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• 1985-1989  (627)
• Physical Chemistry  (627)
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• 1
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 646-652
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Using a series of equations connecting experimental and theoretical values, it is possible to discuss the origin of the N-methylation effect in azoles dissolved in water and dimethyl sulphoxide. The existence in the azoles studied of a linear relationship between the gas → solution transfer enthalpies and the charge on the pyrrole hydrogen atom demonstrated the fundamental importance of the loss of an active centre for solvation. For the imidazole-N-methylimidazole pair, the complete thermochemical cycle has been determined, allowing the apparent lack of an effect of N-methylation on the basicity in solution to be discussed.
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• 2
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 26-34
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A set of 4-monosubstituted cyclopentenes, , were synthesized and their relative rates (kX/kH) for bromination and chlorination were determined in methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 25 °C by competitive method. log(kX/kH) for most of the substituents can be correlated by means of Taft's equation, log(kX/kH) = ρI σI + C. In methanol ρI, Br2 = -2·91, ρI, Cl2 = -0·49, in ethanol ρI, Br2 = -3·07, ρI, Cl2 = -0·70 and in acetic acid ρI, Br2 = -1·64, ρI, Cl2 = -0·65. The presence of C(〈0) is due to a constant steric effect. The deviation of X = H is ascribed to the absence of the steric effect and that of X = CO2Me and CO2Et is accounted for in terms of anchimeric assistance. For chlorination no anchimeric assistance was observed.
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• 3
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 43-50
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The cyclic vinyl ether dihydro-1,4-dioxin is converted to its cyclic hemiacetal hydration product, 2-hydroxy-1,4-dioxane, in aqueous solution by an acid-catalyzed reaction for which kH+ = 1·80 × 10-5 M-1 S-1 at 25°C. This reactivity and the solvent isotope effect kH+/kD+ = 2·2 show that the reaction occurs by rate-determining proton transfer from catalyst to substrate and not by a pre-equilibrium mechanism as recently proposed.2
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• 4
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 35-42
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions between 1-phenylethyl benzenesulfonates (1-PEB) with N,N-dimethylanilines are investigated in methanol at 35·0°C. Reactivity and selectivity trends were found to be similar to those for the reactions of 1-PEB with anilines, but the magnitudes of cross interaction constants, ρXZ, between substituents X in the nucleophile and Z in the leaving group were substantially smaller indicating no hydrogen-bond bypass bridge formation in the transition state. However, the magnitude of ρXZ suggested a direct electrostatic interaction between the reaction centers in the nucleophile and leaving group in the frontside nucleophilic attack with a loose transition state structure.
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• 5
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 51-56
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: IR spectroscopy is presented as a convenient means to monitor the formation of acyl (and alkyl) cations from corresponding acid chlorides, with Lewis acids at low temperature in the solid state. Phenylacetyl chloride is co-deposited (under vacuum at -173°C with antimony pentafluoride on a KBr window), as in the ‘molecular beam’ method of cation generation. The initial IR spectrum of the deposition shows (in addition to starting materials) that a small amount of phenylacetyl cation (2274 cm-1) has been formed. Warming the solid matrix to -123°C Promotes the smooth conversion of acid chloride to acyl cation. Ultraviolet irradiation (through quartz windows) at -123°C to -73°C facilitates this conversion but does not result in the loss of carbon monoxide from the acyl cation to form benzyl cation. When benzyl chloride is used in place of phenylacetyl chloride, there is no noticeable difference between IR spectra taken before and after warming and/or photolysis of the solid deposition.
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• 6
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 653-659
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The formation of a σ-like complex by reaction between 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene and 1,8-diazabicyclo [5.4.0]-undec-7-ene was investigated in toluene at various temperatures. The kinetic data showed autocatalytic behaviour. Inspection of the reaction mixtures at zero reaction time indicated the presence of an equilibrium preceding the attack of the nucleophile, affording a molecular complex (substrate-nucleophile) which is responsible for the observed kinetic features. The present and the previous data led to the conclusion that the catalytic behaviours usually observed in SNAr reactions (in apolar solvents with amines as nucleophiles) are better explained by the presence of substrate-catalyst interactions than by catalysis on departure of the proton and leaving group from the zwitterionic intermediate.
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• 7
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 93-102
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Organocerium(III) reagents reacted with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to give 1, 2-addition products (allylic alcohols) in good to high yields. The reaction was studied from a mechanistic point of view by the use of (E)- and (Z)-1-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ones and 4,4-ethylenedioxy-2,6-dimethyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone as the probe compounds. A polar pathway was suggested for the reaction with the former enones. On the other hand, the operability of single electron transfer processes was demonstrated in the reaction with the latter probe compound.
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• 8
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 103-109
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A preliminary theoretical study of the mechanisms for the reactions of the perchlorofluoroethanes CF2ClCCl3 (1), CF2ClCCl2F (2) and CF3CCl3 (3), with nucleophiles has been carried out by the MNDO method, following the experimentally suggested process shown in Scheme 1. The unlikely chlorophilic attack in the first step of Scheme 1 has been shown to be feasible for 1, 2 and 3 by analysis of the MO interactions. The second step has been found to be affected by the anionic hyperconjugation which stabilizes the anions CF2ClCCl2- (4), CF2ClCClF- (5) and CF3CCl2- (6) and would make reactions (2) (the second step) unfeasible in gas phase, but in solution reaction (2) may still easily occur for 4 and 5.
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• 9
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 110-116
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The transamination reaction of α-amino acids with glyoxylic acid as catalyzed by copper(II) ions was investigated kinetically in an aqueous medium at pH 5·0 and 30·0°C. L-Phenylalanine transferred its amino group to glyoxylic acid most readily among seven different amino acids used here in the single-walled bilayer vesicle formed with N,N-dihexadecyl-Nα-[6-(trimethylammonio)hexanoyl]-L-histidinamide bromide (N+C5His2C16). Such rate enhancement was found to originate from the cooperative trifunctional catalysis: a coordination effect exercised by copper(II) ions, a general acid-base catalysis by the imidazolyl group of the lipid, and a hydrophobic field effect provided by the bilayer vesicle. Lack of any of the three functions failed to give out significant rate enhancement. As regards correlation between the reactivity and the nature of α-amino acids, the copper(II)-catalyzed transamination was progressively enhanced as hydrophobicity of the α-amino acid was increased in the N+C5His2C16 vesicle.
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• 10
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 117-130
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Gas phase ion/molecule reactions have been used to probe the structure of ions obtained by electron impact upon 1-(diphenylmethylene)cyclopropane and 2,2-diphenyl-1-methylenecyclopropane. The resulting ions of molecular composition C16H14 (m/z 206+) were reacted with charge transfer reagents (6·9 〈 IP 〈 8·8eV), giving evidence for the presence of isomeric ions with different reactivities. The less reactive ion is identified as a trimethylenemethane species (TMM+) in which one cyclopropane bond is broken; the more reactive ions are assigned as vertical ions in which the cyclopropane ring is unaffected. The vertical ions have recombination energies of 8·44 ± 0·05eV, whereas TMM+ has one of 7·41±0·05eV. The TMM+ fraction is not constant; it increases with increasing IP of the reagent. This is attributed to a reagent-catalyzed isomerization of the vertical ion to TMM+. In addition, the reagent ions are observed to undergo a unique reaction with the neutral methylenecyclopropane derivatives: electron transfer and ring opening to yield TMM+. These findings limit the application of the customary equilibrium measurements as a method to determine the substrate IP.
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• 11
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 131-145
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Bis(1,2-diaryl-1,2-ethylenedithiolato)metal(0) complexes (1; metal = Ni, Pd, and Pt) react with quadricyclane (Q) to give selectively 1:1 adducts which are identical with the adducts between 1 and norbornadiene (NBD). In the adducts, two sulfur atoms of the different dithiolato ligands are added to one of the double bonds of NBD. The reactions of 1 with Q are 103-104 times faster than those with NBD. The more electropositive dithiolatometal complexes react faster with Q and NBD. The adducts are dissociated to the free dithiolatometal complexes and NBD by UV-irradiation (254-436 nm). Upon irradiation with 254 nm light, the photodissociation occurs before the decomposition of the dithiolatometal complexes.
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• 12
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 161-176
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Cyclobutanediyl (2) has been studied in both its singlet and triplet states by ab initio electronic structure theory. The triplet, which is the ground state of the molecule, exists in both C2h and C2v forms which interconvert via a Cs transition state. For the singlet, only a C2h form is found. It passes, via a Cs transition state, onto the C2v surface on which bicyclobutane (3) is the only minimum. The ring-flipping (inversion) process in 3 includes the singlet biradical as an intermediate, and involves a novel, non-least motion path similar to one previously proposed by Gassman. Semiclassical periodic orbit theory indicates that the various minima on both the singlet and triplet surfaces can interconvert via quantum mechanical tunneling.
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• 13
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 177-182
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: 4-O2NC6H4OCH2CH2NHPh undergoes clean base-catalyzed Smiles photorearrangement to 4-O2NC6H4N(Ph)CH2CH2OH in dimethyl sulfoxide-water (25:75). A linear plot of φ-1 vs [OH-]-1 indicated that the limiting quantum yield at high [OH-] is 0·12 and that uncatalyzed photorearrangement does not occur. Rate constants for the deprotonation step were determined for a variety of bases having conjugate acid pKa values in the range 5-10. When plotted according to the Brønsted Catalysis Law, these data gave a non-linear plot approaching slopes of zero and unity above and below a pKa of 6-7. This indicates that the proton-donating intermediate in this photo-Smiles rearrangement is the zwitterion diradical (pKa ≈ 7) rather than the Meisenheimer complex (pKa ≈ 2).
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• 14
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 146-160
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The alkaline hydrolysis of several alkylphosphonates and alkylphosphonyl chlorides has been investigated by molecular mechanics calculations (MM2, 1985 version). The difference of the steric energies (ΔE) between tetracoordinate substrate and pentacoordinate transition state of phosphorus compounds represents the activation energy (ΔE≠) in hydrolysis. The change of ΔE for various alkyl groups relative to methyl group (ΔΔER) is suggested as a measure of the steric effect of substituents. Thus the correlation analysis involving log k and ΔΔER of the branched alkyl group gives good results and it is reasonable to anticipate that analogous treatment using ΔΔER for the straight chain alkyl group is not satisfactory owing to the minor contribution of steric effect of the latter. However, the multiple regression analysis of log k with ΔΔER and Taft's σ* provides very good results. As shown by us, for the hydrolytic reactions studied, the proposed ΔΔER is much better than Taft's Es and Charton's ν, the commonly used well-known steric parameters in the chemistry of carbon compounds.
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• 15
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 183-186
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated analytically at the 6-31** level for azetidine using the GAUSSIAN 82 program. The results strongly indicate the presence of several errors in a recent assignment of the fundamentals of azetidine based on a normal coordinate analysis and a revised assignment is suggested. It is concluded that reliable vibrational data for azetidine in the gas phase are needed in order to resolve the remaining ambiguities in the interpretation of the spectra.
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• 16
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 17
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 187-204
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Reaction products of bifunctional chain molecules with structure X—(CH2)n—Y may critically depend on the chain length n. When the chain length is short (n ≤ 5), reaction products particular to an intramolecular reaction can be dominant, while a process corresponding to an intermolecular reaction between X—CH3 and H3C—Y may take place for higher homologues having large n (≥10). The reaction switching dependent on n is explained in terms of the encounter probability for both end groups (X and Y) with conformations pertinent to product formation. The reaction switching of this sort is discussed on the basis of a reactivity profile recorded as a function of the chain length. Similar reactivity profiles have been observed for thermal Friedel-Crafts cyclization and photo-Smiles rearrangement/photoredox reaction. It is anticipated that the magic methylene chain length of 7 may give rise to an appreciable decrease in reaction yields (e.g. ‘difficulty in medium-sized ring closure’) or an anomalous switching of reaction pathways due to chain length effects.
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• 18
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 205-213
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Mechanism of the Grignard reactions of aromatic ketones in THF was studied by spectroscopic and kinetic methods. The stable radical intermediates generated in the initial electron transfer from Grignard reagent to ketones are in a state of aggregated dimer of corresponding ion-radical pairs; in which two ketone anion radicals are bridged by a dimer di-cation of Grignard reagent. Subsequent alkyl radical transfer from dimeric Grignard reagent cation moiety to ketone anion radical aggregated each other are promoted by a participation of another neutral Grignard reagent. Proposed mechanism by present authors is able to explain well addition products/reduction products ratios in the Grignard reactions.
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• 19
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 214-224
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The solvolysis of 21 different 3- or 17-androstanyl tosylates or chlorides with halogen, hydroxy or oxo substituents in 17- or 3-position shows rate constant variations in hexafluoro isopropanol of up to 6·3 with regular differences for epimeric substituents. Similar variations ae seen over a distance of ∼10 Å in 13C-NMR shifts at C-17-ones of androstan-17-ones with varied halogen substituents in C-3, whereas the shielding observed at other distant carbon atoms excludes significant through bond effects. It is shown how, on the basis of suitable Coulomb-type equations and of force field minimized geometries, both the stability variation of carbocationic transition states and the carbonyl group polarization are predictable by linear electric field effects, using the same parametrization.
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• 20
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 225-231
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The gas-phase pyrazole elimination of N-alkyl pyrazoles has been studied using MNDO semi-empirical molecular orbital (MO) theory with complete geometry optimization of all stationary points. We found that the activation energies (Ea) of the concerted processes are around 80 kcal/mol, 25 Kcal/mol higher than experimental values. But the differences in Ea between compounds with different substituents are in good agreement with the experimental ones.
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• 21
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 232-242
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Characteristic vector analysis of a set of six physical and empirical parameters of 103 commonly used organic solvents (bp, ∊r, μ, nD, ETN, and δ) gives four vectors describing 95% of the total data variability. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis, applied to our results, leads to ten separate classes of organic solvents.
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• 22
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 255-262
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The photostimulated reaction of neopentyl halides with different nucleophiles by the SRN1 mechanism of nucleophilic substitution has been studied. Neopentyl halides do not react with carbon nucleophiles, diethylphosphite, diphenylphosphonite and azide ions, but they react with arsenide and selenide ions. The photostimulated reaction of neopentyl bromide with diphenylarsenide ions gave only the straightforward substitution product neopentyldiphenylarsine. On the other hand, the photostimulated reaction of bromobenzene with dineopentyl arsenide ions gave three arsines: dineopentylphenylarsine, neopentyldiphenylarsine and triphenylarsine. Neopentyl chloride reacts under irradiation with diphenylphosphide ions giving good yields of the substitution product.
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• 23
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 300-322
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Various modifications of the Marcus equation have been applied to the problem of photochemical proton transfer, using available data on general acid-catalyzed photohydration reactions. These include incorporation of asymmetry and tightness parameters, as well as distance variation as a function of exoor endothermicity. The intersecting state model of Formosinho has also been successfully applied to these reactions. The overall conclusion from all of these approaches is that the reactions are characterized by somewhat asymmetric and ‘loose’ transition states, with a small but significant degree of charge development on the in-flight proton at the transition state. Estimates of the intrinsic barriers and work terms place these in the 5-7 kcal and 2-3 kcal ranges respectively. A simple valence bond configuration mixing model leads to similar qualitative conclusions about the nature of the transition states in these reactions.
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• 24
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 323-330
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Photoreactions of Cr(CO)5(Im) (Im = 1,3-dimethyl-4-imidazolin-2-ylidene) have been investigated by laser flash and continuous photolysis. Quantum yields for the disappearance of Cr(CO)5(Im) in benzene under Ar or CO were very low, although transients observed by laser flash photolysis reacted rapidly with CO. This suggests that photodissociation of the carbene ligand is very minor. The laser flash photolysis at 337 nm in benzene (B) gave a transient (λmax = 630 nm), which converted to the second transient (λmax = 455 nm) within ∼100 ns. The kinetic studies of these transients revealed that the first one is a ‘free’ coordinatively unsaturated species (Cr(CO)4(Im)) and the second one carries a solvent molecule as a ligand (Cr(CO)4(Im)(B)). From the comparison of Cr(CO)4(Im) and Cr(CO)5, apparently lower reactivity of Cr(CO)5 was found to be due to the strong coordination of a solvent molecule. The Im ligand neutralizes the deficit of electron density on Cr. A simple synthesis of Cr(CO)5(Im) was also described.
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• 25
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 331-348
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The difference in reactivity of small [n]cyclophanes towards CF3CO2H is discussed in terms of charge densities, strain energies and proton affinities. These data are calculated with MNDO and MINDO/3 for para-, meta- and ortho-cyclophanes and for their ipso-protonation products; an attempt is made to transform gas phase ΔHf0 values into liquid phase ΔH0f values. Experimental evidence is presented that the acid catalyzed rearrangement of [5]paracyclophane to its ortho-isomer proceeds via two consecutive 1,2-carbon shifts without deprotonation; intermediate adducts were identified by NMR-spectroscopy. Thus, a gradual shift in reaction pattern in the series [4]-, [5]- and [6]paracyclophane is observed experimentally, in line with the calculational results.
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• 26
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 27
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 359-362
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The reaction pathway of urea formation by selenium-catalysed carbonylation of secondary amines with carbon monoxide in the presence of oxygen was studied using piperidine as a secondary amine. It was established that selenium reacts with carbon monoxide and piperidine to give carbamoselenoate as an intermediate, which affords biscarbamoyl diselenide by the oxidation with molecular oxygen. Aminolysis of biscarbamoyl diselenide gives the urea derivative, accompanying the regeneration of selenium catalyst.
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• 28
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 363-366
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: An excellent linear correlation of oxygen-17 substituent chemical shifts (SCS) for twelve α, α, α-trifluoroacetophenones with single σ+ constants, δ = 24·6σ+ + 556·3 (correlation coefficient 0·998) has been observed. However, from this plot, an SCS of 34·3 ppm for 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone will give a corresponding σ+ (γ+) value of 1·44 for a methyl group, which is not in agreement with 0·63-0·79 obtained from solvolytic rate data.
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• 29
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 377-382
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The rates of N-methylation of pyridine and its ring-substituted derivatives by trimethyl phosphate were measured in D2O and in CDCl3. Relative rates, together with the solvent activity coefficients of substrates for the transfer form chloroform to water, were used for determining the solvent activity coefficients of the activated complexes for this SN2 reaction. The results indicate early activated complexes for all pyridines, with the most nucleophilic substrate showing the most reactant-like activated complex.
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• 30
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 367-376
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The relative rates of hydrogen atom abstraction from a series of twelve saturated cyclic ethers and sulfides were determined at 70°C. The abstracting radical could be generated from bromotrichloromethane both photolytically or by the thermal decomposition of AIBN. The reaction rates did not show a dependence upon method of radical generation. Reaction occurred only at the position adjacent to the heteroatom. The reactivity of the cyclic ethers was in the order C4H8O 〉 C6H12O 〉 C3H6O 〉 C5H10O. This trend would indicate appreciable influence by ring strain, however, the slightly greater reactivity of tetrahydrofuran relative to oxepane suggests a contribution by stereoelectronic factors as well. The reactivity of the cyclic sulfides, which reacted faster than the corresponding ethers, was in the order C4H8S 〉 C5H10S 〉 C6H12S. This would imply little influence of ring strain. The major structural effect would be that of variable electron donating ability of the sulfur atom. The rate of reaction of thietane was also determined. It was found to preferentially undergo SH2 attack at the sulfur atom followed by ring opening rather than hydrogen abstraction. The reactivities of both series of compounds were decreased by the inductive effect of a second heteroatom beta to the reaciton site.
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• 31
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 383-388
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Norbornadiene, isolated in argon, xenon and nitrogen matrices at 20 K, was irradiated with UV light. Characterized by UV-VIS-IR absorption spectroscopy the photoproduct, representing a single species, was assigned to quadricyclane. This result is compared with the literature data on photochemistry of norbornadiene in the gas and liquid phase. The role of the rigid matrix environment on selectivity of the photochemical reaction is discussed.
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• 32
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 389-409
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A gas-phase experimental investigation of the competition between carbon and oxygen alkylation of a series of cyclic and acyclic enolate ions is described. Perfluoropropylene is shown to react in a characteristic way with oxyanions and carbanions to produce distinctive ionic products. The relative yields of these products formed in reactions with ambident enolate ions provides a measure of their intrinsic carbon vs. oxygen regioselectivity. The results for a series of enolates derived from aldehydes, ketones, esters, amides and related compounds show a wide range of reactivity which is a function of the nature of the central substituent. Most aldehyde and ketone enolates react mainly through oxygen, while enolates with σ-acceptor of π-donor type central substituents react mainly thorugh carbon. Ring-size in cyclic ketone enolates also influences C vs. O regioselectivity, i.e. small-ring enolates react mainly through carbon, while larger ring enolates (C7-C9) react preferentially through oxygen. The enolate reactivity patterns can be generally accounted for by the keto-enol energy differences for the parent carbonyl compounds, although some exceptions are evident. The origins of the highly variable, kinetically determined regioselectivities are discussed.
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• 33
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 580-584
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Rate constants were determined for the combination reactions of a series of cation radicals derived from substituted anthracenes with acetate, p-nitrobenzoate, trifluoroacetate, nitrate and perchlorate ions. Rate constants, depending on the identities of the cation radicals and the nucleophiles, ranging from about 200 to 2 × 1010 1 mol-1 s-1 were observed in acetonitrile at 293 K. The key steps in the reaction are (1) reversible complex formation between the anion and the cation radical followed by (2) irreversible bond formation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\begin{array}{*{20}c} {\rm{Ar}^{ + \cdot } + \rm{X}^ - \rightleftharpoons {{\rm{Ar}^{ + \cdot } } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\rm{Ar}^{ + \cdot } } {\rm{X}^ - }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\rm{X}^ - }}} &&&&& {(1)} \\ {{{\rm{Ar}^{ + \cdot } } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\rm{Ar}^{ + \cdot } } {\rm{X}^ - }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\rm{X}^ - }} \to \rm{Ar}^ \cdot - \rm{X}} &&&&& {(2)} \\ \end{array}$$\end{document}.The preliminary results show that cation radical-anionic nucleophile reactions can be very facile. The cation radicals of 9-nitro- and 9-cyanoanthracene are particularly reactive, giving rise to rate constants close to the diffusion-controlled limit with all anionic nucleophile studied and even react moderately rapidly with perchlorate ion. The reaction with perchlorate ion can be compared to the behavior of stable carbenium ions that coexist with the anion in solution and in crystalline salts.
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• 34
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 602-610
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: In order to assist in the interpretation of the D5h molecular structure of [45] (1,2,3,4,5)ferrocenophane (1) obtained from x-ray crystallographic analysis, a hypothetical hydrocarbon C30H40 (2) was derived from 1 by removing the iron atom and subjected to geometry optimization by molecular mechanics. A stable D5 conformer was found for 2, which has a g+ g- g+ helical bridge conformation and a ring-ring distance almost identical with that in 1 and ferrocene itself. Optimization of a perhydrogenated hydrocarbon model gave a highly strained C1 structure.
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• 35
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 611-622
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The solvent effect on two SN2 reactions was evaluated by discrete, continuum and discrete-continuum models. The potential energy profiles were found to change dramatically on introduction of the solvent effect. The double-well shape which characterizes the F- + CH3F → FCH3 + F- reaction in the gas phase becomes unimodal when the solvent is introduced, in good agreement with experimental data. The solvation parameters are found to intervene in the reaction coordinate. Recent Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics calculations are discussed.
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• 36
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 1-14
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The mechanism of aromatic nucleophilic substitutions by amines in protic solvents is well established; on the contrary the mechanism/s of the reactions in aprotic solvents is/are still subject of controversy. The present paper describes several systems for which fourth-order kinetics (third-order in amine) were observed. A mechanism is proposed to account for this as well as other observation such as: overall negative energies of activation, quadratic dependence of kA with non-nucleophilic tertiary bases, spectacular effects of hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) and hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA) catalysts, etc. Other alternative mechanisms are also discussed.
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• 37
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 263-270
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Reactivity of dialkyl 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl phosphates, (RO)2P(O)OCH2CH2NMe2 (R = Me, PhCH2) was studied in aqueous solutions. Depending on the initial substrate's concentration, reaction can involve the unimolecular fragmentation to N,N-dimethylaziridinium dialkylphosphate, or the bimolecular isomerization to the zwitterionic derivative. The latter reaction proceeds via two consecutive SN2 steps and involves the formation of two ionic intermediates which were synthesized independently and allowed to react to give the zwitterionic product. Rate constants for the isomerization of the dimethyl ester (R = Me), as well as rate constant for the reaction between the corresponding intermediates have been determined, and the reactivity of the dimethyl ester has been compared with that of the dibenzyl derivative.
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• 38
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 243-254
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The principal components factors F1 and F2 in the equation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\log K = {\rm BDP}_0 + S_1 F_1 + S_2 F_2$$\end{document} have been used to obtain S1 and S2 values for sets of hydrogen-bond bases against 32 reference acid/solvent systems. The constants S1 and S2 define an angle θ = tan-1 S2/S1 that is a measure of the electrostatic:covalent bonding ratio in the hydrogen-bond complex. It is shown that θ can vary from 53 (4-fluorophenol in CH2Cl2)to 86 degrees (Ph2NH in CCl4) depending on the reference acid and solvent. This variation in θ can lead to family dependent behaviour in plots of log K for bases against a given reference acid system vs log K for bases against another reference acid system, and precludes the construction of any general scale of hydrogen-bond basicity using log K values. Amongst a quite wide range of reference acid/solvent systems θ varies only from 64 to 73 degrees, and for bases against these reference systems a ‘reasonably general’ scale could be set up. Such a scale could be extended to bases against reference acid/solvent systems outside the 64-73 degree range provided that certain classes of base (e.g. pyridines, alkylamines) were excluded from the additional reference acid/solvent systems.
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• 39
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 271-280
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The crystal and molecular structures of dimesitylketene (1) and bis(3,5-dibromo-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)ketene (2), the first free ketenes to be studied by X-ray diffraction, have been determined. The molecules of 1 and 2 have crystallographic C1 and C2 symmetry, respectively, and exist in a propeller conformation. Molecular mechanics calculations of 1 and 2 using a modification of Allinger's new allene parameters reproduce satisfactorily the structural parameters of the ketenes. The torsional angles of the aryl rings in 1 and 2 are similar (ca. 50°) and are regarded as ‘intrinsic’ values for a 1,1-dimesitylvinyl propeller. From the similarity in aryl torsional angles in 1 and 2 it is concluded that the buttressing effects in 2 (if any) are not markedly manifested in the structural parameters of 2.
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• 40
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 281-299
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Mechanisms of the hydrolysis of urea have been investigated using the MNDO and AMI methods. All geometries were fully optimized and the transition states were characterized by calculating force constants. The results showed that: (i) The unimolecular decomposition process via the direct intramolecular proton transfer is preferred to both the A1 and the bimolecular nucleophilic attack by water, in agreement with the experimental results of Shaw et al. in the low acidity medium. (ii) The diprotonated form of urea exists as an equilibrium species, which undergoes the A2 type hydrolysis more favorably than the monoprotonated form, as Moodie et al. found in the intermediate acidity medium. (iii) The A2 hydrolysis of the monoprotonated form is very similar to those of acetamide and methyl carbamate. (iv) As the number of the solvate water molecules increases, the activation barrier for the A2 process of the monoprotonated form increases while that for the unimolecular decomposition of the free base form decreases, indicating a possibility of the barrier height reversal in the bulk solvent in favor of the latter process, thus accommodating all the experimentally found trends in the urea hydrolysis. The A1 mechanisms involving six-membered ring type intermediates can be ruled out as untenable since no such equilibrium species was obtained by both the MNDO and AM1 calculations.
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• 41
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 349-358
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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Notes: The spectroscopic evidence for the predominance of the equatorial conformers in the title compounds was confirmed by the study of derivatives containing counterpoise substituents, and by chemical equilibration of anancomeric models. ΔG27o°C [P(O)Ph2] ≳ 3·2 kcal/mol was determined in the dioxane, and ΔG55o°C [P(O)Ph2] = 1·42 ± 0·12 kcal/mol in the oxathiane. It follows then that the strong anomeric interaction observed previously in S—C—P segments does not show up in the six-membered heterocycles 2 and 7, which contain O—C—P moieties. This may be due to an inherent inability of oxygen to act as an electron donor to the axial P(O)Ph2 substituent, or to a dominant repulsive steric interaction in the axial conformers.
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• 42
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 410-416
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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Notes: Barriers for group transfers between nucleophiles have been postulated to be lowered when the transferring group can carry a considerable negative charge. Furthermore, anions readily subject to one electron oxidation appear to lead to lower barriers than do those of high oxidation potential. These suggestions are pursued here on the identity reaction ArSe- + ArSeSeAr → ArSeSeAr + ArSe-. Indeed the reaction is very fast, as shown by the appearance of only a single peak in the 77Se-NMR in an acetonitrile solution containing both ArSeNa and ArSeSeAr. The rate constant can be only very roughly estimated at low temperatures and dilute solutions, and is likely diffusion controlled for Ar = phenyl and p-methoxyphenyl. A stable intermediate (ArSe)3-, analogous to Br3-, is indicated, but quantitative stability could not be determined, from either the NMR or the UV spectra. Some properties of 77Se-NMR are discussed.
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• 43
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 44
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 484-490
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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Notes: The Kinetics of reactions of phenacyl benzenesulphonates with benzylamines were investigated in methanol at 45·0 °C and the cross-interaction constants λXY, λYZ and βXZ were determined in order to elucidate the transition-state structure. The unusually small magnitude of λXY can only be accounted for by the resonance ‘shunt’ effect of the α-CO group of the phenacyl system. Large |λYZ| values indicate a small degree of bond breaking whereas relatively large |βXZ| values compared with those for the dissociative SN2 reaction indicate a relatively tight transition state for the reactions. Further, the similar magnitudes of βXZ values compared with those of the corresponding aniline nucleophile series suggest a similar transition-state structure for the two armatic amine nucleophile series.
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• 45
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 553-558
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The rate of decarboxylation of 6-nitrobenzisoxazole-3-carboxylate ion increases sharply with increasing head group size in a series of cetyltrialkylammonium bromides (C16H33NR3Br: R = Me, CTABr; R = Et, CTEABr; R = n - Pr, CTPABr; R = n - Bu, CTBABr) with rate enhancements of 102 (CTABr) and 2·8 × 103 (CTBABr). Micellized tetradecylquinuclidinium bromide and hexadecyl-N-methylmorpholinium bromide are slightly better catalysts than CTABr, as is 1,3-bis(N-cetyl-N,N-dimethylamino)propane dibromide, but p-octyloxybenzyltrialkylammonium bromides (alkyl = Me, n - Bu) are less effective than the corresponding CTA+ surfactants. These differences in catalytic efficiency depend on the head group structure and the extent to which the cationic head groups become less accessible to water rather than the overall micellar structure.
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• 46
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 631-645
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The kinetics of the aromatic nucleophilic substitution (SNAr) reactions of 1,2-dinitrobenzene (1,2-DNB) with butylamine (BA) and piperidine (PIP) were investigated as a function of the amine concentration and temperature, in chloroform, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetonitrile (ACN), dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene and diisopropyl ether.In the set of solvents consisting of ethyl acetate, THF, ACN, DMF and DMSO, neither reaction is catalysed (kA = k1). The sequence and range of reactivity for BA and PIP are similar in these solvents. These results indicate that reactions in which nitro in the leaving group behave differently from SNAr reactions with other leaving groups, such as halogens or alkoxy groups, since an intramolecular hydrogen bond may be expected between the leaving nitro group and the ammonium H of the nucleophiles. The correlations of the rate coefficients obtained with Taft and Kamlet's solvatochromic method support these conclusions.On the other hand, these reactions show mild acceleration with relatively non-polar solvents such as the aromatics and diisopropyl ether. The donor properties of these solvents and experiments with solvent mixtures suggest the formation of electron donor-acceptor complexes between them and 1,2-DNB. Hence the preferential solvation of 1,2-DNB by the donor solvent accounts for the mechanism observed.
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• 47
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 660-671
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The kinetics of the oxidation of seven substituted ethanols by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide or bromamine-B (BAB) in the presence of HCl was studied at 45 °C. The rate shows a first-order dependence on [BAB]0 and is fractional in [alcohol]0, [H+] and [Cl-]. Ionic strength variations, addition of benzenesulphonamide reaction product and variation of dielectric constant of the medium have no effect on the rate. The solvent isotope effect kH2O′/kD2O′ ≈ 0·97. The rates do not correlate satisfactorily with Taft's substituent constants. Activation parameters ΔH≠, ΔS≠, ΔG≠ and log A were calculated by studying the reaction at different temperatures (308-323 K). It was found that ΔH≠ and ΔS≠ are linearly related and an isokinetic relationship is observed with isokinetic temperature β = 393 K, indicating enthalpy as a controlling factor.
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• 48
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 49
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 15-25
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Solvolysis of 2-X-2-phenylpropane (1-X) in 25 vol% acetonitrile in water at 25°C produces 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropane (1-OH) and 2-phenylpropene (3). The carbocationic intermediate discriminates between different nucleophiles; azide anion, acetate anion, and methanol are more efficient nucleophiles than water, kN3/kH2O = 42 kOAc/kH2O = 3, and kMeOH/kH2O = 2·9 (ratio of second-order rate constants). The fraction of the elimination product 3 increases with increasing basicity of the leaving group X as well as by addition of general bases. The Brønsted parameter for this catalysis is small, β = 0·13, with substituted acetate anions. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect for the dehydronation of the intermediate has been measured (assuming the reaction from intermediate to alcohol is insensitive to isotopic substitution) employing the hexadeuterated substrate d6-1-X as k3H/k3d6 = 3·5 ± 0·2 for the chloride 1-Cl with acetate anion, and, without added base, 3·1 ± 0·2 for the acetate 1-OAc, and 3·1 ± 0·2 for the p-nitrobnzoate 1-PNB, respectively, and ∼5 for the protonated methyl ether 1-OMeH+. The variation in isotope effect with change in leaving group is discussed in terms of elimination from contact ion pairs and ‘free’ carbocation. The overall kinetic isotope effect for the solvolysis was found to be kobsH/kobsd6 = 1·31 (1-OMeH+), 1·38 (1-OAc), 1·40 (1-PNB), and 5·7 (1-OH2+). These isotope effects consist of the isotope effect k12H/k12d6 for the formation of the substitution product 1-OH and k13H/k13d6 for production of the olefin 3. It is concluded that the latter isotope effect is enlarged owing to a branched mechanism in which the deprotonation of the carbocationic intermediate competes with formation of the substitution product. As large an isotope effect as k13H/k13d6 ∼6·5 has been measured for 1-OMeH+.
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• 50
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Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 51
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 89-92
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Spectral characteristics of several simple substituted B,B-bis(mesityl)pyrroloboranes are reported which support a theoretical treatment by Bonacic-Koutecky and Michl (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 1765 (1985)) describing the excited states of simple aminoboranes as an example of twisted internal charge transfer. In the aminoboranes the pyrrolo moiety functions as the electron donor group and the empty p-orbital of the boron atom as the acceptor.
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• 52
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 57-88
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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Notes: The cation radical vinylcyclobutane (VCB) rearrangement is found to be a reaction of substantial scope, synthetic utility, and exceptional kinetic facility. In conjuction with cation radical cyclobutanation, it constitutes an effective method for net (indirect) Diels-Alder addition to electron rich dienophiles. Reactions can be carried out with either aminium salt or photosensitized electron transfer (PET) initiation and are powerfully facilitated by ionizable substituents such as p-anisyl, phenylthio, and phenoxy at the 2-position of the vinylcyclobutane. The intramolecularity of the reaction is clearly established and in four discrete systems preferred sr (suprafacial/retention) stereochemistry is observed. A theoretical basis for sr stereochemistry in the cation radical VCB rearrangement is advanced. The transition state for the reaction is considered to be similar to that for the direct cation radical Diels-Alder cycloaddition, another cation radical pericyclic reaction which converges on the same product. This model of the VCB rearrangement transition state is used to rationalize the strong rate-retarding effect of a Z-methyl substituent attached to the vinyl group and of a methyl substituent at the 4-position of the vinylcyclobutane ring cis to the vinyl substituent.
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• 53
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 54
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 417-424
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Two organometallic reagents, butyllithium in heptane solution and dibutylmercury in the gas phase, have been studied by means of core electron spectroscopy. The property of particular interest was the charge polarization as reflected by the ESCA shifts. In the butyllithium compound the C1s binding energy is shifted to a lower value by 1·8 eV for C-1 (situated closest to the Li+ ion) relative to the heptane solvent carbon. This is due to the anionic character of the C-1. The interpretation of the experiments was supported by comparing the results with ab initio calculations made on geometry-optimized butyllithium, butyl anion and butane.
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• 55
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 425-427
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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Notes: Distribution between pentane and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) and carbon-13 NMR measurements showed that benzene and toluene are not protonated to any significant extent in TFMSA. This finding contradicts previous reports, and validates the ranking of superacids based on the extent of benzene protonation.
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• 56
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 448-454
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The interaction between pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine-5′-phosphate (PMP) was studied by d.c. and differential pulse polarography. Two reduction waves (or two peaks) were observed. The first wave corresponds to the reduction of the adduct and the second to the reduction of free PLP. The behaviour was similar in analogous Schiff bases. The effects of pH, PMP concentration and the capillary characteristics were studied. The apparent formation constant as a function of the pH was calculated. Thermodynamic parameters were estimated at pH 7 and 0 · 1 M ionic strength. The polarographic and kinetic results show that the overall electrode process appears to be irreversible in a basic medium.
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• 57
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Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 455-466
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Mixtures of bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene and bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, with one isomer labeled with two deuterium atoms, were isomerized in the gas phase at 276 °C. By following the concentration ratios of d0 and d2 versions of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene as functions of time one finds that the partitioning of bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene between the primary products bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene and cyclopentadiene plus ethene is 2:1. This and earlier stereochemical results permit the calculation of the partitioning of the [3.2.0] olefin between the orbital symmetry allowed [1,3] carbon shift-with-inversion product and several forbidden or non-concerted reaction channels (approximately 1:1) and the stereochemistry of the ethene d2 formed from exo,exo-[6,7-2H2]bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene directly (1:1 E: Z).
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• 58
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 429-447
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A two-hydron transfer mechanism involving hydron transfers from carbon to nitrogen and from nitrogen to carbon was studied. The rearrangement of 1,3,3-triphenylpropene (1) into 1,1,3-triphenylpropene (2) catalyzed by 2,10-diazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1-ene (3) in benzene at 25·00°C was studied by 2H-labeling experiments and kinetic 2H-isotope effects. The synthesis and purification of [6,10-2H2]-2,10-diazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1-ene ([6,10-2H2]-3), [3-2H]-1,3,3-triphenylpropene ([3-2H]-1), [3-2H]-1,1,3-triphenylpropene ([3-2H]-2) and [3,3-2H2]-1,1,3-triphenylpropene ([3,3-2H2]-2) together with their precursors are reported. Partial reaction of [3-2H]-1 with [6,10-1H2]-3 gave 42% conversion into product 2, which was shown by 1H NMR to be composed of 88% [3-1H]-2 and 12% [3-2H]-2. Partial reaction of [3-1H]-1 with [6,10-2H2]-3 gave 43% of 2, composed of 73% [3-1H]-2 and 27% [3-2H]-2.These results clearly show that a substantial fraction of the reaction takes place in a bifunctional manner but isotope exchange and/or monofunctionally catalyzed reactions interfere. The following kinetic deuterium isotope effects on the rearrangement 1 → 2 were measured: kHH/kDH = 6·56; kHH/kHD = 1·19; kHH/kDD = 7·08; kHD/kDD = 5·94; and kDH/kDD = 1·08.On the basis of these results, a concerted two-hydron transfer mechanism is excluded. Instead, a stepwise mechanism is favored, in which at first the 3-hydron of 1 is abstracted by 3 yielding an ion pair(s), the carbanion of which in a separate step is then hydronated to yield the product 2.The abstraction of the 3-hydron from 1 might be hydrogen bond assisted. The two hydron transfer transition states are together rate limiting, although they limit the rate to different extents. A detailed mechanistic analysis is presented together with the results of an investigation of the nature of the catalyst. The dimerization constant for 3 was determined by 1H NMR to be 1·67 l mol-1 at 25·0°C. Isotopomer composition was measured by 1H NMR and GLC was used for the separation of the substrate and products. Computer-assisted capillary GLC was used for the kinetics.
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• 59
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 467-475
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Benzyl cations, free of counter ions, have been generated from the nuclear decay of tritium atoms contained exclusively in the side-chain of multi-labelled toluene and allowed to react in competition experiments with benzene and toluene. The aromatic substitution was studied in both the gaseous and liquid phase, employing pure aromatics or aromatics dissolved in n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and nitromethane as the reaction medium. In the gaseous systems, at 20 Torr total pressure, High meta substitution of toluene indicates extensive isomerization of the excited intermediates, while the increase of the kT/kB value in the Presence of NH3 suggests that selective transalkylation competes with proton transfer to ammonia from the benzyl cation adducts with benzene, but not with toluene. High positional and low substrate selectivities were measured in solution, the decrease in kT/kB (from 2·8 to 1·7) in the different solvents being accompanied by an increase in the o/2p ratio. Competition experiments between benzene and methanol indicate that the reaction is not diffusion controlled. The influence of the reaction medium on the substrate selectivity is explained by postulating the formation of a cation-solvent adduct, where the solvent molecule undergoes displacement by the substrate. Positional selectivity would be controlled in a subsequent step.
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• 60
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989)
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 61
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 476-483
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Dipole moments of para-substituted benzoyl chlorides and bromides, partly measured in benzene and partly recalculated from elderly literature, were analysed in terms of bond moments and additional contributions expressing the conjugation. Although the gross moments are similar, their decomposition yields different pictures for acyl chlorides and bromides. Only in the latter can significant electron transfer from the halogen be observed. On the other hand, conjugation with the benzene nucleus is strong in both aromatic acyl chlorides and bromides, but stronger in chlorides. There is agreement with the evidence from some other physical quantities but not from all.
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• 62
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 491-506
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The ups and downs, and reasons therein, of the π-complex theory of the mechanism of the benzidine rearrangements, and the possible role of π-complexes in a newer understanding of the rearrangements, are described.
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• 63
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 507-518
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The hydrolysis reactions of N-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)piperidine (2) and N-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-morpholine (3) were studied. Two kinetic processes well separated in time are observed in both reactions. The fastest process, which is reversible, leads to the formation of a species of λmax 260 and 410 nm and is attributed to the formation of a σ complex of stoichiometry 1 : 2 due to the addition of a second HO- to the σ complex of 1 : 1 stoichiometry. The slowest process leads quantitatively to picrate ion. The equilibrium constants for the formation of the σ complexes of 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometries and the rate of formation and decomposition of the latter complex were determined. The kinetic data for the slow process lead to the conclusion that the picrate ion is formed from the attack of HO- on the two σ complexes, confirming previous findings. There are some differences in the calculated rates for 2 and 3 which may be an indication that the elimination of the amine is partially rate determining.
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• 64
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 531-539
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Acid-catalysed condensation of resorcinol with aromatic aldehydes results in 2,8,14,20-tetrasubstitued calix[4] areneoctols. Sixteen compounds of this type containing different aromatic substituents were synthesized. The ring closure step, under the conditions of the reaction, is a reversible process. Four configurations are possible for every constitution, viz. cccc, cctt, ccct and ctct, but only cccc and cctt were formed in detectable amounts. In seven cases the thermodynamically more stable cccc isomers (1a-5a, 7a, 8a) and also the kinetically controlled cctt isomers (1b-5b, 7b, 8b) could be isolated. The configurations of the compounds were assigned by temperature-dependent 1H NMR analysis. The conformational motions of the macrocyclic ring permit only the cccc isomers to show coalescence for the signals of the aromatic Hb protons. The coalescence temperature was determined for isomers 1a (ΔG384≠ = 83·5 kJmol-1) and 3a (ΔG369≠ = 83·7 kJ mol-1). For steric reasons the ‘chair-chair’ conformers B and the ‘quasi-boat-chair’ conformers F are favoured. 1H and 13C NMR shifts show that compounds 1a-5a and 1b-5b have a quasi-axial arrangement of the aromatic substituents, whereas 6-9 have a quasi-equatorial arrangement of the substituents.
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• 65
Electronic Resource
Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2 (1989), S. 519-530
ISSN: 0894-3230
Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The basic hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was studied in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (CDOH) and in the presence of hydroxy-functionalized micelles containing either a primary hydroxy group [hexadecyl-2-hydroxyethyldimethylammonium bromide (CHEDAB)] or a secondary hydroxy group [headecyl-2-hydroxypropyldimethylammonium bromide (CHPDAB) and 2-hydroxyhexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (2-OHCTAB)].In all systems a biphasic reaction was observed. The first phase consisted of a competition between the additive (either micelle or cyclodextrin) and hydroxide ion for the aromatic substrate, and the second phase consisted of the hydrolysis of the trapped aryl micellar or cyclodextryl ether.The percentage of trapping of the aromatic substrate by the cyclodextrin was similar to that found for reactions in the hydroxy-functionalized micelles (CHPDAB and 2-OHCTAB) which contained secondary hydroxy groups. The relative rates of reaction for DNFB and for DNCB, i.e. F/Cl rate ratios, in the presence of CDOH were similar to those obtained in the presence of 2-OHCTAB but less than that obtained in the presence of CHEDAB. These results support the assumption that in CDOH the secondary hydroxy groups of C-2 or C-3 are involved in covalent bond formation with the aromatic substrate rather than the primary hydroxy group of C-6. All the reactions studied proceed much more slowly in the presence of CDOH than in the presence of the hydroxy-functionalized micelles. This may reflect a catalytic effect of the positively charged surface present in the micelles but not in the cyclodextrin.