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  • 1980-1984  (4,920)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (4,919)
  • Nuclear reactions
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 371-385 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; dynein ; tubulin ; cilia and flagella ; microtubule associated proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Dynein, obtained from axonemes of Chlamydomonas, binds by both its A and B ends to microtubules assembled from twice cycled (2 ×) and purified (6S) brain tubulin as well as to microtubules in native spindles, thereby inducing microtubule crossbridging. The two ends of the dynein arm exhibit distinct binding characteristics for the different microtubule preparations. Greater than 99% of the dynein arms are bound exclusively by their B ends to microtubules assembled from 6S tubulin in the presence of dynein and decorated to saturation. In contrast, greater than 80% of the dynein arms are bound by both their A and B ends to and, therefore, crossbridge 6S microtubules that are only partially dynein decorated. Binding of the A end of the dynein arm to saturated 6S microtubules can be enhanced by destabilizing the binding of the B end upon addition of ATP and vanadate. These observations suggest that Chlamydomonas dynein arms can bind by their A ends to microtubules assembled from 6S tubulin only when the B ends of the arms either are not bound or are bound but do not occupy all available dynein binding sites. Dynein exhibits a slight preference for binding by its A end to microtubules assembled from 2 × tubulin and containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Approximately 90% of the dynein arms crossbridge adjacent 2 × microtubles that are only partially decorated. But as saturation of these microtubules with dynein is approached, the majority of the arms are bound solely by their A ends, while a smaller percentage are bound by their B ends or by both their A and B ends. These studies indicate that the type of microtubule as well as the degree of saturation of the microtubule with dynein can determine whether microtubule crossbridging occurs.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 431-441 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: dynein ; chromatophores ; permeabilization ; melanosomes ; motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Teleost chromatophores are filled with individual pigment granules that rapidly aggregate to the cell center or become dispersed throughout the cytoplasm in response to environmental stimuli. Microtubules appear to be required for pigment aggregation (movement toward the cell center), and recent findings have suggested that a dynein-like ATPase may participate in force production. Based on previous studies, however, it has been argued that pigment aggregation does not require energy directly, a view that supports the involvement of an elastic component in granule movement. To examine this point further, we have reinvestigated the energy requirements for pigment aggregation using both intact cells and detergent-permeabilized cell models of Fundulus melanophores. Poisons of oxidative phosphorylation, namely, 2,4 dinitrophenol and NaCN, reversibly inhibit melanosome aggregation in response to adrenaline. Inhibition of movement results directly from depletion of intracellular ATP, since pigment translocation can be reactivated in permeabilized cells by the addition of exogenous ATP to the lysis buffer. Non-hydrolyzable analogues, including β,γ-imidoadenosine-5′-triphosphate (AMPPNP), β,γ-methylene adenosine-5′-triphosphate (AMPPCP), and ATPγS, will not substitute for ATP in reactivation of movement. Similarly, other nucleotides such as ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, and ITP, have limited ability to support melanosome aggregation in metabolically poisoned cells subjected to detergent lysis. ATP itself has no effect on intact cells. These results indicate that melanosome aggregation is ATP-dependent and energy-driven, and are consistent with a role for a force-transducing ATPase in particle movement.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 41-55 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Leptodiscinae ; Dinoflagellates ; contractility ; non-actin filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Leptodiscinae, a group of marine Dinoflagellates, are good material for the study of contraction though they cannot be collected in abundance. Their cell bodies are flattened anteroposteriorly (Leptodiscus, Leptophyllus, and Leptospathium) and are able to contract suddenly when the surrounding water is disturbed.Electron microscopical observations have shown that the structures responsible for the contraction consist of a layer of parallel filaments located beneath the cell membrane of some specialized parts of the body. These filaments seem to be nonactin (NAF) because of their diameter (2.5-3 nm) and because they are not decorated by heavy meromyosin (HMM). They appear helically coiled and doubly twisted, and form tubular structures when contracted.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 25-27 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 183-196 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; assembly ; mitotic apparatus ; bimane ; fluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent derivatives of cellular proteins that retain their native characteristics have become useful probes to investigate the dynamics of specific cytoskeletal proteins. In the experiments reported here, a previously characterized fluorescent derivative of tubulin, bimane-tubulin [Wadsworth and Sloboda, 1982a], was used to investigate microtubule assembly in vitro. The results demonstrate that bimanetubulin was competent to assemble onto a variety of organizing centers in vitro, including microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) present in homogenates of sea urchin eggs, isolated mitotic apparatuses (MAs), and lysed mitotic cells. When homogenates of fertilized sea urchin eggs containing MTOCs were incubated with bimane-tubulin at 37°C, discrete areas of linear fluorescence were observed. Only diffuse fluorescence was observed when calcium or colchicine was added to the homogenate or if the temperature was maintained at 0°C. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the fluorescent arrays revealed morphologically normal microtubules radiating from electron dense regions. When mitotic spindles, isolated in glycerol containing buffers and therefore cold stable, were incubated with bimane-tubulin, linear fluorescence was observed emanating from the spindle poles but not from the region occupied by the kinetochores. MAs incubated with bimane-labeled bovine serum albumin or bimane-labeled microtubule-associated proteins showed only diffuse fluorescence. However, when mitotic cells which were hypotonically lysed in the absence of detergents or microtubule stabilizing solvents, were perfused with bimane-tubulin intense fluorescence was observed in the asters and throughout the spindle. Two experiments suggested that the fluorescence observed in the results outlined above was due to the assembly of normal microtubules from the fluorescent subunits. First, the observed fluorescence was sensitive to cold temperataure, which is known to disassemble microtubules. Second, when the isolated, fluorescent MAs were examined by thin section electron microscopy, microtubules of normal diameter were seen. No aggregated material appeared associated with the walls of the microtubules, which might have been expected if the fluorescent protein was nonspecifically adsorbed to the microtubules. The results of these experiments demonstrate that isolated, stabilized MAs support the growth of new microtubules from the spindle poles while labile spindles, present in lysed cells, incorporate fluorescent tubulin throughout the spindle and asters. The significance of these results for hypotheses concerning microtubule assembly and disassembly during mitosis is discussed.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 7-23 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axoplasm ; elastic modulus ; viscosity ; motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A magnetic sphere viscoelastometer has been developed to peform rheological experiments in living axoplasm of Loligo pealei. The technique includes the use of a calibrated magnetic sphere viscoelastometer on surgically implanted ferro-magnetic spheres in intact squid giant axons. The axoplasm was discerned to be “living” by the biological criterion of tubulovesicular organelle motility, which was observed before and after experimentation. From these in vivo experiments, new structural characteristics of the axoplasm have been identified. First, analysis of magnetic sphere trajectories has shown the axoplasm to be a complex viscoelastic fluid. Directional experimentation showed that this material is structurally anisotropic, with a greater elastic modulus in the direction parallel to the axon long axis. Second, both magnetic sphere and in vivo capillary experiments suggested that the axoplasm is tenaciously anchored to the axolemma. Third, it was found that axoplasm could be modelled as a linear viscoelastic material in the low shear rate range of 0.0001 to 0.004 s-1. The simplest mechanical model incorporating the discovered properties of the material in this range is Burger's model.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 103-119 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cilia ; metachrony ; serum immunoglobulins ; IgM ; Mytilus edulis ; cystic fibrosis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human IgM and a bovine, IgM-enriched serum fraction isolated from normal adult serum at concentrations of 0.25-1 mg/ml protein induced a pronounced increase in the metachronal wavelength of the lateral (L) cilia of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis without altering their beat frequency. This change in activity was indistinguishable from that induced by 50% adult human or bovine serum. At protein concentrations ranging from 1-9 mg/ml, human IgG or a bovine, IgG-enriched serum fraction had no or little effect on the activity of the L cilia. Similarly, neither monomeric (8S) human IgM (0.25 mg/ml) nor monospecific pentameric IgM (1 mg/ml) isolated from Waldenström's macroglobulinemia patients altered the metachrony of the L cilia. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that both bovine and human IgM became attached almost exclusively to the L cilia, while very little bovine or human IgG was found to associate with these cilia.The results of this study suggest that serum IgM specifically binds to the L cilia of Mytilus in an antigen-antibody manner and agglutinates adjacent cilia into blocks or bundles, thereby increasing the coupling between cilia. As a result, the wavelength of the metachronal coordination is increased. The origin of these ciliary antibodies and their significance to ciliary bioassays used to monitor serum for the detection of cystic fibrosis are discussed.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 417-430 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: flagella ; image analysis ; microcomputer ; motility ; parameter estimation ; Simplex method ; spermatozoa ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Parameters to describe flagellar bending patterns can be obtained by a microcomputer procedure that uses a set of parameters to synthesize model bending patterns, compares the model bending patterns with digitized and filtered data from flagellar photographs, and uses the Simplex method to vary the parameters until a solution with minimum root mean square differences between the model and the data is found. Parameters for Chlamydomonas bending patterns have been obtained from comparison of shear angle curves for the model and the data. To avoid the determination of the orientation of the basal end of the flagellum, which is required for calculation of shear angles, parameters for sperm flagella have been obtained by comparison of curves of curvature as a function of length for the model and for the data. A constant curvature model, modified from that originally used for Chlamydomonas flagella, has been used for obtaining parameters from sperm flagella, but the methods can be applied using other models for synthesizing the model bending patterns.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 77-87 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; flagella ; cell surface ; adhesion ; glycoproteins ; iodination ; lactoperoxidase ; Iodogen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Chlamydomonas flagellar surface exhibits interesting adhesive properties that are associated with flagellar surface motility. This dynamic surface property can be exhibited as the binding and movement of small polystyrene microspheres or as the interaction of the flagellar surface with a solid substrate followed by whole cell locomotion, termed “gliding.” In order to identify flagellar surface proteins that mediate substrate interaction during flagellar surface motility, two immobilized iodination systems were employed that mimic the conditions for flagellar surface motility: small polystyrene microspheres derivatized with lactoperoxidase, and large glass beads derivatized with Iodogen. Use of these iodination conditions resulted in preferential iodination of a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein with apparent molecular weight of 300,000-350,000. These results suggest this glycoprotein as a major candidate for the surface-exposed adhesive component that directly interacts with the substrate and couples the substrate to a system of force transduction presumed to be located within the flagellum.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 129-135 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: amoeboid motion ; chemoattractants ; chemotaxis ; Dictyostelium ; filopodia ; folic acid ; pterins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Living vegetative D. discoideum amoebae were studied to determine whether their filopodia respond to folic acid, a chemoattractant for these cells. Exponentially growing amoebae (ca. 10 μm diameter) exhibit 5-30 μm long filopodia; at stationary phase, aggregation competent amoebae have numerous multibranched filopodia up to 100 μm long. Folic acid was observed to stimulate production, elongation, and branching of filopodia with its effects progressively changing as the amoebae approach aggregation. Filopodial construction was also found to be dependent upon Mg2+ levels. The significance of these results is discussed with respect to progressive changes within the vegetative phase as well as to the mechanisms of amoeboid movement, pseudopodial activity, and chemotaxis.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 29-40 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilaments ; microtubules ; contraction ; collagen gel ; fibroblasts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In vitro models have been developed recently to study the ability of fibroblasts to generate tensile force within collagen gels. The present study was initiated to assess the role of the cytoskeleton in the cell shape changes and force generation in one such model system. Porcine periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PPLF) were cultured within three-dimensional collagen gels attached to glass coverslips. Fluorescence microscopy, using nitrobenzooxadizole (NBD)-phallacidin labeling for microfilaments and tubulin antibody staining for microtubules, was combined with phase and Nomarski optics to determine the intra- and extracellular architecture of the cells and collagen fibers. Samples were observed from 30 minutes to 24 hours after initiation of cell attachment. During attachment and spreading, NBD-phallacidin staining changed dramatically until large microfilament bundles became prominent. Collagen fiber alignment, compaction, and finally tearing from the coverslip occurred during this time. After release of tension, microfilament bundles were no longer evident. The change in microtubule distribution during these processes was less dramatic, appearing to follow the change in cell shape. These results indicate that microfilaments play an essential role in generating force to align and compact collagen, while microtubules may have a secondary role only.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 241-247 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; centrosome ; tonofilaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present observations on the relative location of the centriole and keratin filament cap in motile PtK1 cells. Subconfluent cells were double labeled with anticentriole and antikeratin sera. These preparations revealed that the centriole is separate from, but neighboring, the keratin filament cap. Serial ultrathin sections confirm this observation. These observations are consistent with the idea that the microtubule organizing center and intermediate filament distribution center are not identical or concentric in PtK1 cells.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 169-181 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; motility ; cell spreading ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Reorganization of intermediate filaments during cell spreading is examined by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and time-lapse video microscopy. A juxtanuclear cap, believed to correspond to the intermediate filament distribution center, was observed to be spatially related to the organization of the intermediate filament network as cells spread. A keratin cap was observed, which appeared spontaneously in motile PtK1 cells. Cap formation may be a consequence of retraction of intermediate filaments from the cytoplasm as cells move. The position of this juxtanuclear cap is related to the direction of movement, located on the side of the nucleus near the advancing edge of the cell. As the cell spreads, the cap disappears as the keratin filament network returns to the cytoplasm. Evidence presented here is consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution center mediates keratin filament organization during cell shape change.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 227-229 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 269-281 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; microfilaments ; filopodia ; cell spreading ; coelomocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sea urchin coelomocytes were used as a model system to investigate the distribution and role of microtubules and microfilaments in cell spreading and filopodial formation. By using immunoblot characterized antisera to tubulin and actin coupled with immunofluorescence techniques, cellular protrusions were seen to contain actin filaments but no microtubules. Cells depleted of MT's by cold and colcemid treatments could attach, spread, and transform to the filopodial morphology normally.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 297-303 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: exocytosis ; chromaffin cells ; vesicle release ; light microscope ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cultured bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells were stimulated with the secretogogues Ba2+ or carbamyl choline plus Ca2+. With video-enhanced contrast, differential interference contrast microscopy, small vesicles were found to appear on the cell surface during stimulation. The structures were of lower refractive index than the cytoplasm, and their appearance required several tenths of a second. The vesicles are thought to correspond to omega figures seen with electron microscopy due to exocytosis. Many of the structures disappeared within a few seconds, but some appeared to coalesce into larger structures. The large structures may lead to the vacuoles that have been demonstrated to be present following stimulation. The nature of the cellular elements responsible for the vesicle which appeared on the surface was not found with either differential interference or interference reflection microscopy. The simplest explanation is that the refractive index of the elements is similar to that of the cell, and therefore the elements cannot be seen.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fibroblast ; permeabilized cell model ; Ca2+-dependent contraction ; calmodulin ; phosphorylation ; myosin light chain ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells treated with Triton X-100 (MRC-5 cell models) were able to contract in the presence of MgATP and Ca2+ of more than 1 μM. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to actin and myosin 20,000-dalton (20 Kd) light chain revealed that stress fibers were prominent in MRC-5 cell models. Use of a fluorescent actin probe, 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin permitted visualization of contraction of the stress fibers in the presence of MgATP and Ca2+. Of the proteins in MRC-5 cell models, only a myosin 20 Kd light chain was phosphorylated in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of the 20 Kd light chain closely corresponded with the contraction of MRC-5 cell models: 1) Both phosphorylation of the 20 Kd light chain and contraction of MRC-5 cell models were inhibited by calmodulin antagonists such as N-(6-aminohexyl)5-chloro-1-napthalene sulfonamide. 2) The threshold Ca2+ concentration for phosphorylation of the 20 Kd light chain was similar to that for contraction of MRC-5 cell models. Both were lowered by exogenous calmodulin in a concentration-dependent manner. 3) The 20 Kd light chain was thiophosphorylated by incubation of MRC-5 cell models with an ATP analogue, adenosine 5′-0-(3-thiotriphosphate) only in the presence of Ca2+. After this treatment, MRC-5 cell models lost the Ca2+-dependence for contraction. These results indicate that Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of myosin 20 Kd light chain is required for contraction of MRC-5 cell models.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 197-213 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: gelation ; actin ; filamin ; cytoplasm ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have compared the meniscus depletion assay and falling ball viscometry, two means of assessing the extent of gelation in actin-based systems using mixtures of actin and the actin-binding protein filamin. We examined the effect of varying the concentrations of actin and filamin in both assays. The interaction of actin and filamin was detected only above a threshold concentration of filamin. This threshold concentration was lower for falling ball viscometry than for the meniscus depletion assay at equal actin concentrations. At constant concentrations of filamin, an increase in actin concentration caused an increase in apparent viscosity measured by the falling ball assay, but a decrease in sedimentability detected by the meniscus depletion assay. The rate of sedimentation of actin was dependent on the molar ratio of actin to filamin. At each molar ratio, the sedimentation of actin was not dependent on the specific concentrations of actin and filamin used. The apparent viscosity was dependent on both the molar ratio and the specific concentrations of actin and filamin. To relate the present results to earlier studies, we examined mixtures of actin and filamin using a macroscopic assay of gelation (tube tipping assay), and polarized light microscopy. The effect of increasing filamin concentration in the four assays was compared at three actin concentrations. Mixtures of actin and filamin whose apparent viscosities were low enough to be estimated by falling ball viscometry were optically isotropic fluids that flowed out of inverted test tubes. Mixtures of actin and filamin in the range of sensitivity of the meniscus depletion assay were either viscous fluids or gels, and were either optically isotropic or anisotropic. Thus, the four assays provide different estimates of gelation. Both the meniscus depletion assay and falling ball viscometry can be used to determine relative gelation activity, but neither can be used as a quantitative assay of gelation.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; power output ; muscle ; flagella ; cytokinetic furrow ; mitotic spindle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular motile systems as diverse as muscle and the mitotic spindle have been compared by their specific power output: the maximum power they develop per unit of engine volume. Striated muscles and flagella have high specific output; their performance is comparable to that of typical automobile engines. The cytokinetic furrow and the mitotic spindle have very much lower specific power output. The furrow's output is 7,000 times lower than muscle and the spindle's is 300,000 times lower. Different macromolecules have been used to generate power in systems with similar output (muscles and flagella) and, conversely, the same macromolecular motor has been used in systems with very different output (muscles and cytokinetic furrows). The common feature amid this diversity is adaptation to a particular biological role, which specific power output reflects very well. High values are found where a powerful, compact engine should be advantageous, while low values are found where precision, not power, matters most.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 469-503 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytogel ; actomyosin ; Physarum ; oscillations ; mechanics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The contractility of actomyosin gels is the basis for a variety of cellular motility phenomena. We present here a mechanical analysis of contractile gels. By making certain hypotheses on the chemical regulation of cytogel contraction we formulate a model for the rhythmic contractions of plasmodia in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is in accord with a number of experimental observations.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 57-71 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; calcium ; coelomocytes ; ionophore ; pH ; shape transformation ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the ability of the Ca+ + ionophore A23187 to induce the transformation of petaloid sea urchin coleomocytes to the filopodial form. The response of individual cells to different media was observed with time-lapse phasecontrast video microscopy. In the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, isotonic medium containing 1-5 μM A23187 produces a similar shape transformation to that caused by hypotonic shock. Higher concentrations of ionophore (10-20 μM) induce the formation of filopodia that are thinner and less rigid than those generated by hypotonic shock or low doses of ionophore. A23187 also induces shape transformation in highly flattened cells that do not respond fully to hypotonic shock. The induction of cytoplasmic alkalinization by NH4Cl, methylamine-HCl, or the Na+ ionophore monensin does not induce shape transformation, suggesting that increased intracellular pH is not the stimulus for this process. Ultrastructural changes in cytoskeletal organization were examined in negatively stained detergent-extracted cells. Low doses of ionophore produce filopodia that are indistin-guishable from those of hypotonically shocked cells, with actin filament bundles that are straight and cohesive along their entire length. High concentrations of ionophore produce filopodia with filament bundles that branch repeatedly and splay apart near their tips, forming loops and irregular curves. These results suggest that an increase in intracellular free Ca+ + concentration acts as the trigger that stimulates coelomocyte shape transformation, but that abnormally high concentrations of intracellular Ca+ +, produced by high doses of ionophore, interfere with actin filament bundling.
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  • 26
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 121-128 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonal transport ; ATP ; nucleotides ; saltatory movement ; dynein ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a permeabilized axon model, exogenous ATP can reactivate intraaxonal saltatory organelle movements (microscopically visible manifestations of fast axonal transport). We have studied the dependence of the reactivated movements on the ATP concentration and have also examined the nucleotide specificity of the reactivation. Organelle transport was visualized in isolated lobster giant motor axons using Nomarski optics and video microscopy. The axons were permeabilized with saponin, and movement was reactivated with ATP or other nucleotides. Some slight movement was seen with ATP concentrations as low as 10 μM. The velocity and frequency of the reactivated transport increased with increasing ATP concentrations up to about 5 mM. Movement was also reactivated by deoxyadenosine triphosphate, but not by AMP-PNP (a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue), ADP, or AMP. Although other nucleotides (CTP, GTP, UTP, ITP) could reactivate transport, movement equivalent to that produced by 0.1 mM ATP was only seen with tenfold or greater concentrations of the other nucleotides. This pattern of specificity is consistent with the hypothesis that a dynein-like ATPase, rather than a myosin, is involved in fast axonal transport.
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  • 27
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 137-149 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: anti-fluorescein ; fluorescent analog cytochemistry ; molecular cytochemistry ; microinjection ; actin ; acetamidofluorescein-actin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent analogs of cellular components are finding increasing use in the field of cell biology. The power of this technique can be augmented by the use of antibodies specific for the fluorophore to visualize selectively the fluorescent analog at the electron microscope level. Rabbit antibodies specific for fluorescein were elicited and purified according to published methods (Lopatin and Voss [1971]: Biochemistry 10:208). Immune sera and IgG formed precipitin lines with fluorescein-labeled proteins in Ouchterlony immunodiffusion assays, and significantly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-labeled proteins. Immune IgG and Fab fragments decorated fluorescein-labeled actin, but not unlabeled actin, in negative-stained preparations. Anti-fluorescein IgG was used for immunofluorescent localization of fluorescein-labeled actin following microinjection of the fluorescent analog into living cells. This approach was extended to the immunoelectron microscopic localization of the injected analog at the subcellular level by the use of an electron-dense marker coupled to goat anti-rabbit IgG. Many other fluorescent probes also can be used as haptens for production of antibodies. Therefore, a general method for localizing fluorescently labeled molecules at the electron microscopic level is now available. Several other applications of anti-fluorescein antibody in studies involving fluorescent analogs are also suggested.
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  • 28
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 76-76 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fast axonal transport ; mitochondria ; membrane receptors ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In living tissue, membrane-bound organelles, including mitochondria, move along parallel cytoplasmic pathways. Motion is directed and tends to be confined to a single path. Deviations from this single path motion are rare. When present, however, they tend to occur at points of intersection of cytoskeletal linear elements (LE). Such intersections are relatively uncommon in intact axons and extruded axoplasm. However, we have found that such intersections can be produced in extruded preparations by shear forces directed tangential to the axoplasmic surface.We have studied the detailed behavior of mitochondria in extruded squid axoplasm. Special attention was directed to the relationship between mitochondrial shape changes and orientation of cytoskeletal LE. The most striking of these changes in shape is branching. In this process, the mitochondrion transiently assumes a triradial (three-ended) shape. This appearance may be maintained for seconds to minutes before the normal cylindrical shape is resumed by absorption of either the newly formed end or, more commonly, one of the original ends. The frequency of branching appears to be dependent on the degree of cytoskeletal organization. It becomes more common as the number of apparent intersections between cytoskeletal LE increases. Further, the formation of new ends seems to occur along paths defined by cytoskeletal elements.These observations suggest that the mitochondrial membrane is multivalent. That is, it contains multiple sites capable of interacting with the axonal force generation apparatus. Furthermore, LE in the cytoskeleton may indicate the paths along which these interactions are permissible.
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  • 30
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 151-153 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 31
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 231-239 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: pseudostereoscopy ; particle speed distribution ; velocity distribution ; fast axonal transport ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We describe a simple method for direct visualization of the velocity distribution of particles moving against an immobile background. The technique involves pseudostereoscopic viewing of image pairs separated by an appropriate time interval in a sequential recording of the subject. Under these conditions, the positive or negative parallax arising from particle motion results in the binocular image of a particle being perceived as raised or lowered relative to an immobile background plane depending on its direction of movement, and with the degree of perceived elevation being proportional to its speed. In effect, the binocular optic axis becomes a velocity (speed) axis under these conditions. The technique is illustrated with examples of image pair sequences showing fast axonal transport in lobster and squid axons using video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy. However, the pseudostereoscopic method is quite generally applicable to both microscopic and macroscopic time-dependent phenomena. Particle speeds can be quantitated using standard procedures for measuring frame-to-frame particle displacements, or alternatively, by determination of parallax using stereogrammatic methods. It should be also readily adaptable for on-line monitoring of particle velocity distribution, particularly in video systems where frame buffers can be utilized to extract and present serial image pairs having any desired time separation from video-taped sequences.
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  • 32
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 304-305 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 33
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 305-314 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell surface motility ; axopodia ; reticulopodia ; Allogromia ; Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum ; surf-riding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism responsible for the energy-dependent movement of membrane components (ie, surface motility) is unknown. Recently a potentially unifying model, termed “surf-riding” [Hewitt, 1979] or “surf-boarding” [Berlin and Oliver, 1982], has been proposed to explain surface motility. Using phase-contrast light microscopy and membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres), we have tested the surf-riding/surf-boarding hypothesis on two protozoan systems: the axopodia of the heliozoan Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and the reticulopodial networks of the allogromiid foraminiferans Allogromia laticollaris and Allogromia sp, strain NF. Our evidence indicates that surface motility, as displayed by these organisms, does not occur by a surf-riding/surf-boarding mechanism. Previouś observations on surface motility associated with the Chlamydomonas flagellum indicate that this system is also incompatible with the surf-boarding/surf-riding hypothesis.
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  • 34
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 403-404 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 35
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 36
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 405-416 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cardiac muscle ; myofibril ; cell spreading ; Z bands ; alpha-actinin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cardiac myocytes were isolated from 5-6-day-old chick embryos and allowed to spread in culture. The distribution of alpha-actinin in the cells was followed for five days in culture by exposing permeabilized cells to rhodamine-labeled alpha-actinin and also by injecting the labeled alpha-actinin into living myocytes. In addition to labeling the Z bands of sarcomeres, the added alpha-actinin also labeled small particles that were usually arranged periodically in linear arrays with a spacing between particles of 0.3-2.0 μm. Actin was localized between the particles of alpha-actinin by means of fluorescein-labeled heavy meromyosin. The punctate localization of alpha-actinin was prominent in pseudopods, behind ruffles, and at the periphery of spreading cells. Long rows of particles of alpha-actinin were often parallel to one another with the alpha-actinin particles in register. These linear arrays appeared to merge laterally to form strands with broader concentrations of alpha-actinin. Other linear arrays were parallel to myofibrils in the cell and some extended outward from the ends of myofibrils. We conclude that during spreading of cardiac myocytes, myofibrils form at the cell periphery behind the extending margins of the cell, and that the aggregates of alpha-actinin found in these areas are nascent Z bands in the forming myofibrils.
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  • 37
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 249-267 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Paramecium ; trifluoperazine ; cilia ; calmodulin ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Trifluoperazine (TFP), a drug that binds to Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) complexes, altered swimming behavior not only in living paramecia, but also in reactivated, Triton-extracted “models” of the ciliate. By comparing the responses of living cells and models, we have ascertained that two sites of drug action exist in paramecium cilia. Swimming movements were recorded in darkfield stroboscopic flash photomicrographs; this permitted accurate quantitation of velocities and body-shape parameters. When living paramecia were incubated in a standard buffer containing 10 μM TFP, their speed of forward swimming fell over several minutes and their bodies shortened. Untreated paramecia backed up repeatedly and frequently upon transfer to a solution containing barium ions (the “barium dance”), but cells preincubated in TFP did not “dance.” Instead they swam forward slowly for long periods of time without reversing and occasionally then exhibited abnormally prolonged reversals. W7 effects on swimming mimicked low doses of TFP, and the analog W5 did not visibly alter normal swimming patterns. These results suggest that TFP induces a decrease in the intracellular pCa of living paramecia, perhaps by reducing the efficiency of a calmodulin-activated calcium pump in the cell membrane. Paramecia extracted with Triton X-100 and reactivated to swim forward (7 ≥ pCa ≥ 6) were not affected by addition of up to 40 μM TFP to the reactivation medium. We conclude that the main drug effect in living cells is probably not at the axoneme. However, at low pCa, TFP directly affected the ciliary axoneme to shift its behavior to one characteristic of a higher pCa: TFP inhibited backward swimming in models reactivated at pCa 〈 6; instead they swam forward or rocked in place. The mechanism of ciliary reversal in paramecium may therefore depend on an axonemal Ca+-sensor, possibly bound CaM, which is affected by TFP only at low pCa, as has been postulated for other types of cilia.
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  • 38
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; tubulin ; MAPs ; calcium ; mitosis ; unfertilized sea urchin egg ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytoplasmic tubulin purified from unfertilized sea urchin eggs self-assembles in the absence of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) [Suprenant and Rebhun, 1983; Detrich and Wilson, 1983] with a critical concentration for polymerization of 0.8 mg/ml at 15-18°C, a value well below the 3 mg/ml tubulin present in these eggs [Pfeffer et al, 1976]. Studies of the calcium sensitivity of unfertilized S. purpuratus (sea urchin) egg tubulin were initiated to help understand how this tubulin is maintained unassembled in the unfertilized egg. Egg microtubules, assembled at physiological temperatures (15-18°C) were depolymerized by a 100-fold lower free calcium concentration than egg microtubules assembled at the higher temperatures (25-37°C) generally used to assemble mammalian brain microtubules. The initial rate of egg microtubule assembly was much more sensitive to calcium than was microtubule depolymerization at steady state at 37°C. However, both processes were sensitive to near physiological free calcium of free calcium for depolymerization than microtubules assembled at 18°C from egg tubulin alone. While calcium regulatory MAPs have not yet been found in sea urchin eggs, the fact that brain MAPs interact with egg tubulin and regulate both its critical concentration for polymerization [Suprenant and Rebhun, 1983] and its calcium sensitivty, suggests that such regulatory molecules exist. These results suggest that sea urchin egg tubulin assembly in vivo could be controlled by variations in interacellular calcium levels acting in concert with urchin egg proteins similar in function to brain MAPs.
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  • 40
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 387-401 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: bull sperm flagella ; motility ; time course ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Detailed measurements were made of the time course of the motion of bull spermatozoa. Fourier analysis of the data showed the time course to be basically sinusoidal within 2% to 3%. An asymmetry in the motion was present, resulting in a second harmonic component in the Fourier spectra of normal sperm of approximately 11% of the main component. When the energy metabolism of the sperm was inhibited or when the external viscosity of the medium was raised, the asymmetry was reduced. When the internal Mg2+ content of the sperm was lowered, the asymmetry was increased. The asymmetries and the corresponding second harmonic components in the Fourier spectra were correlated with the overall bend shape of the sperm and with the curvature of the path in which the sperm were swimming. Model calculations showed that the asymmetry could reside in either the internal active moments in the sperms or in the stiffness of the sperm fiagella.
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  • 41
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 443-468 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; microfilaments ; HMM ; phagocytosis ; cytochalasin ; Paramecium ; fluorescence microscopy ; electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using heavy meromyosin (HMM) or the fragment S1 of myosin as probes for actin microfilaments, we studied their organization in Paramecium both by fluorescence and electron microscopy.In interphasic cells, HMM decorates (a) most prominently the periphery of nascent and young food vacuoles and their route during the early phase of their intracellular transit; (b) a thin meshwork radiating from the gullet throughout the cytoplasm; (c) a small area beneath the pore of contractile vacuoles and beneath the cytoproct when open to release food residues. Most of these HMM-decorated structures are in close contact with microtubular arrays. All HMM decoration disappears in dividing cells and in cytochalasin-treated cells. In vivo, the drug immediately blocks food vacuole formation but does not affect cytokinesis, cyclosis, contractile vacuole pulsation, defecation, or nuclear movements.The data show that, as in the cells of other organisms, actin microfilaments form defined arrays that undergo physiologically controlled cycles of assembly/disassembly. These arrays contribute (at least in the phagocytotic process) to diverse types of movement: constriction, membrane fusion, and migration of food vacuoles. However, aside from their massive concentration along the phagocytotic tractus, actin microfilaments are neither major structural components of Paramecium cytoplasm nor the only cytoskeletal components ensuring motility or contractility processes.
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  • 42
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 155-167 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol stabilizes or promotes the assembly of microtubules. In this report we characterize the rate, extent, and reversibility of taxol stabilization of calciumlabile microtubules in isolated mitotic spindles, principally from embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma. The intense depolymerizing action of 100 μM Ca2+ was used to assess the extent of stabilization by taxol. Changes in spindle microtubule assembly were evaluated and recorded by measuring changes in spindle birefringent retardation (BR). Membrane-free mitotic spindles, isolated with a calcium-chelating, nonionic detergent buffer, were stored in an EGTA-gylcerol storage buffer to prevent microtubule depolymerization. When perfused with an EGTA-buffer without glycerol, microtubules in these isolated spindles depolymerized gradually over 60-120 min; but in isolated spindles perfused with buffer that contained 100 μM Ca2+, BR decreased by 90% within 2-5 sec. In contrast, spindles that were pretreated for 3 min with 1 μM taxol, or for about 30 sec with 10 μM taxol, lost less than 10% of their initial BR when perfused with buffer containing 100 μM Ca2+. The rate and extent of microtubule stabilization by taxol depended on both the concentration and the duration of exposure to taxol. Taxol stabilization was reversible. After a 15 min preincubation with 1 μM or 10 μM taxol then washout, stability of spindle BR to 100 μM Ca2+ decreased exponentially with a time constant of 30-60 min. Thus taxol dissociates from spindle microtubules at significant rates; taxol-stabilized microtubules are not “fixed.”
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  • 43
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 215-226 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; flagellum ; axoneme ; microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Iontophoretic application of ATP to the flagellum of the demembranated hamster spermatozoon produced a planar pair of bends at the two ends of the stimulated site. During bend propagation, torsion appeared in the vicinity of the interbend in some responses such that the distal bend was twisted clockwise when viewed from the base of the flagellum. This pattern of propagation is consistent with the instantaneous configurations of free-swimming cells previously described. The technique used here establishes that the three dimensionality arises from propagation per se, and does not depend on forces developed during swimming. The rolling of both free-swimming intact and demembranated spermatozoa was examined by two-color darkground videomicroscopy and the direction of rotation was, as predicted, always anticlockwise. A hypothetical mechanism, involving differential speeds of propagation of active sliding within the active microtubule subset, is proposed to account for the observed waveforms.
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  • 44
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 283-295 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonemal mutants ; Ca++ response ; ciliary reversal ; electrophysiology ; models ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Six mutants of Paramecium tetraurelia, which display altered axonemal responses to Ca++, are described. The mutants, designated atalantas, are impaired in their ability to swim backward when stimulated by ions or heat; instead they spin very rapidly in one place. Three mutants, ataA1-3, are completely unable to swim backward. The three lines, however, can be distinguished from one another by their forward swimming velocities. The remaining three mutants are leaky. ataB swims backward briefly when stimulated, then stops and spins in place. ataC and ataD are extremely leaky and only display the spinning phenotype at elevated temperatures. An electrophysiological analysis reveals that all six mutants have normal membrane properties, including the Ca++ inward current under voltage clamp. When the membrane is disrupted so as to allow the axoneme free access to Ca++, wild-type cells swim backward, but the mutants do not. These data indicate the site(s) of lesion in the mutants is in the axoneme or in some step linking Ca++ influx and the axoneme, not within the ciliary membrane. These mutants may be useful in investigating the role of Ca++ in the regulation of axonemal motion.
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  • 45
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 351-370 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axon ; rate ; nervous system ; tissue culture ; cell growth ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A new formula calculates rates of directed axonal growth (elongation or retraction) using measurements of growth cone movements. By explicitly separating changes in axonal length from other nonelongational growth cone movements, the calculated rates reflect the detailed cellular growth mechanisms more directly than previous growth measures. In addition, the formula produces three distinct parameters of axonal elongation: n, a growth step rate; s, a growth step size; and P, a probability that a growth step leads to axonal elongation. For normal and regenerating individual chick and frog axons in culture, the formula has quantitated the following differences: the axon itself can elongate more rapidly in the chick, and the axon elongates in smaller steps in the chick. The underlying dynamics of growth of regenerating axons are quite similar to normal axons, but, in the short term, regenerating axons elongate in larger steps and at a slower rate. The distribution of these new rate measurements suggests that the elongation of axons can be usefully modelled as a one-dimensional stochastic walk.
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  • 46
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 185-196 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Multinucleated cells were observed to account for more than 17% of all cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) of 20-month-old mice. The number of nuclei contained in sections of these cells ranged from 2 to 17, with over 50% of the multinucleated cells containing four or more nuclei within the plane of section. The multinucleated cells contained several cytoplasmic features resembling those previously described by the authors as characteristic of PDL fibroblasts. The multinucleated cells did not resemble osteoclasts or foreign body giant cells. It is suggested that fibroblasts develop a tendency to fuse and form multinucleated cells in the aged PDL. Similar cells were not observed in the PDL of young (5-week-old) mice or in the tail tendon at any age.
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  • 47
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 401-409 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We studied the parietal pleura of six sheep to obtain information on pleura structure, blood supply, and lymphatic drainage. In the strict sense, the parietal pleura is composed of a single layer of mesothelial cells and a uniform layer of loose, irregular connective tissue (about 23 μm in width) subjacent to the mesothelial cells. The parietal pleural blood vessels are 10-15 μm from the pleural space. Tracer substances put in the pleural space are removed at specific locations. Colloidal carbon and chick red blood cells are cleared by teh parietal pleural lymphatics located over the intercostal spaces at the caudal end of the thoracic wall and over the lateral sides of the pericardial sac. In these areas the mesothelial cells have specialized openings, the stomata, that directly communicate with the underlying lymphatic lacunae. Cells and particulate matter in the pleural space are cleared only by the parietal pleural lymphatics. Compared to the visceral pleura, we believe the thinness of the parietal pleura, the closeness of its blood vessels to the pleural space, and its specialized lymphatic clearance pathways, together indicate that the parietal pleura plays a major role in pleural liquid and protein dynamics in sheep.
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  • 48
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 233-242 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Insulin, glucagon, somatostain, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were localized in the pancreas of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, by light and transmission electeron microscopic (TEM) immunocytochemistry. Colloidal gold-protein A was used for TEM localization and the peroxidase containing A cells and the insulin-positive B cells were the most numerous cell types. The somatostatin-containing D cells made up about 15% of the endocrine cells. PP-positive F cells were a minor cell type. The only topographic arrangement of the cells within the endocrine-rich areas that was apparent was the peripheral localization of the D and F cells. Cells of a specific cell type were sometimes grouped together. At the elctron microscopic (EM) level, the gold particles (indicating the pesence of hormone) were localized nearly exclusively over the secretory grnules of the ractive cells. The α-granules were the largest found and were predominantly electron dense with a moderately electron-dense periphery. PP-containing granules were the smallest. The somatostatin-reactive δ-granules were round and moderately electron opaque. The β-granules were heterogeneous in appearance. The morphognomy of the secretory granules of the major endocrine cell types is qualitatively similar to that of mammals. Wheter or not the quantitative and/or associative differences contribute to the marked metabolic differences between reptiles and mammals, remains to be determined.
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  • 49
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 1-13 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 50
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. A1 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 51
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 435-443 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The microvessels of the telencephalons of Beagle puppies between newborn and 72 hours of age were investigated ultrastructurally at 24-hour intervals. The morphometry of the microvasculature from the germinal matrix was compared with that of the microvasculature from the borderzone cerebral cortex. The endothelial cell walls of the microvessels from these two sites were similar during the study period, but the lumina of the matrical microvessels were significantly larger than the lumina of the control cortical microvessels. The proportion of matrical microvessels with large lumina undergoes progressive attrition with time. The values (areas) for the lumina of the matrical microvessels, and their distribution, come to resemble those of the cortex. The morphometry of the cortical microvasculature is comparatively static. The data suggest that there is an active modification in the microvasculature of the germinal matrix of the Beagle puppy in the immediate postnatal period.
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  • 52
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 445-460 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pleuroperitoneal canal development and closure were studied with light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy in 12.75- to 16-day fetuses. The major chronological events described in this paper are (1) the caudal tips of the lung buds projecting to the pleuroperitoneal canal (12.75 through 13.50 days); (2) the caudal tips of the lungs becoming situated medial to the canal areas at 14 days; and (3) both canals becoming crescent shaped with a uniform diameter until closure. Concurrently, the developing diaphragm and associated pleuroperitoneal folds assume more caudal positions. Both canal regions are bordered by the liver, lung, gonadal ridge, and suprarenal glands. In addition, on the left side, the stomach and mesogastrium also border the early canal. The right canal closes before the left (right, 14.75-15 days; left, 15-15.25 days).The results suggest that the pleuroperitoneal folds are pushed together, thereby closing the canals. This may be accomplished by one or a combination of the following: (1) enlargement of the liver pushing the ventral fold dorsad and a molding of the liver to the dorsal body wall caudal to the canal; (2) liver and thorax enlargement which appears to pull the dorsal fold taut against the central fold; and (3) a change in the orientation of the canal near the time of closure. Each canal is fully closed by the mergence of the dorsal and ventral fold mesothelia and mesenchyme. This study provides a basis for relating pleuroperitoneal canal development and closure to the surrounding organs and tissues.
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  • 53
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. A51 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 54
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. A101 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 55
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. A151 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 56
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984) 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 57
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. i 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 58
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 481-490 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The macroanatomy of renicules and surrounding tissues from the kidneys of five Eskimo-harvested bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, was examined. These renicules are similar in overall structure to those of other cetaceans and intermediate in size. There are several important differences including the presence of arcuate vessels within the sporta perimedularis, the extension of connective tissue from the sporta deep into the peripheral cortex, and the presence of very large, thin-walled veins that occupy the interrenicular spaces. Arterial and venous plexuses outside the substance of the sporta reported in other cetaceans were not observed in the bowhead.
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  • 59
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 501-506 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Satellite cells quantitated in the rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles following a complete regeneration returned to “normal” percentages of myofiber nuclei in both muscles 3 months after injury. Following cross-transplantation, the percentage of satellite cell nuclei in the EDL regenerated in the soleus bed was indistinguishable from the percentage in the soleus. Likewise, the soleus muscle regenerated in the EDL bed had a satellite cell percentage characteristic of the EDL. These results suggest that (1) the proportion of satellite cells is reestablished in a regenerated muscle and (2) the innervating nerve determines the proportion of satellite cell nuclei in a muscle.
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  • 60
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 491-499 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the mouse sweat gland was examined, in support of neurological studies of sweat glands and their relationships to the autonomic nervous system. It was found that the mouse sweat gland is similar to that of the rat and has only one type of secretory cell. Many nerve fibers are entwined with the secretory tubule and contain accumulations of round, clear vesicles, some microtubules, but apparently no neurofilaments. Cholinesterase is found in the clefts between nerve fibers and their ensheathing Schwann cells. The nerve fibers tend to run parallel with capillaries, but have no close association with either the capillaries or the secretory epithelium. Capillaries provide an abundant blood supply to the sweat gland and are fenestrated. The relationships between cellular elements of the sweat gland provide no direct evidence of the mechanisms involved in neurogenic sweating, although it seems likely that effector substances are diffusely distributed.
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  • 61
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    The @Anatomical Record 208 (1984), S. 507-514 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000 </