenium ; Group-11 metals ; Heterometallic complexes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: By treating [(CO)3Re(Hpz)2(pz)] (Hpz = pyrazole) with [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4, AgNO3, or [Au(tht)Cl] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) in acetonitrile in the presence of Et3N, the corresponding trinuclear complexes {(CO)3Re(pz)3[M(CH3CN)]2} (1a-c) have been obtained. Treatment of complexes 1a-c with cyclohexyl isocyanide (c-C6H11NC) afforded the derivatives {(CO)3Re(pz)3[M(c-C6H11NC)]2} (2a-c). Complexes 2a-c have been characterized in solution by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1309-1313 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phthalocyanines ; Rhenium ; Nitrido(octa-n-alkylphthalocyaninato)rhenium compounds ; Nucleophilic additions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reactions of nitrido(tetra-tert-butylphthalocyaninato)rhenium (1) with boron tribromide leading to (tBu4Pc)ReNBBr3 (4) and with acetone to give the imido complex (tBu4Pc)Re[NC(CH3)2CH2C(O)CH3]OH (2b) and its μ-oxo dimer 3 are reported. Starting from the corresponding 4,5-di-n-alkylphthalonitriles and ammonium perrhenate four soluble nitrido(octa-n-alkylphthalocyaninato)rhenium complexes 5-8 were synthesized. Nitrido(octa-n-pentylphthalocyaninato)rhenium (6) was treated with boron tribromide to afford [(C5H11)8Pc]ReNBBr3 (9).
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1325-1333 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Platinum ; Palladium ; Platinum blues ; Naphthyridine complexes ; Trinuclear complexes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: All three dinuclear complexes [Pd2(donp)2(bpy)2] (1) (H2donp = 1,8-naphthyridin-2,7-dione), [Pd2(H2nonp)2(bpy)2](ClO4)2 (2), and [Pt2(H2nonp)2(bpy)2](PF6)2 (3) (H3nonp = 7-amino-1,8-naphthyridin-2-one) exhibit the μ-1ĸN1:2ĸN8 bridging mode for their head/tail orientated naphthyridine ligands. Whereas 1 and 3 may be prepared by direct reaction of the dinucleating ligand with [MCl2(bpy)], formation of competing tripalladium(II) complexes must be avoided for 2 by employment of the precursor H2acnonp (7-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridin-2-one), which affords [H2nonp]- on cleavage of its original acetyl group. A mixture of the head/tail (4a) and head/head (4b) isomers of [Pd3(Hnonp)2(bpy)3](ClO4)2 is obtained when H3nonp is treated with [PdCl2(bpy)] and LiOH at room temperature for 2 d, followed by precipitation with LiClO4. Contrastingly exclusive formation of 4a is observed upon refluxing this reaction mixture for 3 d in aqueous solution. The [Hnonp]2- ligands exhibit a μ3-1ĸN1:2ĸN8:3ĸN7 bridging mode that leads to short Pd···Pd interactions of 2.781(2) and 2.775(2) Å. Similar metal-metal distances of 2.771(3) and 2.816(3) Å are observed in head/head-[Pt3(acnonp)(Hnonp)(bpy)3]Cl2 (5). An in situ 2e--oxidation (Ag+/Ag) of the [Pt3]6+ core in triplatinum(II) species such as 5 formed by the reaction of [PtCl2(bpy)] with H2acnonp allows the isolation of diamagnetic dark-brown head/head-[Pt3(Hnonp)2(NO3)(bpy)3](ClO4)2(NO3) (6) with an average oxidation state of Pt (2.67+). The Pt-Pt distances of 2.723(2) and 2.670(2) Å are markedly shorter than in 5.
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  • 33
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1343-1350 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Indium ; O ligands ; N ligands ; C ligands ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New heteroleptic indium compounds have been synthesized starting from indium(III) halides and hexamethyldisilazyllithium to form MeXInN(SiMe3)2 [X = Cl (1), Br (2)], and then subsequent alcoholysis to afford the molecules [ClMeIn(OtBu)]2 (3), [BrMeIn(OtBu)]2 (4), {ClMeIn[O(C6H4)OMe]}2 (5), {[(SiMe3)2N]MeIn(OtBu)}2 (6) and [MeIn(OtBu)2]2 (7). The molecular structures of molecules 3-7 have been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The structures of the compounds 3-7 are almost identical: 3-5 crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system with two dimeric molecules per unit cell in the space group P21/c, 6 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with four molecules per unit cell, and compound 7 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with one dimeric molecule per unit cell in the space group P-1. The central centrosymmetric In2O2 ring, common to all the compounds, is achieved by two bridging oxygen atoms. Due to the additional coordination by an oxygen atom of the methoxy group, the coordination number of the metal center rises from 4 to “4+1” if the OtBu ligand (compounds 3, 4, 6, and 7) is exchanged for a methoxyphenol ligand (compound 5). In addition to the In2O2 ring the compound 5 possesses two annealed five-membered InO2C2 rings. The common indium methyl group of all compounds, which is transfered by an original route from the silicon to the indium atom, is used to compare structural and spectroscopic properties of the molecules, as there is a correlation between the In-C bond length and the chemical shift of the methyl group which depends on the ligand system used.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1359-1366 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Selenium ; Fluorine ; Multinuclear NMR ; Raman spectroscopy ; X-ray crystallography ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of perfluoroaryllithium RC6F4Li, where R = F or 4-CF3C6F4O, respectively, with selenium gives the known diselanes (RC6F4Se)2 (1a, 1b). Redox reactions of 1 with hydrogen peroxide result in the formation of the seleninic acids RC6F4SeOOH which crystallize as hydrates (2a, 2b); with mercury give the bis(arylseleno)mercuries (RC6F4Se)2Hg (3a, 3b); with sulfuryl chloride or bromine give the selenenyl chlorides (4a, 4b) or selenenyl bromides (5a, 5b). Selenenyl chlorides (4a, 4b) react with a variety of trimethylsilyl reagents Me3SiX (X = Br, CN, NMe2, NEt2) to form 5a, 5b; selenocyanates RC6F4SeCN (6a, 6b); selenenyl amides RC6F4SeNMe2 (7a, 7b) and RC6F4SeNEt2 (8a, 8b). A new synthetic route to diorgano selanes is developed by reaction of 4a, 4b with perfluoroaryllithium to give the symmetric (RC6F4)2Se (9a, 9b). All derivatives are thoroughly characterized and in addition the molecular structures of 2a, 6a, and 9a are established by X-ray crystallography.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Metallomesogens ; Nickel ; Salicylidenediamines ; Azo compounds ; (E)/(Z) photoisomerization ; Isomerizations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The bis[4-(n-CmH2m+1O)-5-(p-C14H29C6H4N=N)]-substituted N,N′-salicylidenediamines H2[LN(m,14)] (N = 1: 1,2-diaminoethane; N = 2: 1,3-diaminopropane; N = 3: 1,3-diamino-2,2-dimethylpropane; m = 6 or 18) have been synthesized. Both the N = 2 and 3 series of compounds display a smectic C (SmC) mesophase, with clearing points well below 100 °C. By treating the H2[LN(m,14)] ligands with an NiII salt, liquid crystalline mononuclear complexes with “unconventional” (lateral-tailed) molecular shape form. These Ni[LN(m,14)] complexes, showing nematic and smectic disordered phases, are stable over a quite large temperature range and have been characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The newly synthesized mesogens exhibit lower transition temperatures and higher thermal stability than homologous complexes Ni[LN(14)] with a “conventional” rod-like molecular geometry.
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  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1467-1477 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Oxidations ; Tertiary alcohol ; Porphyrins ; Neophyl rearrangement ; Cleavage reactions ; β-Scission ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Oxidation of 4-(1-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)benzoic acid HPEBA with a water-soluble metalloporphyrin as catalyst and KHSO5 as oxygen atom donor gives the major products, acetophenone AC and acetylbenzoic acid ABA, by a Caliph-CAr bond cleavage, but a minor product, benzoyloxybenzoic acid BOBA, requires the insertion of an oxygen atom to form the ester. This compound becomes the main oxidation product on increasing the amount of acetonitrile in the reaction medium, and its formation is oxygen-dependent. The conversion is drastically lowered by using D2O instead of H2O, suggesting that an alkoxyl radical is formed in the rate-determining step. Labeling experiments using 18O2 or H218O under different reaction conditions show that the carbonyl oxygen atoms of AC and ABA originate either from substrate, water or dioxygen. However, the carbonyl oxygen atom in the ester group of BOBA originates from dioxygen while the other oxygen atom of the ester remains unlabeled. These results can be explained by an O-neophyl rearrangement of the initial alkoxyl radical to afford a carbon-based radical which then reacts with dioxygen or MnIV-OH/water. In a competitive reaction pathway, direct β-scission of the alkoxyl radical leads to unlabeled products. The oxidation of other tertiary diaryl alcohols is also discussed.
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  • 37
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1489-1495 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Peroxo complexes ; Vanadium ; Mass spectrometry ; 51V-NMR spectroscopy ; Vanadium dependent bromoperoxidases ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ESI mass spectrometry and 51V-NMR spectroscopy have been used to study the reactions occurring between bisperoxo vanadates and a number of histidine and histidine-like ligands, in aqueous alcoholic solutions. Coordination of one and two molecules of ligand is observed with all the compounds investigated affording [VO5L]- and [VO52L]-, respectively. Characterization of these species has been achieved by MSn experiments, which have allowed specific fragmentations of the peroxidic moiety to be distinguished. In particular, with [VO52L]-, two distinct modes of decomposition were observed, depending on the presence in the ligand of a free carboxylic function. - Possible biochemical implications related to vanadium haloperoxidase enzymes are discussed.
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  • 38
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    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1479-1488 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphorus heterocycles ; Cations ; Tungsten complexes ; Coordination modes ; Phosphaalkenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 1,1,3-tris(diisopropylamino)diphosphirenium salt 1 reacts with lithium aluminium hydride leading to the P-hydrogeno-C-phosphinophosphaalkenes 2, which on treatment with a catalytic amount of BF3·OEt2 afford the 1,3-bis(diisopropylamino)-1H-diphosphirene 3. The corresponding η1-coordinated 1H-diphosphirene 6 can be prepared by treatment of 2 or 3 with one equivalent of [W(CO)5(thf)]. Alternatively, the diphosphirenium salt 1 reacts with an excess of [W(CO)5(thf)], affording the corresponding η1-coordinated diphosphirenium salt complex 4, which is converted into the P-hydrogenophosphaalkene complex 5 with lithium aluminium hydride. The dinuclear tungsten complexes 7 and 8 are obtained by treatment of the free 1H-diphosphirene 3 with two equivalents of [W(CO)5(thf)] or one equivalent of [W(CO)4(thf)2], respectively. Compound 6 reacts with two equivalents of hydrogen chloride, giving the 1-chloro-3-diisopropylamino-1H-diphosphirene 9, which can be subsequently converted into the 1-diisopropylamino-, 1-azido, or 1-phenyl-3-diisopropylamino-1H-diphosphirenes 6, 10 and 11 by nucleophilic substitution with diisopropylamine, azidotrimethylsilane or sodium tetraphenylborate, respectively. The [η2-(3-diisopropylaminodiphosphirenylium salt)·W(CO)5] complexes 12a-c can be prepared by reaction of 9 with silver trifluoromethanesulfonate, aluminium or gallium trichloride or, alternatively, by treatment of 6 with two equivalents of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Reaction of 12a with diisopropylamine, water, bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium chloride or tetrabutylammonium fluoride gives the corresponding 1H-diphosphirene complexes 6, 13, 9, or 14, respectively. Compound 12a also reacts with one or two equivalents of [W(CO)5(thf)], leading to the di- and tri-nuclear complexes 15and 16, respectively.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphane ligands ; 31P-NMR spectrometry ; Substituent increments ; Electronic and steric properties ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The syntheses and spectroscopic parameters of the new tertiary phosphane ligands (p-MeOC6H4)(o-MeOC6H4)2P (1), (p-MeOC6H4)(o-MeSC6H4)2P (2), (p-MeSC6H4)(o-MeSC6H4)2P (3), (p-MeSC6H4)(o-MeOC6H4)2P (4), (p-MeOC6H4)(o-NC5H4)2P (5), and (p-MeSC6H4)(o-NC5H4)2P (6) are reported. Single-crystal X-ray structures of all the compounds (1-6) have been determined. The dependence of the 31P-NMR chemical shifts on the substituent groups of the phosphanes is discussed.
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  • 40
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1373-1379 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Sodium bis(borane)dimethylamide solvates ; X-ray structure ; Reduction ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of sodium metal with dimethylamine-borane in THF yields Na[(H3B)2NMe2] (1) which can be isolated as {Na[(H3B)2NMe2]}5·THF or as Na[(H3B)2NMe2]·15-crown-5 (2) and Na[(H3B)2NMe2]·benzo-15-crown-5 (3) after addition of the appropriate crown ether to the THF solution of 1. Reaction of 1 with ZrCl4 yields Me2HN-BH2-NMe2-BH3 (4), the structure of which has been determined. In THF solution, 1 reduces aldehydes, ketones, acyl chlorides, and esters to the corresponding alcohols. It also reacts slowly with nitriles and allylbenzene. Compound (1)5·THF crystallizes in an extended three-dimensional lattice, in which the Na atoms are coordinated by 6-9 hydridic H atoms, while 3 is a molecular compound in the solid state. Only one hydrogen atom of each BH3 group coordinates to the sodium center. On the other hand, 4 forms dimeric associates in the solid state through N-H···H-B interactions.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Haloalkyl complexes ; Five-coordinate platinum complexes ; Alkene complexes ; Olefin halogenation ; Oxidative addition ; Platinum ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Five-coordinate complexes [PtX2(olefin)(2,9-Me2-phen)] (1; 2,9-Me2-phen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline; olefin = ethene denoted by a, propene by b, 1-butene by c; × = Cl denoted by x, Br by y) undergo photoactivated reactions with Cl2 and Br2 to give the (β-haloalkyl)platinum(IV) complexes [Pt(CH2CHRX)(2,9-Me2-phen)X3] (2). Bromination of the chloro species 1ax leads to the formation of the PtIV species 2axy containing the bromide, the bromoalkyl, and the phenanthroline ligands in the equatorial plane and two chloride ions in axial positions. The iodo complexes 1(a-c)z are not oxidized by iodine even under UV irradiation but react readily with Cl2 or Br2 to give 2(a-c)x and 2(a-c)y. The structure of 2ay, the first structurally characterized (β-haloalkyl)platinum complex, has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The stereochemistry of the (β-haloalkyl)platinum(IV) complexes is in accord with a simultaneous addition of two halogen atoms to the coordinated olefin and to the metal center.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphanes ; Disilanes ; Disilanylamines ; Germanes ; Stannanes ; Stannanes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reactions of dialkyl(trimethylsilyl)phosphanes RR′PSiMe3 (1:R, R′ = tBu; 3: R, R′ = iPr; 5: R = iPr, R′ = tBu) with Si2Cl6 provide stable trichlorosilylphosphanes RR′PSiCl3 (2, 4, 6); the reactions of silyl- and stannylamines of iPr2NMMe3 (M = Si: 11; M = Sn: 12) with Si2Cl6, however, provide the stable pentachlorodisilanylamine iPr2NSi2Cl5 (13). Heating of 1 with the technical mixture Me2(Cl)SiSiCl2Me/(MeCl2Si)2 yields the stable silylphosphane tBu2PSiMe2Cl (8) and the disilanylphosphane tBu2PSi(Me)(Cl)Si(Me)Cl2 (9). Methylation of 9 with MeLi gave tBu2PSi2Me510, which was isolated in a pure state. Reactions of tBu(iPr)PSiMe3 (5) and of organometal phosphanes tBu(iPr)PMR3 (14: M = Ge, R = Me; 17a-c: M = Sn; R = Me, Et, nBu) with Si2Cl6 were monitored by 31P, 29Si, and 119Sn NMR. - In the first step of these reactions, new tBu(iPr)PSi2Cl5 (7) is formed. 7 is accompanied by increasing amounts of tBu(iPr)PSiCl3 (6) and Me3GeSiCl3 (15)/(Me3Ge)2Si(SiCl3)2 (16) or traces of compounds R3SnSiCl3 (19a-c) that decompose providing (R3Sn)2Si(SiCl3)2 (18a-c) and nBu3SnSi(SiCl3)3 (20c). Subsequently, compounds 19a-c decompose providing increasing amounts of 18a-c. Stannylphosphane 17bis also cleaved by SiCl4 leading to 6 with liberation of Et3SnCl, whereas 17bis formedfrom the reaction of 5 with Et3SnCl under liberation of Me3SiCl. The suggestion of an extra stabilisation of P-Si bonds of trichlorosilylphosphanes was subjected to direct evidence through the structure determination of the trichlorosilylphosphane tBu2PSiCl3 (2) in the gas phase by electron diffraction. This crowded molecule has a “normal” P-Si bond length of 225.0(12) pm; its C1 symmetric conformation with both tBu groups and the SiCl3 group twisted about 17° from the perfectly staggered positions, and with each of the three groups tilted about 6° away from each other, allows to reduce steric strain.
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  • 43
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    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1421-1428 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Grid complexes ; Self-assembly ; Co ; Zn ; Coordination chemistry ; Bis(tridentate) ligands ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The tretrametallic [2 × 2] grid-type complexes 1-4 are formed by self-assembly of the bis(tridentate) ligands 5 and 6 with ZnII and CoII cations. They have been characterized by spectroscopic studies in solution as well as by crystal structure determination. The substituents in the central pyrimidine ring play an important role in terms of geometry and physical properties of the complexes. They induce an orthogonal orientation of the ligand in the complexes which is critical for the formation of ordered monolayers and extended self-organized arrays of grids. The physical properties of the complexes such as metal-metal interaction and π-π* stacking between the ligands may be modulated by changing these substituents.
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  • 44
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1429-1433 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Antitumor drugs ; Platinum ; DNA ; Dendrimers ; L1210 Mouse leukemia ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis and characterisation of the first generation of a poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer DAB(PA)4, substituted with four trans-diamminechloroplatinum moieties is reported. The compound DAB(PA-tPt-Cl)4 was designed to overcome two problems often associated with cisplatin resistance in cancer cells: (i) deactivation of the platinum species by intracellular thiolates and (ii) improved repair of crosslinks with DNA. The four-armed molecule can be expected to form crosslinks with DNA that are very different from the adducts formed by cisplatin. Also, the tetranuclear compound has four leaving groups, while cisplatin has only two. Therefore, DAB(PA-tPt-Cl)4 would be less susceptible towards inactivation by reaction with intracellular thiolates. A reaction with an excess of the model nucleobase guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP) confirmed that the tetranuclear compound is capable of binding a maximum of four nucleobases. Therefore, the inactivation of one or two arms would still leave the molecule with enough reactivity to form crosslinks with DNA. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on two mouse leukemia L1210 cell lines, both sensitive and resistant towards cisplatin, and in seven human tumor cell lines. In all cell lines, the tetranuclear compound showed a low cytotoxicity. It is suggested that the low activity is related to the structure of the compound. Probably the high charge (+6) at physiological pH and its branched structure hamper the molecule in crossing the cell membranes.
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  • 45
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    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1453-1459 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Group-5 bent metallocene cation complexes ; (Butadiene)tantalocene cation ; (s-trans-η4-Butadiene)metal complex ; Ethene polymerization ; Metallocenes ; Homogeneous catalysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (Butadiene)TaCp*Cl2 (6) was treated with CpNa to yield (η2-butadiene)TaCp*CpCl (7). Subsequent reaction with [Cp2ZrCH3+][CH3B(C6F5)3-] resulted in transfer of the chloride ligand from tantalum to zirconium with formation of the [(s-trans-η4-butadiene)TaCp*Cp]+ cation [8, with CH3B(C6F5)3- anion]. Complex 8 was characterized spectroscopically and by an X-ray crystal structure analysis. The group-5 [(s-trans-η4-C4H6)TaCp*Cp]+ bent metallocene cation complex 8 reacts with ketones (acetone, adamantanone) to yield the corresponding seven-membered 2-tantalatetrahydrooxepine cation complexes (9, 10). 1-Cyanoadamantane reacts with 8 to yield the 2-tantala-3,6-dihydro-2H-azepine cation system 11. Activation of 8 with methylalumoxane gives an active ethene polymerization catalyst.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Metallacycles ; Solid-state structures ; Heterocycles ; Oxidations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Direct oxidation of PhC(O)NHPPh2, H2NC(S)NHPPh2, (C5H4N)C(S)NHPPh2 with O2, S8, or Se gives [PhC(O)NHP(O)Ph2] (1), [H2NC(S)NHP(S)Ph2] (2), [H2NC(O)NHP-(S)Ph2] (3), [PhC(O)NHP(S)Ph2] (4), [(C5H4N)C(S)NHP(S)Ph2] (5), and [H2NC(S)NHP(Se)Ph2] (6). Deprotonation of 1, 2, 4-6 with potassium tert-butoxide gives K[PhC(O)NP(O)Ph2] (7), K[H2NC(S)NP(S)Ph2] (8), K[PhC(O)NP(S)Ph2] (9), K[(C5H4N)C(S)NP(S)Ph2] (10), and K[H2NC(S)NP(Se)Ph2] (11). Reaction of 4with KOBu and [Cu(Ph3P)2][NO3] gives [Cu(Ph3P)(PhC(O)NP(S)Ph2)] (12) which is the first crystallographically characterised example of a non-ionic six-membered “true” heterocycle (i.e. a ring in which every heterocatom is different). 9 and 10 were treated with [PdCl2(COD)] to give [Pd{PhC(O)NP(S)Ph2}2] (13) and [Pd{(C5H4N)C(O)NP(S)Ph2}2] (14), respectively The anion of 8 coordinates to zinc forming [Zn{H2NC(S)NP(S)Ph2}2] (15). Treatment of 2 or 8 with [PtCl2(COD)] gives [Pt{H2NC(S)NP(S)Ph2}{H2NC(S)NHP(S)Ph2}]+Cl- (16) and [Pt{H2NC(S)NP(S)Ph2}2] (17), respectively. The X-ray structures of 12, 15-17are reported.
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  • 47
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    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1523-1529 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Boron ; Iron ; Ruthenium ; Boryl Complexes ; Borylene Complexes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reactivity of aminodihaloboranes R2NBX2 (R = Me, SiMe3; × = Cl, Br) towards transition metal complexes of the type Na[(η5-C5R′5)M(CO)2)] (M = Fe, Ru; R′ = H, Me) was investigated. In the case of Me2NBBr2 and M = Fe the borylcomplexes [(η5-C5R′5)(CO)2Fe{BBr(NMe2)}] (C5R′5 = C5H59a; C5R′5 = C5H4Me 9b; C5R′5 = C5Me510) were obtained. The compounds 9aand 9bwere formed together with the corresponding bridged borylene complexes [μ-BNMe2(μ-CO){(η5-C5R′5)Fe(CO)}2] (C5R′5 = C5H511a; C5R′5 = C5H4Me 11b) in a 1:1 ratio, the latter, however, could be isolated from these mixtures as pure materials. In addition the novel boryl and borylene ruthenium complexes [(η5-C5H5)(CO)2Ru{BX(NMe2)}] (X = Cl 12a; × = Br 12b), [(η5-C5H5)(CO)2Ru{BCl{NSiMe3{BClN(SiMe3)2}}}] (13) and [μ-BN(SiMe3)2(μ-CO){(η5-C5H5)Ru(CO)}2] (14) were obtained by similar methods. All compounds were characterized by multinuclear NMR and IR spectroscopy. The structure of 13 in the solid state was determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study.
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  • 48
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    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1531-1535 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: SiCl4 Combustion ; OSiCl2 ; Matrix isolation ; Thermodynamic data ; DFT calculations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: During the technical important combustion of SiCl4 with oxygen [SiCl4(g) + O2(g) = SiO2(s) + 2·Cl2(g)] many intermediates have been detected in the past. However, the presence of the primary species O=SiCl2 has been discussed controversially until today. With the help of matrix isolation technique we have now been successful to monitor O=SiCl2 via its IR spectrum. With the help of quantum chemical calculations the thermodynamic data have been calculated first. On this basis it was possible to find the optimal conditions to trap OSiCl2 from the high-temperature equilibrium. Furthermore it could be shown via IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations, that the radical OSiCl does not play a significant role within this combustion process.
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  • 49
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    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 1545-1550 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphates ; Structure ; IR spectroscopy ; Raman spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The low-temperature form of K3Sm(PO4)2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system [a = 7.4347(5) Å, b = 5.6270(5) Å, c = 9.4919(5) Å, β = 90.870(6)°, Z = 2, space group P21/m]. The structure has been determined using 1263 independent reflections (R = 0.045, Rw = 0.11) and is found to be of the glaserite type. The Raman and infrared spectra have been investigated: they are consistent with the proposed space group and an assignment of the observed frequencies is given.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Palladium ; Phosphane ligands ; Bite angle ; Allylic alkylation ; Molecular modelling ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The natural bite angle of bidentate phosphane ligands influences the isomer distribution (syn and anti) in (1-methylallyl)(bisphosphane)Pd OTf complexes. It was found (31P- and 1H-NMR studies) that the syn/anti ratio changes from 12 (dppp) to 1.3 (sixantphos). Molecular orbital calculations [PM3(tm) level] indicate that for ligands inducing a large bite angle, the phenyl rings of the ligand embrace the allyl moiety, thus influencing the syn/anti ratio. This bite-angle effect on the syn/anti ratio is transferred to the regioselectivity in stoichiometric allylic alkylation. Ligands inducing large bite angles direct the regioselectivity towards the formation of the branched product 2. Catalytic alkylation of (E)-2-butenyl acetate showed that for ligands with a small bite angle the regioselectivity of the catalytic and stoichiometric alkylation are in good agreement. This correspondence is worse for ligands with a larger bite angle, which is rationalised in terms of the relative rates of syn/anti isomerisation and alkylation. The ligand with the largest bite angle (sixantphos) gives the most active catalytic species.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Metal string complexes ; Multicentered metal-metal multiple bond ; Quadruple bonds ; Metal-metal interactions ; Chromium ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The linear pentanuclear chromium complexes [CrII5(μ5-tpda)4Cl2] (1), [CrII5(μ5-tpda)4(NCS)2] (2), [CrIIICrII4(μ5-tpda)4F2](BF4) (3), and [CrIIICrII4(μ5-tpda)4F(OTf)](OTf) (4), with four all-syn tri(α-pyridyl)diamido dianion (tpda2-) ligands, have been prepared and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 possess a delocalized Cr(II)-Cr(II)-Cr(II)-Cr(II)-Cr(II) five-centred metal-metal bond of order 1.5. In both 1 and 2 two values for CrII-CrII bond lengths are found both; the outer ones connected with axial ligands are 2.284(1) and 2.285(2) Å, and the inner ones are 2.2405(8) and 2.246(1) Å, for 1 and 2, respectively. When compound 1 reacts with 2 equiv. of AgBF4 or Ag(OTf), a oxidation reaction takes place and one of the terminal chromium(II) ions is oxidized to produce [CrIIICrII4(μ5-tpda)4F2]BF4 (3) or [CrIIICrII4(μ5-tpda)4F(OTf)](OTf) (4). Two short Cr-Cr distances [1.969(2) and 2.138(2) Å for 3, 1.846(1) and 1.922(1) Å for 4] are found, with the presence of two quadruple bonds among four adjacent CrII ions. The fifth CrIII ion, which is separated from the neighboring CrII ion by 2.487(2) Å for 3 and 2.610(1) Å for 4, is simply a square pyramidal unit with no metal-metal bonding interaction.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Aluminium ; Amides ; Calcium ; Metallacycles ; Phosphorus ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Treatment of calcium bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amide] with two equivalents of tris(trimethylsilylmethyl)alane yields (Me3SiCH2)2Al-N(SiMe3)2 (1) and the dimer [(Me3Si)2N-Ca(μ-CH2SiMe3)2Al(CH2SiMe3)2]2 (2). The five-coordinate bridging carbon atoms show Ca-C bond lengths of 264 and 268 pm. A similar reaction with calcium bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)phosphanide] gives the dimer [(Me3SiCH2)2Al-P(SiMe3)2]2 (3) with crystallographic C2 symmetry. A calcium-containing species is not isolable, however, in the presence of DME - ether cleavage reactions and the formation of the centrosymmetric dimer [(Me3SiCH2)2Al-OCH2CH2OMe]2 (4) are observed. The central moiety is an Al2O2 cycle with fivefold coordinated aluminium centers.
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  • 53
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    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2215-2220 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Magnesium ; Metalation ; Phosphorus ; Polyhedra ; X-ray structures ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The magnesiation of triisopropylsilylphosphane with dibutylmagnesium in toluene yields the octanuclear complex [Mg8(PSiiPr3)6{P(H)SiiPr3}4] (1) which consists of MgPSiiPr3 units forming a hexagonal Mg6P6 prism, with two opposite Mg2P2 moieties capped by additional Mg[P(H)SiiPr3]2 groups. If a small amount of THF is present during the metalation reaction [(THF)4Mg6(PSiiPr3)6] (2) also containing a hexagonal Mg6P6 prism can be isolated. The magnesiation of H2P-SiiPr3 in tetrahydrofuran leads to the formation of the tetrameric complex [(THF)MgPSiiPr3]4(3) with a slightly distorted Mg4P4 cubane-like structure.The structures depend strongly on the steric strain caused by the trialkylsilyl substituents and the neutral coligands at the magnesium center. The highest steric strain, which is induced by coordination to every magnesium atom, leads to the smallest MgnPn polyhedron - the central Mg4P4 heterocubane moiety. In compounds 1 and 2 the hexagonal Mg6P6 prism is formed, however, with reduced steric strain as observed for 2 where the Mg-P bond lengths become more similar.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2233-2241 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Phosphorus ; Heterocycles ; Phosphinines ; Gold ; Cycloadditions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The coordination behaviour of 2,6-disilyl-substituted phosphinines towards gold(I) has been examined. The reaction of the bis(trimethylsilyl)phosphinine 1 with [AuCl(SMe2)] gives the corresponding AuCl derivative 2. X-ray crystal structure analysis reveals that the aromaticity of the phosphinine ring is slightly reduced as a result of the poor π-back bonding ability of the AuCl fragment. The same phenomenon is observed in the cationic complex [Au(1)2][GaCl4] (3) which was readily prepared by reaction of two equivalents of 1 with [AuCl(SMe2)] followed by treatment with GaCl3 at low temperature. Reaction of 2,6-bis(phenylethynyldimethylsilyl)phosphinine (4) with the same precursor leads similarly to the complex [AuCl(4)] (5). Interestingly, this complex dimerizes upon crystallization to give the bis(phosphabarrelene) complex 6, also structurally characterized. The formation of 6 results from a [4 + 2] cycloaddition between one alkynyl group of each phosphinine with the other phosphinine subunit. The formation of the cationic complex [Au(4)][GaCl4] (8) occurs under classical conditions but it disproportionates to give the cationic complex [Au(4)2][GaCl4] (9) and colloidal gold deposition. The formation of 9 has been ascertained by treating 8 with one equivalent of ligand 4. Additionally, 9 can also be obtained in a straightforward fashion by treating two equivalents of 4 with [AuCl(SMe2)] followed by treatment with GaCl3 at low temperature. The structure of 9 has been elucidated. Despite a particular arrangement of the alkyne groups which encapsulate the gold coordination sphere, no gold-alkyne interactions are visible.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Metallaoxirane ; HBR2 addition ; (Formaldehyde)zirconocene ; (Butadiene)zirconocene ; Heterocycles ; Boron ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (η2-Formaldehyde)zirconocene dimer (8) cleanly adds one or two molar equivalents of the borane HB(C6F5)2 by insertion of the H-[B] unit into the zirconium-carbon bond of the metallaoxirane moieties to form the mono- and bis-insertion products 16 and 17, respectively. These systems contain five-membered heterocyclic rings that are built up by connecting five different elements, namely H, B, C, O, and Zr. The bis(borane) insertion product 17 was characterized by an X-ray crystal structure analysis. (Butadiene)zirconocene reacts with HB(C6F5)2 in a similar way by insertion of the H-[B] unit into the (butadiene)C4-Zr linkage to form the metallacycle 18.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: N-ligands ; Yttrium ; Samarium ; Ring-opening polymerization ; Lactones ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of one equivalent of dilithiated O(SiMe2-Ap-H)2 [Ap-H = -N(2-amino-4-methylpyridine)] (1), generated in situ, with LnCl3 (Ln = Y, Sm) in THF affords O(SiMe2-Ap)2YCl(THF)2 (2) or O(SiMe2-Ap)2SmCl(THF)3 (3). In contrast, the reaction of one or two equivalents of dilithiated 1, again generated in situ, with LaBr3 in THF affords O(SiMe2-Ap)2)2LaLi(THF)3 (4). An X-ray structural analysis of 2 and 3 reveal the O(SiMe2-Ap)2- ligand to bind in a planar tetradentate manner. Equivalent Sm-N distances in 3 indicate a delocalized binding mode. Compound 2 reacts with Bu4NBH4, NaBH4 or LiCH(SiMe3)2 to give the corresponding “ate” complexes O(SiMe2-Ap)2Y(BH4)Cl(THF) Bu4N (5), O(SiMe2-Ap)2Y(BH4)2Na(THF)2 (6) and O(SiMe2-Ap)2Y(CH(TMS)2)2Li(THF)3 (7), respectively. The steric demand of the O(SiMe2-Ap)2- ligand is not large enough to stabilize monoalkyl or monoborohydride complexes. Complex 4 has been used as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone or δ-valerolactone. In both cases an almost linear relation between the monomer-to-initiator ratio and the molecular weight of the obtained polyester is observed. By conducting the polymerization in neat ε-caprolactone at room temperature a solid polyester block is formed after 3 min (300000 g·mol-1, Mw/Mn 2.3).
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2301-2307 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Multiple bonds ; Silicon ; Silylene ; Cycloadditions ; Insertions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Di-tert-butylsilylene, generated by photolysis of hexa-tert-butylcyclotrisilane 1 or 1,1-di-tert-butyl-trans-2,3-dimethyl-silirane (2), reacts with the 1,3-diyne (tBu-C≡C-)29 to furnish the dialkynylsilane 11 via the isolable alkynylsilirene 10. Photolysis of excess 1 in the presence of 9 furnishes the C-C linked 2,2′-disilirene 12 which, upon prolonged irradiation, rearranges to the 2,5-disilabicyclo[2.2.0]hexa-1(6),3-diene (13). Treatment of 9 with diarylsilylenes, formed by irradiation of hexamethyl-2,2-dimesityltrisilane (3) or hexamethyl-2,2-bis(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)trisilane (4), gives the corresponding alkynylsilirenes 14 and 15, respectively. Photolysis of 1 or 2 in the presence of (Me3Si-C≡C-)216 yields the dialkynylsilane 17 which, on further reaction with 2, yields the 2,5-disilabicyclo[2.2.0]hexa-1(6),3-diene (18). Irradiation of 3 in the presence of 16 affords the cis- and trans-isomeric 1,3-dimethylene-2,4-disila-cyclobutane derivatives cis-21 and trans-21, presumably via a 1-silaallene intermediate. The structures of 12, 15, 18, cis-21, and trans-21 have been determined by X-ray crystallography.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 1999 (1999), S. 2319-2325 
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Dichloroanilines ; Propanil ; Iron(III) tetrasulfonatophthalocyanine ; Oxidations ; Catalysts ; Chemistry